|engl. , ital: oboe|
with double reed
List of well-known oboists
The oboe / oˈboːə / ( oboe also oboe ; both German versions of the French hautbois ) is a woodwind instrument with a double reed and a slightly conically drilled tube. It has its origins in French baroque music of the 17th century and represents a further development of the medieval shawm .
Hautbois , the French name of the instrument, means something like "high-sounding wooden instrument" (compound of haut , "high" and bois , "wood") and is used as a name for a type of shawm as early as the 15th century. In the German literature of the Baroque period, the word (now as the name of the Baroque oboe ) initially appears in the same spelling, i.e. as a foreign word (first used in 1619 by Michael Praetorius ), then increasingly in the Germanized form of hoboe from 1750 . This in turn was in the course of the 19th century by the now generally common names Oboe displaced, probably is explained by the influence of the Italian (cf.. It. Oboe , outdated oboe , also borrowed in 1700 from French).
Layout and function
Parts of the oboe
Like the saxophone, the approximately 65 centimeter long instrument has a conical sound body and blows into the octave. The body of the oboe is made up of three parts and consists of a top , middle and cup (or foot ). The upper and middle pieces have a cork-encased pin at their lower end, which is inserted into a corresponding metal sleeve at the upper end of the middle piece or cup. Last is the mouthpiece, usually simply by oboist tube called, put up in the top piece. There are separate cases for both the body and the tubes in which they are stored and transported.
Oboes are made of grenadilla , boxwood or ebony ; instruments made of rosewood, rosewood , cocobolo or other exotic types of hardwood are less common . At the upper end of the middle piece on the back of the thumb holder is attached, with the help of which the instrument is held. Because of the key mechanism, which in the course of its history (in order to meet the increasing demands on sound and intonation ) with increasing complexity led to more and more holes and metal inserts being made in an increasingly narrow space - especially on the top piece - the wood was therefore exposed to ever greater loads. This led to the fact that increasingly harder types of wood were used that can withstand this load. In the meantime there have also been quite successful experiments with plastic or with composite materials (wood waste and carbon fiber reinforced plastic ). Oboes made of transparent acrylic glass are also made. The ebonite and acrylic glass oboes are particularly in demand for use under extreme climatic conditions, as there the wood easily runs the risk of cracking.
The oboe is considered to be one of the most complex wind instruments to build. The keys and brackets are forged from nickel silver or similar easily vibrating materials and then coated with various silver and / or gold alloys. The number of flaps varies from model to model. The tone holes of modern oboes are closed by flaps . Each key is provided with a "key pad" that covers the tone hole. These cushions consist either of fish skin with a filling in it or of cork and must be fitted exactly by the instrument maker so that they close airtight. A steel spring is hooked into the underside of each flap , which ensures that the flap automatically returns to the correct position as soon as you let go of the flap. The flaps are operated either directly with the fingers or by means of a sophisticated lever mechanism. Flaps that are closed directly with the fingers often have holes that allow the tone hole to be partially closed. On the top of these keys this is provided by a special shape of the key , this half-hole is used for octaving some tones. Other such holes are partially closed mechanically when other valves are pressed. Ring keyed oboes have ring keys which, by partially closing their large holes with the finger, allow an easier play of glissandi and micro-tones (without ring keys, they can be reached with the attachment , micro-tones also with special handles). There are also oboes with only single ring keys. The flap and lever mechanism is quite complicated; There is a multitude of cross connections between the individual flaps, which can be adjusted and set with the help of small screws.
The French oboe
There are so-called fully and semi-automatic oboes. With a semi-automatic one there is a lever for opening the key for the first and second octave keys. In a fully automatic oboe, there is only one lever for both octave keys, the change between the tones g sharp '' and a '' happens automatically. The fully automatic mechanism is particularly widespread in Germany, Poland and the Netherlands, the semi-automatic mechanism in the USA and France. Both construction methods have their advantages and disadvantages. With semi-automatic oboes, especially in the upper tone range from c '' 'upwards, more alternative fingerings can be found for the individual tones, which allow more different timbres and a more differentiated playing. Even with semi-automatic oboes, however, the two octave keys cannot be operated independently of each other; the lever for the second octave key automatically closes the first. The fully automatic oboe is easier to use because there is no key, but it is more susceptible to repair and can sometimes not be used or only with difficulty in modern experimental works. Independently of this, a third octave key is common, which can be operated by another lever.
