Angel ( Latin angelus , Gothic angilus ; from ancient Greek ἄγγελος ángelos " messenger ", " emissary ". Translation from Hebrew מלאך mal'ach “Messenger, envoy; Message, broadcast; Maleach "- cf. also " Gospel " and " Malik " as well as " Moloch ") is a generic name for heavenly beings ( spirit beings ). In the teachings of the monotheistic Abrahamic religions of Judaism , Christianity and Islam, angels are spirit beings in (winged) human form, which were created by God , are subordinate to him and act as his messengers to people.
The spiritual understanding of angels and their function and order is largely taken from the Tanakh , the New Testament and the Koran . In addition to the writings of the Bible canon , late antique and medieval legends of saints , homilies , miracle stories and popular narratives such as sagas and fairy tales were among the sources for the ideas of angels. These are also widespread in esotericism .
The idea of a spiritual being next to the main god or deities is an ancient cultural asset in the Near Eastern cultural area. Similar mediators between God and the world can be found in the mythographies of Babylonia and in the sacred writings of Zoroastrianism . Pictorial representations usually show angels as winged beings. Mythical winged hybrid creatures in the Persian Empire and the representation of ancient Egyptian deities show beings that belong to the sacred divine sphere. Angel figures are therefore not full gods in such religions, but rather belong to the category of demigods .
Sometimes even in polytheistic religions godlike but not divine beings who can convey the supernatural are translated or compared with "angels". B. Deva as well as other - wingless - Indian demigods and deities. In common parlance, however, “angels” are understood as messengers of the only God of one of the monotheistic views.
Persia and Zoroastrianism
In Zoroastrianism , originally the most widespread religion in the Persian Empire, Yazata are the supreme deity attached to or his helpers touched by the divine spark. Malakhim are messengers of God's moral will to people.
The idea of such God-sent helpers may have flowed into Judaism during the Babylonian exile in the course of the intellectual analysis of a path to God. Pictorial representations of winged god beings are known through contact with Persian, Greek and Roman cultures.
Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt
In the cultures of Mesopotamia , too , the notion of winged beings as mediators between gods and humans can be found. Winged deities or protective geniuses appear in the iconography of the religions of Mesopotamia. "Angel-like" representations can be found e.g. B. in the royal palaces of the Babylonians or Assyrians in Nineveh , Nimrud or Dur Sharrukin .
Greek and Roman antiquity
In Greek mythology the daimones appear as personal protective spirits and mediators between gods and humans. According to Hesiod , they emerged from the souls of the people of the Golden Age . The Greek daimon corresponds to the Roman genius , which can also be depicted winged. But the gods themselves also intervene in people's lives or send the messenger of the gods Hermes - Mercurius , who wears winged shoes and hat as attributes. With Greece's confrontation with oriental, especially Persian, culture, the idea of a bird-winged goddess of victory Nike entered Mount Olympus . As Victoria , she also came into the Roman culture and was later stylized as a victory angel with a victory wreath and palm branch. Despite such parallels, the Greco-Roman world of gods hardly had any influence on the understanding of angels in classical antiquity, which largely retained its direct reference to the concept of angels in the Orient until Christianization in the European cultural area or Islamization in the Arab region. In the Renaissance , scholars like Marsilio Ficino related the ancient tradition of geniuses / daimones to the Christian concept of the Guardian Angel .
Angel in Judaism
Angel, hebrew מלאך mal'ach "messengers" are understood in Judaism through interpretation of the Tanach and in a long tradition mostly as supernatural beings who stand by God in heaven, but are strictly to be distinguished from God ( YHWH ) and are subordinate to him. Occasionally, you can show selected people God's will and instructions. In the Jewish tradition they are also among people, since they have no will of their own and are only able to carry out one divine command.
The appearance of angels already plays a major role in the tradition of the early history of the people of Israel . Understanding of angels moves with tradition and goes into the other Abrahamic religions. However, in the Jewish belief in heavenly-English beings, the complex explanation of their spiritual-spiritual world is not governed by a precisely defined system of order, as is the case e.g. B. then seeks to build up the angelology of early Christianity.
Angel in christianity
Angels have always been very important in Christianity. In the angel doctrine of the Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita , the hierarchical order of the angels plays a major role. Thomas Aquinas explained the doctrine of angels comprehensively in his Summa Theologiae . According to Thomas, angels are immaterial beings, they consist of pure form and have no matter .
