|engl .: cor anglais , English horn , ital .: corno inglese|
with double reed
in F: sounds a fifth lower
The English horn (also English horn ) is a woodwind instrument and the Old -instrument ( alto oboe ) from the family of oboes instruments that a firm place in romantic and modern symphony orchestra has. In the 19th century the instrument was also known as the alto or alto oboe . As with all oboe instruments, the sound is generated by a double reed .
The instrument does not end like the oboe in a funnel, but is similar to the oboe d'amore a pear-shaped bell , even " Liebesfuß " called. This gives it in combination with the S-bow -called bent connector between reed instrument and body a covered, warm, elegischeren and less penetrating sound. The cor anglais is tuned in F, a fifth lower than the oboe in C; in this respect there is a certain notation related to the French horn in F, the basset horn in F and the Wagner tubas - also in F (since the English horn in F is notated a fifth higher than it sounds, it is a transposing instrument ). In contrast to the latter instruments, the tuning of the cor anglais is never explicitly stated, as this is the only type of construction.
The cor anglais is notated in the score under the oboes as part of the oboe group.
The name “English horn” does not come from the fact that the instrument originated in England . The most likely origin of the name is the French name cor anglé (angled horn), which has changed to cor anglais ("English horn"); It is also conceivable that the name developed from "angel's horn" ( angels play horns on sacred pictures that are reminiscent of the English horn). In Italy the English horn is called Corno inglese . It is possibly a further development of the angled oboe used by Johann Sebastian Bach from around 1730 ; However, it must be assumed that the cor anglais, like most of the oboe instruments, first originated in France as a further development of the alto oboe in f, the so-called “ taille de hautbois ”.
Today's English horns are built straight, but still have a curved adapter, the so-called S-bend , which forms the connection between the mouthpiece and the instrument and has an enormous influence on intonation and sound.
A popular example in the Baroque era is the Christmas Oratorio by Johann Sebastian Bach , which provides for two oboes or oboes d'amore as well as two oboes da caccia. When performing with modern instruments, English horns are used instead of the oboes da caccia. In individual works of the Viennese Classic (e.g. Joseph Haydn , Symphony No. 22 ; Beethoven , Trio op.87 for 2 oboes and cor anglais; Antonio Salieri , La grotta di Trofonio , Requiem) one encounters the instrument several times, but it is special It has become particularly important in romantic music. Impressive solo passages can be found among others by Hector Berlioz ( Le carnaval romain , Symphonie Fantastique ), Richard Wagner ( Tannhäuser , in the 1st scene of the 3rd act by Tristan and Isolde ), Giuseppe Verdi ( A Masked Ball , Otello ), Antonín Dvořák ( 9th Symphony ), Gioachino Rossini ( Wilhelm Tell , overture), in orchestral songs by Gustav Mahler ( I have lost the world ), the Rosenkavalier by Richard Strauss or Jean Sibelius ( The Swan of Tuonela ). Many of the passages mentioned above are so-called audition points, the mastery of which must be demonstrated during auditions . Even at this time, works in which the cor anglais is used as a soloist are rare. Among the few compositions in question, Felix Draeseke's Small Suite for English Horn and Piano, Op. 87, stands out. The Concertino for English horn and small orchestra by Gaetano Donizetti and Omaggio a Bellini for English horn and harp by Antonio Pasculli are also extremely important works . Modern composers who dedicated themselves to the instrument include a. Arthur Honegger ( Concerto da camera for flute, English horn and string orchestra), Gordon Jacob ( Rhapsody for English horn and string orchestra), Paul Hindemith (Sonata for English horn and piano), Aaron Copland ( Quiet City for English horn, trumpet and string orchestra), Ned Rorem ( Concerto for English horn and orchestra) and Josef Schelb (Sonata for English horn and piano 1969, Concerto for English horn and string orchestra 1970). In modern orchestral literature, Le Sacre du Printemps by Igor Stravinsky and Béla Bartók's Concerto for Orchestra are challenging works with dreaded solo passages.
In modern symphony orchestras, the cor anglais is considered a secondary or alternating instrument for the oboe. Large orchestras with a sufficient budget employ their own cor anglais player who devotes himself exclusively to the relevant passages, while smaller orchestras usually have a second oboist for the cor anglais and, if necessary, switch between the two instruments during a concert. In this case, an additional oboist is only called in if the work expressly provides for a separate cor anglais part and a change is not possible. The notes are written accordingly transposing (a notated c 'sounds as f) so that the performing oboists can use the usual fingerings, even if they change in the middle of the movement. The cor anglais part can thus be notated in the second, less often third oboe as an alternating part or as an independent part. Sometimes in old editions the cor anglais part can also be found in the first oboe as an alternating part (e.g. Dvořák, 9th symphony, 2nd movement), even if this practice is no longer common these days and the first oboist pauses in this case .
A sister instrument of the cor anglais is the oboe d'amore , which also has a pear-shaped bell , it is tuned in a and sounds a major third higher. One could speak of a mezzo-soprano instrument in the family of oboe instruments.