Depending on the model, there are different trill keys that are used when in fast tone connections, especially with trills , a sufficiently fast change between the two fingerings is not possible, e.g. for the connections c '' - d '', c '' - c sharp ' 'and as'-b'. However, the sound and pitch differ considerably from the standard handles. Independent of this, there are alternative fingerings for many tones, some of which lead to the closing of the same keys due to the mechanics, but otherwise also imply tonal differences.
The Viennese oboe
In addition to the design of the French oboe , which is widespread all over the world, there is also the Viennese oboe , which is played almost exclusively in Vienna , for example in the orchestra of the Vienna Philharmonic . It has a slightly different bore , has a somewhat softer sound in the lower register, narrower and more pointed sound in the upper register, with more overtones. In the standard form, it extends in depth down to the small h, but the small b can also be played with a special foot piece. The Viennese oboe is structurally, tonally and in the playing technique more similar to the baroque instrument and the classical oboe than the French oboe, as it has been changed more through innovations by French instrument makers such as Henri Brod or Guillaume Triébert . In French models, for example, the wooden pegs of the key bearings disappeared in favor of those made of metal, and many keys were added to expand the range and alternative handle combinations. The Viennese oboe has not been changed as much, but octaving has been made much easier by an octave key. The timbre of the Viennese oboe changes less strongly between piano and forte. The Viennese school of oboe training also differs in the style of interpretation (less use of vibrato , clearer phrasing, shorter notes, less singing).
The sound generation
The sound is generated with a double reed which is taken between the inwardly curved lips and blown through with high pressure. In the body of the oboe, the sound is generated in an instrument tube according to the standing wave principle . A swaying column of air forms. When the flaps are opened and closed, the length of the oscillating column of air and thus its wavelength is changed: the tone becomes higher or lower. The oboe behaves physically like a reed that is open on both sides. One end of the tube would actually be closed by the double reed, but the conicity of the bore makes it look like an open end - and this is the main difference to the clarinet , whose bore is cylindrical. In the lower register, half the wavelength of the oboe is in the tube, with a pressure knot in the middle. The oscillation contains even and odd overtones . When the air is blown over for the first time, a second pressure knot forms in the pipe, and the air column vibrates at twice the frequency. The oboe overblows into the octave. Multiple overblowing is possible, with an additional pressure knot being added and the frequency correspondingly multiplied. The physical properties of the oboe are extremely complicated and not yet fully understood, as a number of factors influence the tones and their quality. Many keys can be adjusted with the help of adjusting screws and are in part closely related to the sound quality and / or intonation of other tones. For example, the slightest deviation due to improper adjustment of the key of the c 'can lead to notes in the highest register begin to rustle or even become unplayable. Innovations in instrument construction to stabilize the intonation or more comfortable playability and response (which means how easy the respective tone can be made to vibrate) are still based on attempts that are further developed or discarded depending on the result.
In the baroque period the oboe had a range of two octaves of chromatic intervals, from c 'to c' ''. Due to the missing octave key, a special overblow technique was necessary for the second octave and fingerings that differed from the lower octave in order to obtain correct intonation. The range of the modern oboe usually begins with the small b, depending on the model also with the small a or the small b. The fingerings used vary considerably from the e '' 'onwards, information about the usual upper limit fluctuates between f' '' and b '' ', but higher notes are possible. With a special approach technique, the so-called biting technique, in which the oboist places the upper and lower teeth on the base line of the scraping of the mouthpiece and thus makes a much shorter part of the pipe vibrate, even higher notes, possibly even up to a '' '' playable, as they are sometimes required in contemporary compositions.
The sound of the oboe is expressive and sounds from nasal-light to dark-velvety depending on the wind school and regional tradition. From the extremely soft sound character of the baroque oboe , the tone developed further and further into the more precise tone of the modern oboe, which allows a more differentiated playing, as it has more dynamic possibilities (especially in the quiet range) and also simplifies fast staccato . The way of playing and thus the sound of the oboe is very different between the individual schools; For example, some oboists such as Albrecht Mayer or François Leleux maintain a very velvety-soft tone, while other oboists such as Heinz Holliger , Pierre Pierlot or Burkhard Glaetzner play the oboe rather lighter and more nasal. The earlier, more nationally limited division into a voluminous, round “German” sound and a narrower, more flexible “French” sound has receded into the background.