While the angels are venerated in the Latin Church and the Orthodox Churches , apart from the Protestant Free Church of the Seventh-day Adventists , which has formulated no veneration but honorable appreciation, the Reformed Churches are skeptical or even negative about the angel doctrine. In the Lutheran churches , especially in the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church , the day of remembrance of the Archangel Michael and all angels is celebrated as a worship service. In addition, the Evangelical Lutheran church agenda contains a separate preface for this day of remembrance. There is an increased interest in the topic in the high church movement .
There are various archangels and angels, besides the archangel Michael, who leads the armies of the Lord, the archangels Gabriel , the messenger of God, Raphael and Uriel . Various sources also report from other archangels.
Extra-canonical writings (Enoch, Tobit)
Descriptions of angels and angel teachings can also be found outside of the main scriptures of their religion recognized by Jewish or Christian authorities. So is z. B. the Book of Enoch , probably from the 3rd century BC and possibly based on older sources, a chronicle that reports in detail about a "journey through the ten heavens" and about angels, their names, their tasks and their characteristic properties. The Chronicles of Enoch were declared to be Apocrypha by the church father Jerome in the 4th century AD, thereby depriving them of the status of holy scriptures. The deuterocanonical book Tobit , which probably dates from the 2nd century BC, describes the work of the Archangel Raphael .
Kind and order of the angels
The Bible mentions different types within the millions of angels. They stand there without a clear hierarchy, but followers of all three Abrahamic religions developed variants of angelic hierarchies. The hierarchies in the monotheistic religions are ruled by the Creator God .
In the Middle Ages, the angelology ( angelology ) of the Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita spread from the sixth century . It is taken up , among others, by Thomas Aquinas in his Summa theologica . According to Pseudo-Dionysius, different types of angels can be distinguished, which are divided into a total of nine choirs.
Sex of angels
Often times, angels are understood to be sexless beings, although at least some of them are described as youths or young men, e.g. B. those from the empty tomb of Jesus or the angels of the Old Testament appearing in Sodom. The conception of a sexuality of angels and resurrected human beings, as assumed by the Sadducees, is contradicted by the Gospel of Mark through Jesus: “When human beings rise from the dead, they do not marry nor allow themselves to be married, but are like angels in Sky. But did you not read that the dead rise from the dead in the book of Moses, in the story of the thorn bush, in which God said to Moses: I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob? He is not a god of the dead, but of the living. You are very wrong. "( Mk 12,25-27 EU )
Angelology in Modern Theology
The traditional dogmatic discipline of the doctrine of angels ( angelology ) usually receives little attention today. In the 20th century, on the subject u. a. Karl Barth , Karl Rahner , Leo Scheffczyk , Ludwig Ott , Herbert Vorgrimler , Thomas Ruster and Johann Evangelist Hafner . Wilfried Härle agrees with Claus Westermann in his dogmatics : "The angel comes into being with his mission, he passes away with the fulfillment of his mission, because his existence is a message."
According to a survey of 1003 people in Germany in March 2019, 40 percent believe in the existence of angels. The faith of Catholics (48 percent) and Protestants (43 percent) was significantly more pronounced than among those with no religious affiliation (26 percent), in West Germany the faith was more pronounced than in East Germany (41 to 36 percent).
Angel in islam
Belief in angels ( Arabic ملائكة, DMG malāʾika , sing. malʾak ) is considered binding in Islam . So it says in the Koran in sura 4 : 136: "Anyone who does not believe in God, his angels, his writings, his messengers and the last day has gone a long way off" (cf. also sura 2 : 177). The angels, made of light or fire, are repeatedly referred to in the Koran as “servants of God” (e.g. sura 43:19 , sura 21:36), but they are also God's messengers who act according to his command (sura 21:26). One of the most important tasks of the angels is to convey the revelation to the prophets ( Sura 16 : 2). They also protect people ( Sura 50 : 17). Since the Qur'an speaks of angels in numerous places without further explanation, it is believed that Muhammad's audience was already familiar with this concept. The angelic belief probably came to Arabia through the Judeo-Christian tradition. The word malʾak is said to have been borrowed from Ethiopian into Arabic. The belief in the jinn already existing in Arabia probably made it easier to adopt the angelic belief . According to the Qur'an, angels were viewed and worshiped as daughters of God in pre-Islamic times , which is also mentioned in relation to al-Lāt , al-ʿUzzā and Manāt . However, the notion that God created angels as females and begat daughters is rejected in the Koran.
