The Baroque is that design of the oboe , the (z. B. in the mid-17th century in the context of the French royal court Jean de Hotteterre ) from the shawm was developed and today as part of the historical performance for playing baroque music is used .
The innovations compared to the shawm were the division of the instrument into three separable parts, a narrower length , a modified end piece and two keys for the lowest notes. Most important, however, was that the double reed was now placed directly between the player's lips, while with the previous instruments it was either completely placed in the mouth (without the player touching the double reed) or enclosed in a capsule. The instruments developed at the French court were soon given the same privileges and strengths as the violins (les violons du Roi) as "the king's oboes" (les hautbois du Roi) .
The oboe was initially played by recorder players in the Baroque period, as its fingering was essentially identical to the (recorder) flute. Due to the need to specialize in the art of construction, blow molding and pipe construction, the tasks were soon separated. Johann Joachim Quantz , the transverse flute teacher of King Frederick II , worked exclusively as an oboist until his engagement in Potsdam. Johann Sebastian Bach had two full-time oboists in Leipzig, but no flutist and only one apprentice as a transverse flute player.
Like all soprano instruments, the oboe often has to play colla parte with the violins in the baroque orchestra . The standard line-up of the Dresden court orchestra at that time was 5 first violins and 5 oboes, 3 bassoons and 2 cellos. In many notes of the time, the violin parts only contain con or senza oboe ; This organ register-like switching on and off makes up an important part of the baroque orchestral sound. However, the oboe has also been used extensively as a solo instrument, e.g. B. in works by Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Philipp Telemann . It was also an instrument of military music at the time . Up until the middle of the 19th century, the officer rank of Hautboist as head of the Harmonie (the wind ensemble of the orchestra) was retained. A baroque oboe with a tuning about a fifth below the usual oboe was unspecifically designated as the waist , in contrast to the oboe da caccia , which means a precise design.
After the Baroque, the oboe gradually got more semitone holes with an increasingly sophisticated key system and an even narrower bore and thus developed into the modern oboe, whereby its specific sound properties disappeared in favor of a largely uniformity of all semitones and a higher volume.
- See Rudolf Gerber et al. a .: Illustrated music lexicon . Engelhorn, Stuttgart 1927.