Because the oboe tone has very pronounced overtones (especially the 3rd, 4th and 5th), its sound is particularly audible. That is why it has been common practice since the 19th century for one of the oboists to give the other musicians the note a 'to tune in before rehearsals and performances. Today oboists like to use an electronic tuner to precisely control the frequency . The oboe in Germany and Austria is usually tuned to a pitch of a '= 442 Hz to 444 Hz, the Viennese oboe from 443 Hz to 446 Hz. In other countries, other pitches between 440 Hz and 444 Hz are also common (see also concert pitch ).
The mouthpiece of the oboe, called the "pipe" for short, is made by the oboist from the internodes of the stake pipe (Arundo donax) . The wood comes from the region around Avignon (southern France) or from California, where it is grown on plantations specially operated for this purpose. The French locations near Frejus and Avignon have special climatic conditions that cannot be found anywhere else. For example, the warm, dry air of the Sahara , which sweeps through southern France, and the mistral wind seem to be partly responsible. As a result, many attempts to grow the wood elsewhere have failed. Oboe reeds are sensitive to mechanical influences. Before use, the oboist soaks the mouthpiece in water so that it is flexible and playable.
The sound quality and response of the oboe tone and thus the playing level of the oboist depend to a large extent on the quality of the reed wood used and the careful manufacture of the oboe reed. Oboists therefore spend a lot of time and care building their reeds, which are specially tailored to their personal constitution.
The ease with which the instrument can be played also largely depends on the mouthpiece. Since playing the oboe is very strenuous due to the lip pressure that has to be maintained at all times, mouthpieces of different lightness can be made as required; However, mouthpieces that are very easy to play have a sharp and nasal sound because they are very thin - so building mouthpieces is a balancing act between fullness of sound and playability.
The mouthpiece consists of a sleeve (a conical metal tube encased in cork at the lower end) and the wood that is attached to this sleeve. There are different schools and corresponding construction methods for the production of oboe mouthpieces:
The German and European construction: The mouthpiece is sealed with gold bat skin ("fish skin"), Teflon tape or beeswax , and a wire clamp is twisted around the pipe to stabilize it. The oboe scraped with a scraper blade with the aid of a Plaque the top of the timber, to obtain his desired sound. The scraped part is called the "track", and the top (and thinnest) millimeters of the mouthpiece is called the "address". The length of the scrape varies between 9 mm (Germany) to 14 mm (Netherlands).
An American variant of the construction of oboe mouthpieces was developed by Marcel Tabuteau, John De Lancie and his students. We urgently do without wire. A well-formed pipe does not yet need a seal, as these seal by themselves when offset, otherwise this is done using paraffin , beeswax, cigarette paper or even gold bat skin.
The important difference is the complex shape of the scraped off sheet. A "heart" is formed with a "crescent moon" to the front. Behind the "heart" is the "spine" in the middle, which lies just below the bowl and on both sides the "lungs" for the bass tones. The lungs are sometimes designed asymmetrically. At the edge, the “ribs” are left out of the full shell and shaped to subside. The beauty of the sound is a combination of the quality of the wood and, above all, determined by the heart; the intonation in the middle and particularly higher position is determined by the absolute and relative length of the tip in relation to other areas, while the supporting force and lower position can be assigned especially to the lungs and an offset in the scraping. These reeds are tuned to Lorée and other French oboes.
The breathing technique
When it comes to breathing technique, the oboe has a special place among all wind instruments. No other wind instrument can play such long solos with a single breath as the oboe. The reason lies in the nature of the mouthpiece. In order to make the small double reed vibrate, it needs a lot of pressure. At the same time, the distance between the two leaves striking each other is tiny, they are only about a millimeter apart, so you hardly need any air and you need a precise breathing technique. The lungs are hardly emptied during play, so that the volume during play usually remains consistently above the volume reached at the end of normal exhalation. Before inhaling, you usually have to exhale, for example during the same breathing pause or shortly before, in order to keep the carbon dioxide content low.
Difficulty and rumors of side effects
It is a popular belief that the oboe is particularly difficult to play. For example, the Guinness Book of Records from 1989 listed the oboe as the most difficult instrument next to the horn . There are several reasons for this:
- One reason could be history. After the classical period, the oboe led a “shadowy existence”; its sound was simply not in demand for solo works. A concerto was only written if an oboist was lucky enough to know a composer better (both Richard Strauss and Bohuslav Martinů's concerto were written in this way). Accordingly, the development of this instrument stagnated due to insufficient demand, it was cumbersome to play (among wind players this circumstance is referred to as “a lot of resistance”), the pipes were made “somehow”, sound and playability were accordingly. Under these circumstances, very few could bring themselves up to learn oboe. In the provinces the oboe almost died out, its part was taken over in regional formations by the clarinet or soprano saxophone. It was only the oboist Heinz Holliger who was able to usher in a renaissance for the oboe with his virtuoso playing in the second half of the 20th century, and the instrument regained popularity and can now be learned at most music schools. Although today's instrument and reed construction can no longer be compared with the conditions at that time, the oboe retained its reputation of being "heavy".