To the angels that are mentioned by name in the Koran, include Gabriel, the prophets , the revelations transmitted God and Michael (Sura 2: 98-99). Isrāfīl is not mentioned in the Koran, but Islamic tradition ascribes it to the task of announcing the end-time judgment with a blast of the trumpet. About this an angel of death is mentioned in the Koran ( sura 32 : 11), to whom the tradition gives the name Izra'īl . According to Islamic tradition, the two grave angels Munkar and Nakīr have the task of examining people for their faith shortly after their burial. In addition, the Qur'an mentions angels who are unspecified by name, such as the guardians of paradise and hell and the eight angels who carry the throne of God ( Sura 40 : 7, Sura 69 : 17).
In the post-Koranic tradition, as in the other Abrahamic religions, four angels or cherubim carrying the throne of God are narrated by several authors , whose differences are emphasized. According to at-Tabarī (839–923) they stand for the elements water, heaven, earth and winds, while according to Sibt Ibn al-Jschauzi (1185–1256) they consist of light, fire, earth and mercy.
Even if they are generally not regarded as such in Islam, some scholars of Islam insist on the infallibility of angels. Hasan of Basra is considered to be one of the oldest representatives that angels are not capable of any wrongdoing. He not only emphasized the prominence of the angels from the Islamic texts, but also reinterpreted those that might contradict his view. Possible fallen angels include Harut and Marut , who were read as kings by Hasan of Basra instead , and Iblis (Satan). The idea that Allah tested the angels for envy and pride with the creation of Adam can also be found in the works of early Islamic authors such as Muhammad al-Bāqir and Tabari. But even under the assumption that the angels could lose their rank with little power of decision, the idea of a rebellion of the angels is alien to Islam. Instead, their case resulted from the incorrect execution of their instructions. The fall of the angels is also individual, not collective.
According to the tradition of the Twelve Shia , God created a house under his throne, which he called al-Bait al-maʿmūr ("the inhabited house", cf. Sura 52 : 4) and to which the angels make pilgrimages every year . Similarly, he also created a house in the fourth heaven which he called ad-Darrāh. The angels pay homage to this by making a pilgrimage to it and circling around it . The Kaaba in Mecca is said to be right under this house. The sixth Imam Jafar as-Sādiq is narrated: “If a stone were to be thrown down from the divine throne, it would fall exactly on the roof of al-Bait al-maʿmūr . And if a stone were thrown from al-Bait al-maʿmūr , it would fall exactly on the holy house ( al-bait al-ḥarām ). "
In Ismaili teaching, the stars and spheres are viewed as manifestations of angels. The Ismaili philosopher Nāsir-i Chusrau also saw people as "potential angels". It is the task of the prophets , their spiritual heirs and the imams to act as mediators to guide people on the right path through the revealed book and the Sharia and thus to make them real angels. Anyone who is able to turn a “potential angel” ( firišta-yi ba-quwwat ) into a real angel has the rank of angel himself and is God's representative on earth, as the Koran says: “If I wanted to so I would make angels of you who are representatives on earth ”(Sura 43:60). However, people can only become angels if they are obedient to the mediators. On the other hand, if they disobey, they become demons .
The Sufism also writes the angels on the object of divine messages and visions to convey. Since they have no nafs untouched by the earthen world , they always act in a godly manner and are particularly close to God . The Sufi Sheikh ʿAbd al-Karīm al-Jīlī specified the conception of angels as beings created from light and explained that the angels were created from the light of the Islamic prophet Muhammad . According to Heydar Amuli , influenced by the metaphysical worldview of Muhyī d-Dīn Ibn ʿArabī , angels were created as representatives of the beautiful names of God , while the satans are considered to be representatives of the majestic and imperious names of God. Since the angels are aware of the divine presence, they lack the desire to sin and differ from people who are confronted with difficulties and distance from God and are able to live freely and out of love to please God. According to Sufi ideas, there are no instincts and passions in the sphere of angels that could lead to sin , which is why, in contrast to angels, humans can develop further and the angels show respect for humans by bowing. If man masters the development of his spirit, he arrives in an angelic state with the advantage of having completed a human development. According to Sufi belief, angels sometimes appear to Sufis in human form. The character Chidr plays a special role , who is a teacher to the seeker who cannot find anyone.
