Adolph (Luxembourg)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Duke Adolph von Nassau, lithograph by Josef Kriehuber after Daffinger , 1835
Signature Adolph (Luxembourg) .PNG
Grand Duchess Elizabeth Mikhailovna Romanova , the first wife of Duke Adolph
Princess Adelheid von Anhalt-Dessau , the second wife of Grand Duke Adolph

Adolph Wilhelm Carl August Friedrich von Nassau-Weilburg (* 24. July 1817 in Schloss Biebrich in Biebrich , † 17th November 1905 in Castle High Castle , Bavaria) was 1839-1866 sovereign Duke of Nassau and from 1890 until his death sovereign Grand Duke from Luxembourg .


Adolph came from the first marriage of Duke Wilhelm I of Nassau (1792–1839), from the house of Nassau-Weilburg , with Princess Luise von Sachsen-Hildburghausen (1794-1825), daughter of Duke Friedrich von Sachsen-Altenburg and Duchess Charlotte from Mecklenburg-Strelitz .

Henri (Luxemburg) Jean (Luxemburg) Charlotte (Luxemburg) Maria-Adelheid (Luxemburg) Wilhelm IV. (Luxemburg) Adolph (Luxemburg) Wilhelm III. (Niederlande) Wilhelm II. (Niederlande) Wilhelm I. (Niederlande)


After the death of his father on August 20, 1839, Adolph took over the rule of the Duchy of Nassau at the age of 22 . After the Duke of Nassau, he had several counts and rulers with a full title : " Count Palatine of the Rhine , Count of Sayn , Königstein , Catzenelnbogen and Dietz , Burgrave of Hammerstein , Lord of Mahlberg , Wiesbaden, Idstein , Merenberg , Limburg and Eppstein , etc etc ". In the early years of his reign, he turned towards the cavalry, and developed into a very affable and popular ruler. During his reign, among other things, the construction of the railway , the development of the spa in Wiesbaden and the other seaside resorts of the duchy as well as the industrialization with the construction of large factories in Biebrich and Höchst . In 1840 the Duke founded the "Herzoglich Nassauische Landes-Credit-Casse", from which the Nassauische Sparkasse later emerged.

On March 23, 1842, the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV appointed Adolph chief of the 5th Uhlan Regiment . Since 12 July 1855, he also held the rank of a cavalry general in the Prussian army and was on March 22, 1902 Colonel General transported.

On January 31, 1844, Duke Adolph married Elisabeth Mikhailovna , Grand Duchess of Russia . After she and the child died just one year later at the age of 19 giving birth to their daughter, Adolph had a magnificent burial chapel built on the Neroberg in Wiesbaden using one million rubles from his wife's dowry .

Duke Adolph was actually strictly conservative and reactionary in the tradition of his father , but bowed to the pressure of the March Revolution of 1848 and on March 4th granted the " Nine Demands of Nassau " by granting the citizens of the duchy civil rights for the first time .

On April 23, 1851, Duke Adolph married Princess Adelheid Marie von Anhalt-Dessau . This marriage produced five children.

In the German War of 1866, Nassau was on the side of the German Confederation under the presidency of Austria and was annexed by the latter after the victory of Prussia . Duke Adolph left office on September 20, 1866. His request to own all state domains was not met. After long negotiations, Prussia and Adolph agreed by contract dated September 28, 1867 to a severance payment of 15 million guilders, interest bearing at 4.5%, as well as four castles ( Schloss Biebrich , Weilburg Castle , hunting seat plate and the Luxembourg Palace in Koenigstein). Adolph then stayed mainly in Vienna and Frankfurt am Main and also traveled a lot. He bought Hohenburg Castle near Lenggries in Upper Bavaria, where he enjoyed hunting.

In 1890 the personal union between the Netherlands and Luxembourg ended when the Dutch King Wilhelm III. remained without male descendants and in Luxembourg - unlike in the Netherlands - the Salic inheritance law applied. As a Protestant in a Catholic country, Adolph became Grand Duke of Luxembourg . He prefixed this title as the highest ranking of his grand title, followed by the titles that he had already held as the sovereign Duke of Nassau: “Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau, Count Palatine of the Rhine , Count of Sayn , Königstein , Katzenelnbogen and Dietz , Burgrave of Hammerstein , Lord of Mahlberg , Wiesbaden, Idstein , Merenberg , Limburg and Eppstein ”. In liberal Luxembourg he stayed out of daily politics. In 1902 he appointed his son Wilhelm as governor, but reserved important government acts.

When he died in 1905, at 88, he was the oldest ruling monarch in Europe.

According to his own wishes, Adolph was first buried in the family vault at Hohenburg Castle. When the Grand Ducal sold the castle, he was reburied in the princely crypt of the Weilburg castle church.


From the marriage with Elisabeth Michailowna Romanowa (1826–1845), daughter of Grand Duke Michael of Russia :

  • Daughter (* / † January 28, 1845)

From the marriage with Adelheid Marie von Anhalt-Dessau (1833–1916), daughter of Prince Friedrich August von Anhalt-Dessau :

  • Wilhelm Alexander (1852–1912), as William IV Grand Duke of Luxembourg
  • Friedrich (September 28, 1854 - October 23, 1855)
  • Marie (14 November 1857 - 28 December 1857)
  • Franz Joseph Wilhelm (January 30, 1859 - April 2, 1875)
  • Hilda (1864–1952) ∞ Grand Duke Friedrich II of Baden

The since 2000 as Grand Duke of Luxembourg reigning Henri of Nassau is the great-grandson of Adolph of Luxembourg.


Web links

Commons : Adolph (Luxembourg)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Writing and business calendar for the German Federal Chancellery , Volume 28, 1854, p. 181.
  2. ^ Andreas Anderhub: Administration in the Wiesbaden administrative district 1866–1885. 1977, p. 39.
  3. Luxembourg: Grand-Ducal Style: 1890–2000
predecessor Office successor
Wilhelm I. Duke of Nassau
William III. Grand Duke of Luxembourg
William IV