- As you can read in the sections "Tone Generation" and "Mechanics", the oboe has a complicated structure. If a tone does not respond, there can be many different reasons. It could be the pipe, or you simply “bite” too much and “pinch” the sound. But it could also be due to a contamination in the tone hole; water could simply have collected in it. Something may have got caught in the hole, a crack has formed or the setting of a screw has changed so that a flap is no longer tight, etc.
- Another reason can be found in the "Breathing technique" section.
There is also a popular rumor that playing the oboe makes you “crazy” or stupid because of the “pressure in the head”. There is no scientific evidence for this. However, oboists, especially as beginners, have to struggle with the breathing technique. A study from 1999 did indeed show that the pressure in the mouth reached at its peak is much higher with oboists than with clarinetists, saxophonists or bassoonists. It is also rumored that playing the oboe is associated with an increased risk of stroke .
The earliest illustration of an oboe forerunner dates from 3000 BC. Already in ancient times there were oboe-like instruments like the Greek aulos or the Roman tibia . The Bible mentions an apparently oboe-like instrument called a chalil . It was used in the temple and, according to tradition, it was heard throughout Jerusalem. The psalms urge us to praise God with the khalil.
In the Middle Ages there were different forms of conical double reed instruments such as the pommer or the shawm . From the latter, the (baroque) oboe was created in the 17th century by the instrument maker Jean de Hotteterre (on behalf of Jean-Baptiste Lully ). The baroque oboe initially had seven finger holes and two keys . In the course of time it was further developed by woodwind instrument makers, with a narrower bore (French bore) and provided with a sophisticated mechanism. In the 18th century there were the two main forms of the oboe piccola (the form commonly used today) and the oboe bassa (Grand Hautbois), which was slightly larger and a third lower (in A).
The first oboes were written around 1660 at the time of Jean-Baptiste Lully and Jean de Hotteterre . The first recorded use of the oboe is in Robert Cambert's opera Pomone (1671) . These oboes were converted into today's models by French instrument makers, especially in the 19th century.
There are different types of oboes. In Europe, the following are particularly known:
- Oboe d'amore (alto oboe with "love foot", a spherical or pear-shaped bell)
- English horn (with bell like the oboe d'amore)
- Oboe da caccia
- Baritone oboe , heckelphone
- Baroque oboe
The oboe d'amore, in a, sounds a minor third lower than the oboe. The cor anglais is in f and sounds a fifth lower. The oboe da caccia was the predecessor of the cor anglais in the same register. The heckelphone and baritone oboe (also bass oboe) sound even lower (an octave below the oboe) , both are tuned in c, but have different lengths. The musette (in f) is tuned a fourth higher than the oboe. For performances that are as similar as possible to the conditions of the Baroque period, instruments of the state of development at that time, so-called baroque oboes , are increasingly being recreated. These have only one to three keys and, due to the slightly wider mouthpiece and the narrower scale, have a darker but quieter sound than the modern, classic oboes.
Use in music
The oboe has been a popular solo instrument since the Baroque period, and many composers valued it as the most similar to the human voice in terms of its expressiveness . Johann Sebastian Bach regularly used them in his cantatas and passions as an accompanying instrument to represent different affects (often suffering or sadness, but there are also enough examples of pastoral or joyful feelings). In addition, Bach lists four oboe concerts in his catalog raisonné. An important composer for oboe in the 18th century was Georg Philipp Telemann , of whom nine oboe concertos alone have survived, plus three concertos for oboe d'amore. One of the first works that he published in his publishing house was the Kleine Cammer-Music , six partitas "especially [...] vor die Hautbois" from 1716. These partitas are also dedicated to oboists.
So in the Baroque period and the Sonata for Oboe and was basso a popular form, and later the oboe appeared as a chamber music solo instrument among others in the Three Romances by Robert Schumann and in the sonatas for oboe and piano by Camille Saint-Saëns and Paul Hindemith on . Also worth mentioning are the sonata for oboe and piano by Francis Poulenc and the works for oboe and piano by Benjamin Britten .