Proponents of the Salafi interpretation of Sunni Islam hold fast to the duty of the literal existence of angels and reject metaphorical interpretations such as those advocated by Nasr Hamid Abu Zaid as a reprehensible renewal . At the same time, Salafist scholars reject some notions established in Islamic tradition as un-Islamic Isrā'īlīyāt . Including the story of the Koranic angels Harut and Marut and the name of the angel of death Asrael . Member of the Muslim Brotherhood and author of the "Islamic Creed Series" Umar ibn Sulayman al-Ashqa rejected not only the traditions themselves, but also past scholars who used such material. The angels should only be introduced directly from the Koran or Al-Kutub as-sitta .
Other religious communities and receptions
Angel teaching in anthroposophy
The anthroposophy builds on the traditional basis of the Christian Middle Ages hierarchy administration at the angel. The Theosophy is the Creator God YHWH in the second hierarchy and are so-called fourth triad of the order human, animal, plant, stone. According to Rudolf Steiner, people should one day become the fourth hierarchy .
The Angel Moroni and the Book of Mormon
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (" Mormons ") understands "angel" to be a messenger from God. This can be the spirit of a person who has not yet been born or who has already died but has not yet risen, a resurrected person, but less often also a person during his mortal life. The angel Moroni is believed to have appeared to the Mormon founder Joseph Smith. The Church of Christ with the Elijah message goes back to the Book of Mormon . Furthermore, the risen John the Baptist appeared as an angel between 1927 and 1994 to two church members and brought "The Word of the Lord".
"Fallen Angels" of Lucifer
In an understanding of hell based on the biblical understanding of angels, Lucifer , the prince of hell, is a fallen angel who no longer wanted to submit to divine rule. He is said to have taken a contingent of "fallen angels" with him and ruled them as the devil or Satan . This concept also exists in Islam in a similar form with Iblis and the Satans . The reason for the fall of Iblis still differs from the Christian idea: Iblis did not try to take over God's rule, nor did he have an army of rebelling angels. There are other fallen angels in Islam; but these fell independently of Iblis. According to the Koran exegetes, the Satans are not angels who followed Iblis, but his children, whom he received after his fall.
Pictorial representations of angels
Representations of angels have a long tradition and were found mainly in Christian iconography . Angels were also depicted in old illustrations from Islamic cultures.
An early report on the depiction of angels can be found in the Old Testament ( 2 Chr 3,10-13 EU ; date of writing approx. 5th century BC). Two angel sculptures ( cherubim ) adorned the temple of Solomon . Size and construction are described in detail, the angels are shown with wings. The depiction of heavenly beings with implied or actual wings can already be found in images of ancient Egyptian, usually female, deities. In this way z. B. Isis and Nephthys shown. The wings are usually not attached separately to the back, but rather in the form of rows of feathers on the arms.
Early Christian art depicts angels as youths and still without wings. In the pictures from the 3rd century in the Priscilla catacombs of Rome, the “messenger of God” can only be recognized from the context of the figures. This avoids any resemblance to the winged geniuses of antiquity. Even if angels are mentioned as winged beings by Christian writers of this epoch like Tertullian , art does not begin to depict them with wings until more than a hundred years later. Most of the time the angels are dressed in a white tunic .
Even in Gothic art, angels are represented as youths in Western art. Under the influence of Byzantine depiction, they are dressed more splendidly or wear the habit of a monk . They are given more powerful wings, a halo indicates their light form. In the depictions of the Apocalypse , angels can be found as helpers at the Last Judgment, especially in the late Gothic period, as well as depictions of the archangels as combative patrons in contemporary armor.
In the diverse scenes of the Renaissance with the Annunciation to Mary, the Mother of Jesus or Christmas scenes , the Archangel Gabriel or groups of praising angels are shown. The angels painted in the style of the era are z. B. known from the pictures of Giotto and Raffaelo .
Even in the baroque era , angels continued to be represented in their majesty, but child angels ( putti ) based on Hellenistic and Byzantine models were also very popular. At least since Caravaggio, depictions of angels have been mixed with the way in which the god of love Eros / Cupid was depicted in antiquity .
