district of Wiesbaden
|Coordinates||50 ° 2 '51 " N , 8 ° 14' 27" E|
|height||83- 160 m above sea level. NN|
|Residents||38,835 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||2990 inhabitants / km²|
|Proportion of foreigners||26.3% (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Incorporation||Oct 28, 1926|
|Post Code||65183, 65203, 65187|
|Mayor||Kuno Hahn ( SPD )|
|Deputy Mayor||Wolfgang Gores ( CDU )|
|Source: State Capital Wiesbaden: EWZ - HW on December 31, 2019 ( Memento from February 3, 2020 in the Internet Archive )|
Biebrich is a district of the Hessian capital Wiesbaden .
With around 39,000 inhabitants, it is the largest district of Wiesbaden in terms of population. The city on the Rhine was incorporated into Wiesbaden on October 1, 1926 and was independent until then. Until the construction of the Wiesbaden City Palace in 1841, Biebrich Palace was the residence of the Dukes of Nassau .
Location in Wiesbaden
Biebrich is located on the banks of the Rhine around 5 kilometers south of the city center (as the crow flies). Neighboring districts are Schierstein in the west, Dotzheim and the Rheingauviertel in the northwest , southeast and Erbenheim in the north and northeast and Amöneburg in the east . On the opposite side of the Rhine is the Mainz district of Mombach . In Biebrich, the Salzbach coming from Wiesbaden and the Mosbach , which rises above Dotzheim , flow into the Upper Rhine .
Biebrich was first mentioned in 874 as Villa Biburc . The later emperor Otto III. Biebrich and Mosbach gave the monastery Selz in Alsace in 991 . The lords of Bolanden-Falkenstein were bailiffs over this property and sold their rights from 1267–1285 to the Eberbach monastery . The latter finally bought the property from Selz Monastery in 1296 and passed it on to King Adolf von Nassau . Until the 20th century it was a small town and the summer residence of the princes and (since 1806) dukes of Nassau . This built the baroque complex Schloss Biebrich (1700-1744, architect: Maximilian von Welsch and Friedrich Joachim Stengel ). In 1749 the construction of today's Biebricher Allee began in order to connect Biebrich in a direct line with the Wiesbaden City Palace . In 1778 the oldest registered association in Wiesbaden, the Freemason Lodge Plato , was founded in Biebrich Castle . The landscape garden that surrounds the castle was laid out from 1817 to 1823 by Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell . Today's palace park on the banks of the Rhine is home to various wild species of parrots , especially ring-necked parakeets and great Alexander parakeets .
In the 19th century, Biebrich and Amöneburg became an important industrial center in the Rhine-Main area with factories from Dyckerhoff (cement), Kalle and Albert (chemistry), Rheinhütte and Henkell (sparkling wine), among others . The Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine agreed on 31 March 1831, the Mainzer Act , was explained by the Biebrich to the Rhine harbor with the right to a goods warehouse. Despite an act of sabotage, merchants from Mainz had built a customs house, quay wall and jetties by 1845. Further expansion of the port at the end of the 19th century failed due to the resistance of Wiesbaden. Biebrich and Mosbach have always formed a common community, until 1891 with the status of a patch . In 1891 the town of Biebrich-Mosbach was granted town charter according to the Prussian town order , but the double name was only used until 1893 and then shortened to Biebrich . The small town was badly affected by the economic crisis after the First World War and suffered from high unemployment. Biebrich therefore connected with the large and rich, nearby spa town of Wiesbaden.
In the 1960s and 70s there was a high population growth in Wiesbaden. Therefore, large settlements were increasingly built. The first was the Parkfeld prefabricated housing estate west of the Biebrich Castle Park. In 1959, a competition was organized to help plan, which Ernst May won. He was then appointed planning officer for the city of Wiesbaden. As part of the planning for Das neue Wiesbaden , he developed the settlements in Klarenthal and on Schelmengraben based on the plans for the Parkfeld .
Today Biebrich is the largest district of Wiesbaden with approx. 38,000 inhabitants.
Economy and Infrastructure
The Henkell sparkling wine cellar is located in Biebrich . The representative building was built by Paul Bonatz in the neoclassical style between 1907 and 1909. The Rococo-style marble hall leads to the 7 basement floors, where the production, filling systems, storage of the up to 200,000 liter barrels and dispatch are located.