The well-known oboe concerts include:
- JS Bach : BWV 1053 and 1055 (both for oboe d'amore ), BWV 1056 (oboe), BWV 1060 (oboe and violin )
- Alessandro Marcello : Concerto for oboe and orchestra in D minor
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Concerto for oboe and orchestra in C major KV 314
- Joseph Haydn : Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra in C major Hob VIIg: C1 (authorship of Haydn doubtful)
- Vincenzo Bellini : Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra in E flat major
- R. Vaughan Williams : Concerto for Oboe and Strings in A minor (1944)
- R. Strauss : Concerto for oboe and small orchestra in D major
- B. Martinů : Concerto for oboe and small orchestra (1955)
- Frigyes Hidas : Concerto for oboe and orchestra (1952)
- Bruno Maderna Concerto for oboe and chamber ensemble (= 1st oboe concerto; 1962); 2nd oboe concerto (1967); 3rd oboe concerto (1973)
From Ludwig van Beethoven's Concerto for Oboe and Orchestra in F major Hess 12 the beginnings of movements ("incipits") from the catalog raisonné of Beethoven's private secretary Schindler are preserved in a copy by Anton Diabelli from 1840. A sketch of the second movement from Beethoven's sketchbook with oboe part and parts of the accompaniment was found in 1960; it was reconstructed by Cees Nieuwenhuizen and Jos van der Zanden and performed for the first time in 2003.
The oboe concerto , written as a diploma thesis by Frigyes Hidas , met with enthusiasm from the start and is now the most popular Hungarian oboe concerto.
In his oboe concerto, the American composer John Corigliano points out some unusual but typical characteristics of the oboe: the first movement, Tuning Game , begins with the orchestra tuning in with the solo oboe, which then changes this mood. In the last movement, Rheita Dance , the oboist imitates an Arabic oboe ( rhaita ) by taking the reed further into his mouth, which creates a sharper sound.
From the 20th century many works for oboe were created without accompaniment. Worth mentioning are the Six Metamorphoses after Ovid by Benjamin Britten , the Sonatina by Ernst Krenek , Monodies by Charles Koechlin , the Elegy by Dietrich Erdmann , Piri by Isang Yun , solo for oboe by Aribert Reimann , sequence VII by Luciano Berio , as well as numerous studies by Heinz Holligers .
Numerous trio sonatas for two oboes and basso continuo have survived from the Baroque period. In woodwind chamber music, the oboe plays an important role in the wind quintet and in harmony music (wind octet, usually two oboes, clarinets, bassoons and horns each). In Mozart's time, numerous operas and other works were “set to harmony”. Less well known are oboe Trio (3 oboe or 2 oboe and English horn ) or reed Trio ( Trio d'Anches , oboe, clarinet and bassoon ). Other important pieces in other line-ups are by Francis Poulenc , Jean Françaix , Heitor Villa-Lobos , Bohuslav Martinů and André Jolivet .
The Oboe Quartet (with string trio ) K. 370 of Mozart is the most famous chamber work for oboe with strings, in its tradition are some other works of this occupation. Another fine example of mixed chamber music with oboe is the nonet by Louis Spohr .
The oboe has had a permanent place in the orchestra since the baroque period and is therefore the first representative of woodwind instruments alongside the flute and bassoon. In the very variable line-ups of the Baroque period in Germany (for example Bach's orchestral suites) one usually finds two oboes, often three in the French style, which were often played several times (the equally privileged group also emerged at the French court at the same time as the “violons du Roi” the "hautbois du Roi"). Since the Mannheim orchestral standard there have been two oboe parts (1st and 2nd oboe), but especially in the Romantic period there are also three and four (cf. Gustav Mahler , Richard Strauss ) and / or an English horn part . Occasionally (rarely) oboe parts are doubled.
Great oboe solos in orchestral literature can be found with all composers, mostly for lyrical, more solemn melodies. Worth mentioning in addition to the mentioned works by Bach, for example, the funeral march in Beethoven's third symphony , the theme in the slow movement of the great C major Symphony of Schubert, the theme in the slow movement in the Violin Concerto of Brahms or the Andante from Symphony No. 4 by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky . In fast passages, especially in the staccato oboe can also create a comic effect, as in many places in Wagner operas, Alban Berg's Wozzeck or together with flute and piccolo in chicks Ballet of Modest Mussorgsky's Pictures at an Exhibition (Ravel orchestration).