Due to the influence of the Age of Enlightenment , the representation of angels in art receded. From the second half of the 19th century, female angels were often represented in the fine arts instead of the traditional depiction of a youth. Examples of angels in modern art of the 20th century can be found in Paul Klee or Ernst Fuchs .
Angel representation from a stone cross from the 10th century ( Clonmacnoise , Ireland)
Tetramorph with the attributes of a human, a bull, an eagle and a lion (16th century)
Angels on a ceiling painting in the collegiate church of St. Giles in Neustadt an der Weinstrasse (around 1420)
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- Johannes Heinrich Oswald : Angelology. This is the teaching of the good and bad angels in the sense of the Catholic Church. With an appendix "Christian Faith and Demon Doctrine" by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Kulmbach 2015, ISBN 978-3-943506-32-7 .
- Alois Winklhofer: The world of angels . Buch-Kunstverlag, Ettal 1958.
- Uwe Wolff (ed.): The big book of angels. 3. Edition. Herder, Freiburg / B. 2002, ISBN 3-451-27988-6 .
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- Ludwig Richard Conradi : The service of the good angels and the re-enactments of the fallen, along with biblical pointers with reference to their origin and their fate. International Traktatgesellschaft, Hamburg, Basel a. a. (2nd, revised and enlarged edition) 1898, further editions: 1913 and (300th thousand) 1915, pp. 26–32 ( meaning of the expression "angels" , the angels are real heavenly beings ).
- Simone Michel : The magical gems. About pictures and magic formulas on cut stones from antiquity and modern times. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-05-003849-7 , p. 37 (plus habilitation thesis, University of Gießen 1997).
- Christopher J. Steppich: afflatur Numine. The poet's inspiration in Renaissance thought. Wiesbaden 2002, p. 199.
See e.g. B. Hermann Röttger: Mal'ak jhwh, messenger from God. The concept of God's messengers in the Hebrew Old Testament . Peter Lang Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1978, ISBN 3-261-02633-2 (also dissertation, University of Regensburg 1977).
Johann Michl: Engel (Jewish). In: RAC , Volume 5 . Hiersemann Verlag, Stuttgart 1962, pp. 60-97.
- Joseph Hertz : Commentary on the Pentateuch, here on Gen 19.17 EU . Morascha Verlag Zurich, 1984. Volume I, p. 164.
- On the subject in more detail: Alexander Altmann et al.: Art. Angels and Angelology. In: Encyclopaedia Judaica , Volume 2. 2nd Edition, pp. 150-162.
- Anthony Kenny : Thomas Aquinas. P. 77, Herder / Spektrum, 1980, from the English by Berardin Schellenberger
- Ludwig Richard Conradi : The service of the good angels and the re-enactments of the fallen, along with biblical pointers with reference to their origin and their fate. International Traktatgesellschaft, Hamburg, Basel a. a. (2nd edition, published in revised and enlarged form) 1898, further editions: 1913 and (300th thousand) 1915, p. 40 f. ( Honor the angels, but not worship ).
- cf. About the angels , St. Michael community in Cottbus
- Ludwig Richard Conradi: The service of the good angels and the re-enactments of the fallen, along with biblical pointers with reference to their origin and their fate. International Traktatgesellschaft, Hamburg, Basel a. a. (2nd edition published in a revised and enlarged form) 1898, further editions: 1913 and (300th thousand) 1915, p. 32 f. ( Number of angels ).
- see among others: 1 Sam 4,4 EU , Jes 6,2 EU , Eph 1,21 EU , Kol 1,16 EU
- Dionysius Areopagita: De caelesti hierarchia, chap. 6. English translation.
- Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologiae, Prima Pars, Quaestio 108 German translation.
- Wilfried Härle: Dogmatics. 3rd, revised edition. de Gruyter, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-11-019314-5 , p. 299.
- Claus Westermann: God's angels do not need wings. 5th edition. Kreuz-Verlag, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-7831-0535-8 , p. 7 (reprint of the Munich 1965 edition).
- Dietmar Pieper: "The sky is empty" . In: Der Spiegel . No. 17 , 2015, p. 40-48 ( online - April 20, 2019 ).