The 96 hectare industrial park Kalle-Albert begins in the east of Biebrich and extends into the Wiesbaden district of Mainz-Amöneburg .
In the north is the Dyckerhoffbruch , a limestone quarry of the cement manufacturer Dyckerhoff , which has been used as a landfill since 1964 .
Biebrich can be reached via the A 66 , A 671 and A 643 motorway exits . The latter is led over the Schiersteiner Bridge on the border to the neighboring town of Schierstein over the Rhine and connects Biebrich with Mainz in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate . In the direction of Wiesbaden city center, the district is connected via the busy Biebricher Allee .
Essentially, Biebrich is only supplied with city buses from ESWE . There is no express line, a tram is being planned. The connection to the local rail passenger traffic took place in 1844. Today the stations Wiesbaden-Biebrich on the right Rhine line with the regional trains RB 10 and in the rush hour RE 9, as well as Wiesbaden Ost (formerly Biebrich Curve, Biebrich Ost) on the Taunus-Eisenbahn with the S -S1, S8 and S9 trams served. There is no longer any train service at the former Landesdenkmal and Waldstraße stations on the Aartalbahn . Reactivation is being considered.
The place had port facilities on the Rhine, which were connected to the railway network via the Curve – Biebrich railway and the former Biebrich Rhine station. The port was briefly cut off from shipping routes in 1841 during the Nebeljungenstreich by competing merchants from Mainz.
On September 23, 2008, the district was awarded the title Place of Diversity by the federal government for its commitment to diversity, tolerance and democracy .
Election results for the local council
Since 1972, as part of which is local elections in Hesse and the town council of the local district voted Biebrich. The following distribution of seats resulted from the individual election results :
Culture and sights
The baroque Biebrich Palace was built between 1700 and 1750 directly on the banks of the Rhine in Wiesbaden-Biebrich. The residential palace of the Nassau dukes is located at the southern end of the large palace park .
The 50 hectare large castle park , the English-style landscaped gardens with a pond and artificial ruin Mosburg has been created, the scene is the traditional Whitsun horse show .
Robert Krekel plant
In the Robert-Krekel-Anlage, where the Rathausstrasse and the Strasse der Republik meet, several sculptures are placed. A gala fountain was given to the city of Biebrich by Eugen Dyckerhoff in 1907 . In 1981 and 2008/09 the fountain was restored. In the complex there is also a vase with a base in the Renaissance style, which was donated to the city in June 1907 by the company Dyckerhoff & Widmann.
Banks of the Rhine
The Biebrich bank of the Rhine is fully accessible and allows a clear view of the Rettbergsaue island in the Rhine . The promenade is signposted as part of the Hessian long-distance cycle route R3 and as an international Rhine cycle route . The country house in which Richard Wagner composed parts of his Meistersinger von Nürnberg is located on a street near the banks of the Rhine . At the eastern end of Rheingaustraße are the 3 company villas owned by Dyckerhoff, Albert and Kalle.
Even at the time of the small industrial town of Biebrich on the Rhine, an urban cityscape with partly handsome facades developed from the Wilhelmine era, in particular townhouses with commercially usable courtyards. During this time, the Adolfshöhe also became a residential area , especially along Wiesbadener Allee , which has three equally striking and worth seeing landmarks from this period with the Biebrich water tower , the Nassau state monument and the Henkell & Co. Sektkellerei . Between 1959 and 1970, according to plans by Ernst May, the Parkfeld prefabricated housing estate was built east of the castle park , a district with a relatively high proportion of low-skilled, housing benefit recipients, people with insufficient language skills, elderly people living alone and people who died prematurely.
The Rhein-Main Wiesbaden industrial culture route includes the Biebrich customs house on the banks of the Rhine, the water tower , the hammer mill , the Wuth'sche brewery and several villas.
The Biebrich Museum for Local and Industrial History presents a permanent exhibition on the history of Biebrich and the Duchy of Nassau. Special exhibitions take place regularly, for example in 2020 on Biebrich film history, mainly about the film pioneer Edwin Georg "Edy" Dengel . The museum is housed in the former Stadtbad, an Art Nouveau building.