The oboe is also used outside of its classic area of application. Mention should be made of the French oboist Jean-Luc Fillon , who gave improvised jazz music new impulses through the use of oboe and cor anglais in his pieces and opened up unknown sound horizons. The saxophonist Yusef Lateef also uses the oboe more often, which he likes to play in the style of the Arabic rhaita , i.e. with the reed in his mouth, which creates a sharp, shawl-like sound. Another well-known oboist on the jazz scene is Paul McCandless of the Oregon group. He plays a more refined by Tabuteau technology Lorée and English horn and Heckelphone .
Rock and pop music
The oboe was also occasionally used as an instrument in rock music. The songwriter Donovan was already using the oboe as a style-defining element in the 1960s , for example in Jennifer Juniper (1968). In the 1970s, Peter Gabriel used the oboe as a distinctive woodwind instrument on various Genesis records ( Nursery Cryme 1971, Foxtrot 1972, Selling England By The Pound 1973, The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway 1974) to complement the sometimes filigree and very nuanced musical style the group. Also Roxy Music has the oboe used regularly since the early days. In pop music the oboe is u. a. to be heard with Art Garfunkel (in the song Bright Eyes , 1979, comp. Mike Batt ) and with Tanita Tikaram (in the song Twist in My Sobriety , 1988). The French metal band Penumbra also uses an oboe as a characteristic feature, as does the pagan metal band Finsterforst in their album Weltenkraft (2007).
- Flageolet tones created by overblowing .
- Multiphonics , which are created by certain grips that do not necessarily correspond to the usual tones, as well as suitable approach and suitable blowing.
- Contact of the teeth with the mouthpiece to generate particularly high tones.
- Clogging the bell to dampen the sound.
- Use the keys as a percussion instrument .
- Play without a mouthpiece. Noise can be generated by simply blowing it through or using the voice. The oboe can also be used as a brass instrument without a mouthpiece by playing with the lips .
Until the 1970s, children with immature lungs were advised against learning the oboe. This has changed with the rediscovery of the baroque oboe with its easier to blow pipes. Today children can start oboe lessons at the age of seven to ten. For this purpose, oboes are available especially for children (with simplified mechanics or without keys, sometimes also in high f). The instrument is taught at most youth music schools as well as from private music teachers . Early ensemble play , for example in small chamber music groups , in a wind orchestra or classical symphony orchestra, is particularly beneficial and motivating .
Important oboe manufacturers are Marigaux and Rigoutat . Their oboes differ mainly in their timbre; The Marigaux oboes (played by François Leleux and Lajos Lencses ) sound generally softer and more velvety, while a Rigoutat (played by Heinz Holliger ) sounds more direct and nasal, which makes it particularly suitable for new music . Other important oboe manufacturers are Lorée , Buffet Crampon , Gustav Mollenhauer & Sons , Mönnig (played by Albrecht Mayer ) and Dupin (played by Christoph Hartmann ).
- Germany: Ludwig Frank, Püchner, Mönnig, Adler, Sonora, Guntram Wolf
- France: Marigaux, Buffet Crampon, Noblet, Fossati, Lorée-DeGourdon, Rigoutat, Strasser, Cabart, Guy Dupin
- UK: Howarth
- Italy: Patricola, Bulgheroni, Incagnoli
- Japan: Yamaha , Josef
- Luxembourg: Roland Dupin
- Austria: Zuleger, engraver (Viennese oboe)
- USA: Fox, Selmer
Well-known oboists of the Baroque period were Giuseppe Sammartini and Nicolas Chédeville , who both wrote compositions for the instrument. The famous oboists Ludwig August Lebrun , who was also active as a composer and wrote several concerts for his instrument, and Giuseppe Ferlendis , to whom the oboe concerto by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is dedicated, lived during the classical period . The most famous oboist of the Romantic era was undoubtedly Antonio Pasculli , a Sicilian oboe virtuoso who wrote virtuoso oboe concertos on well-known opera themes, thereby setting new technical standards for oboe playing.
Well-known oboists of the first half of the 20th century were Pierre Pierlot and above all Léon Goossens , to whom the oboe concerts by Ralph Vaughan Williams , Cyril Scott and Eugène Goossens are dedicated.
Well-known contemporary oboists are Albrecht Mayer and Hansjörg Schellenberger (both were or are members of the Berliner Philharmoniker ), François Leleux , Thomas Indermühle , Emanuel Abbühl , Burkhard Glaetzner , Lajos Lencses, Ingo Goritzki and Heinz Holliger , who, in addition to rediscovering composers such as For example, Jan Dismas Zelenka and Johann Gottlieb Graun are particularly committed to the avant-garde and are dedicated to the works of many important contemporary composers such as Luciano Berio and Isang Yun .
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