- The Arabic name for the substance from which the angels were created is either Nur or Nar . The usual, but not necessarily appropriate, translation of Nar is fire . The term Nur was associated with the cool light of the moon and Nar as the scorching light of the sun (fire), which is why the angels of mercy were created from Nur and the angels of punishment from Nar . Gisela Webb: Angel. In: Jane Dammen McAuliffe (Ed.): Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Volume 5, Brill, Leiden / Boston 2001, pp. 117-121, and Volume 3, p. 45
- William Montgomery Watt , Alford T. Welch: Islam I. Mohammed and the early days, Islamic law, religious life. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1980, p. 224.
- The Koran, ed., Trans. u. come over. v. Adel Theodor Khoury , Gütersloh 2004, p. 611, sura 43: 16-20 (the argumentation of the muschrikun there also occurs in sura 6: 148), see also p. 174, sura 4: 117 and the like. Pp. 660-661, Sura 53: 19-28.
- The Koran, ed., Trans. u. come over. v. Khoury, pp. 568-569, Sura 37: 149-157.
- A. Th. Khoury: Engel. In: A. Th. Khoury, Ludwig Hagemann, Peter Heine: Islam-Lexikon. Herder, Freiburg i.Br. 1991. Volume I, pp. 203-206. Here p. 203 f.
- Syrinx von Hees: Encyclopedia as a mirror of the world view: Qazwīnīs miracle of creation: a natural history of the 13th century . ((Discourses of Arabic Studies, Volume 4) Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2002, p. 283, ISBN 978-3-447-04511-7
- Karl Wulff Islam and the natural sciences: The conflict between religious truth and rational science Diplomica Verlag 2014 ISBN 978-3-842-89615-4 p. 84
- Chipman, Leigh N.B: "Adam and the Angels: An Examination of Mythic Elements in Islamic Sources". Ed .: Arabica. 49. 2002, p. 429-455 .
- Amira El-Zein Islam, Arabs, and Intelligent World of the Jinn Syracuse University Press 2009 ISBN | 9780815650706 p. 45
- Mufīd Ibn-al-Muʿallim : Taṣḥīḥ al-Iʿtiqād. Ed. Muḥammad Riā al-Ǧaʿfarī. Tehran 1388hš (= 2009/2010 AD ), p. 157.
- Between reason and revelation: twin wisdoms reconciled; an annotated English translation of Nāṣir-i Khusraw's Kitāb-i Jāmiʿ al-Ḥikmatayn. Transl. from the Persian by Eric Ormsby. Tauris, London 2012, pp. 129-132.
- Ayman Shihadeh: Sufism and Theology . Ed .: Edinburgh University Press. 11/21/2007, ISBN 978-0-7486-3134-6 , pp. 54-56 .
- Stephen Burge: Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi Akhbar al-malik . Routledge, 2015, ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 , pp. 13-14 .
- Rudolf Steiner: Lectures to members of the Anthroposophical Society. Thirteenth Lecture, Berlin October 8, 1905 (Rudolf Steiner Complete Edition 93a).
- addition, Jes 14 EU , Hes 28 EU , Lk 10 EU , Rev 12 EU .
- Ernst Osterkamp : Lucifer. Stations of a subject. (= Comparative Studies. Volume 9). de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1979, ISBN 3-11-007804-X .
- Leo Jung: Fallen angels in Jewish, Christian and Mohammadan literature. In: The Jewish Quarterly Review / NS Volume 15 (1924/25), pp. 267-502 and Volume 17 (1925/26), pp. 287-336.
- Amira El Zein: The Evolution of the Concept of Jinn from Pre-Islam to Islam . S. 227-233 .
- Isis . In: Benjamin Hederich : Thorough mythological lexicon. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1986, ISBN 3-534-03489-9 , Sp. 1373-1387 (reprint of the Leipzig edition 1770).
- Peter W. Hartmann: Engel. In: Ders .: Das Kunstlexikon . Self-published, Sensheim 1997, ISBN 3-9500612-0-7 .
- Tertullian (author), Carl Becker (ed.): Apologeticum = Defense of Christianity. 4th edition. Kösel-Verlag, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-466-20106-3 , chap. 22nd
- Heinrich and Margarethe Schmidt: The forgotten pictorial language of Christian art. A guide to understanding animal, angel, and Mary symbolism . CH Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-54768-3 .
- z. B. Henriette Mendelsohn : The angels in the fine arts. A contribution to the art history of the Gothic and Renaissance periods . Behr Verlag, Berlin 1907.
- Angels and saints - On the trail of the spiritual beings in art. A film by Michael Trabitzsch ( Memento from December 22, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) accessed on December 15, 2015