Houses of worship
There are six Protestant and four Catholic parishes in the Biebrich district . The main church , first mentioned in 1085 and evangelical since 1560, was the only church in Biebrich until the consecration of the Catholic parish church St. Marien in 1876. With the end of the Duchy of Nassau in 1866 and the emergence of new factories on the Rhine, the population grew rapidly. As a result, the space in the existing church buildings soon became scarce and in 1898 the Sacred Heart Church in Gibb - the former town of Mosbach - was inaugurated as the second Catholic and in 1905 the Orange Memorial Church on the banks of the Rhine as the second Protestant church. The parish hall of the Markuskirche in Waldstrasse was inaugurated in 1914, and the associated hall church was consecrated at the end of 1954. The other Biebrich communities Albert-Schweitzer-Gemeinde (ev.), St. Hedwig (cath.), Heilig-Geist-Kirche (ev.), St. Kilian (cath.) And Lukasgemeinde (ev.) Emerged in the second half of the 20th century. On January 1, 2013, the Catholic parishes became parishes in the newly formed parish of St. Peter and Paul Wiesbaden.
In addition, the Greek Orthodox Church of St. Georgios has been located in a converted gymnasium in the Biebrich district since 1995 .
In 2010, the Omar Ibn El Khattab Mosque was inaugurated in Henkellstrasse as the largest mosque in Biebrich.
The Biebrich synagogue, which was founded in 1829, was destroyed on November 9, 1938 during the Night of the Pogroms.
In 1815 Johann Heppenheimer (1815–1895) was born in the Biebrich Kurfürstenmühle. He was a miller, entrepreneur and from 1861 to 1891 mayor of Biebrich am Rhein .
Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl (1823–1897) was born in Biebrich in 1823 . The journalist, novelist and cultural historian was the founder of scientific folklore.
Louis Maurer (1832–1932) was born in Biebrich in 1832 . He was a German-American lithographer, painter and photographer.
In 1853 Louis Auler (1853–1922), cigarette manufacturer and member of parliament was born in Biebrich.
In 1862 Richard Wagner (1813–1883) lived for a year in a newly built country house (later called Villa Annika ) on the Rhine near the castle. There he created the 1st act and the prelude to the 3rd act of his work Die Meistersinger . He influenced Wilhelm Heckel , a woodwind instrument maker based in Biebrich, who , following the composer's wishes , invented a baritone oboe , the so-called Heckelphone . This was later used by Richard Strauss and Paul Hindemith , among others .
Wilhelm Ferdinand Kalle (1870–1954) was born in Biebrich, Germany, when the long-standing director general of the chemical factory Kalle & Co. AG as well as a member of the Reichstag and Prussian state parliament .
The philosopher and educator Wilhelm Dilthey (1833–1911) and the philosopher and cultural scientist Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl (1823–1897) grew up in Biebrich.
In 1849 the painter Heinrich Schlitt (1849–1923) was born in Biebrich, who together with Kaspar Kögler painted the Ratskeller in the New Town Hall in Wiesbaden .
Colonel General Ludwig Beck (1880–1944) was born in Biebrich in 1880 . After the unsuccessful assassination attempt on July 20, 1944 against Adolf Hitler, Beck was killed by a " coup de grace " after two unsuccessful attempts at suicide . If the revolt was successful, Ludwig Beck was planned as Germany's first post-war president.
In 1876, racing cyclist Paul Albert (1876–1903) was born in Biebrich , who died in an accident in 1903.
Tony Sender (also Toni Sender ) (1888–1964) born in Biebrich, was a German politician ( SPD , USPD ) and journalist with the real name Sidonie Zippora Sender , who also used the pseudonyms Dora Denis and Elisabeth . In the Social Democratic parliamentary group to which she belonged from 1920 to 1933, she was counted on the left wing.
The physicist Walther Gerlach (1889–1979) was born in Biebrich in 1889. Together with Otto Stern , he carried out the fundamental experiment on directional quantization in 1922 .
In 1898 Camill Gerbert (1861-1918) was ordained as the first preacher of the Evangelical Congregation in Biebrich. He was the main initiator of the construction of the Evangelical Orange Memorial Church on the banks of the Rhine.
Georg Dengel (1901–1987) was a film pioneer and producer who was born in Biebrich.
The writer Otto Doderer (1892–1962) was born in Biebrich in 1892, as was his son Klaus in 1925.
The mathematician and logician Karl Schröter (1905–1977) was born in 1905 in Biebrich.
The jazz and big band musician Walter Hubert Weiss (1910–1950) was born in 1910 in Biebrich.
Rudolf Weckerling (1911–2014) was born on May 3, 1911 in Wiesbaden-Biebrich and is a German Protestant pastor who belonged to the Confessing Church during the Nazi era and emerged as a publicist and peace activist after the Second World War .
In 1925 the literary researcher Klaus Doderer (* 1925) was born in Biebrich, like his father Otto in 1892.
On March 12th 1928 the pianist, band leader and singer Paul Kuhn was born in Biebrich .
In 1944, the soccer player Jürgen Grabowski (* 1944) was born in Wiesbaden. He grew up in Biebrich and learned to play football at the two Biebrich clubs, FV Biebrich 1902 and SV Biebrich 1919 . He played for many years with Eintracht Frankfurt and won in 1974 with the German national football team the World Cup .
The director and Oscar winner Volker Schlöndorff (* 1939) was born in Biebrich on March 31, 1939 . After the death of his mother, the family moved to Schlangenbad .
- Glarus (since 2009)
Although Biebrich as a district of Wiesbaden has no legal personality of its own and thus could not establish an official friendship with the city of Glarus in Switzerland, also with regard to Wiesbaden's twin city Montreux , the local advisory board, together with representatives of the Wiesbaden magistrate, found a solution "slightly below one Partnership “, the local Europe-cities friendship . The aim was to put the contacts cultivated between the Kalle'schen Gesangsverein and the Glarus Men's Choir since 1966 on an official basis and to extend them to the whole of the club's life. During the New Year's reception of the Biebrich clubs and associations on January 14, 1990, the friendship was documented in Biebrich Castle.
On March 13, 2009, the certificate for a district partnership was signed in Glarus. This is intended to strengthen the friendly relationship and promote encounters between people in both communities.
- Official website of the Biebrich district of the Hessian state capital Wiesbaden
- "Biebrich, City of Wiesbaden". Historical local dictionary for Hessen. In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Literature on Wiesbaden-Biebrich in the Hessian Bibliography
- The sights of Biebrich in words and pictures
- Image of the Biebricher Aue from JF Dielmann, A. Fay, J. Becker (draftsman): FC Vogel's panorama of the Rhine, images of the right and left banks of the Rhine, FC Vogel lithographic institute, Frankfurt 1833
- ^ State handbook Hessen-Nassau 1820, Flecken Biebrich-Mosbach in the Wiesbaden office
- ^ State Handbook Hessen-Nassau 1866, Flecken Biebrich-Mosbach in the Wiesbaden office
- ^ The communities and manor districts of the province of Hessen-Nassau and their population. Edited and compiled by the Royal Statistical Bureau from the original materials of the general census of December 1, 1871. In: Königliches Statistisches Bureau (Hrsg.): The communities and manor districts of the Prussian state and their population. tape X , 1873, ZDB -ID 1467505-5 , p. 98 f . ( Digitized - listing and footnote Flecken Biebrich-Mosbach).
- ^ City of Wiesbaden: History of the Biebrich district
- ↑ City of Wiesbaden (Ed.): Großsiedlungen (accessed April 5, 2015)
- ^ Caritasverband Wiesbaden-Rheingau-Taunus eV: Awards 2008 ( Memento of the original from July 28, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ So: Werner, p. 422; According to Howard Fuhs: Biebrich - The Galatea plant and the Robert Krekel plant , this is said to have happened as early as 1900.
- ^ Howard Fuhs: Biebrich - The Galatea plant and the Robert Krekel plant .
- ^ City of Wiesbaden (office for social work): Wiesbaden social space analysis. Development of the social needs in the city districts . Contributions to social planning No. 32/2014 . P. 204 (206)
- ^ Museum Biebrich for local and industrial history museums in Hessen
- ^ Exhibition in the Heimatmuseum about Biebrich film history Wiesbadener Kurier from January 30th 2020
- ↑ Website of the main church ( Memento of the original from December 23, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
- ^ Website of the Orange Memorial Church.Retrieved on March 12, 2016.
- ^ Website of the Markuskirche.Retrieved on March 12, 2016.
- ^ Website of the Albert Schweitzer Community. Accessed March 12, 2016.
- ↑ Website of the Heilig-Geist-Kirchengemeinde ( memento of the original from March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
- ^ Website of the Lukas Congregation.Retrieved on March 12, 2016.
- ^ Website of the parish of St. Peter and Paul Wiesbaden. Accessed on March 12, 2016.
- ↑ Website of the Greek Orthodox Congregation Wiesbaden.Retrieved on May 2, 2013.
- ^ Community of Glarus: History of partnership