Real Lexicon for Antiquity and Christianity
The Reallexikon for Antiquity and Christianity ( RAC ) is a encyclopedia that deals with the interaction between early Christianity and paganism and Judaism of antiquity apart sets. It is intended as a “non-fictional dictionary for dealing with Christianity and the ancient world” (subtitle). It is published by Anton Hiersemann Verlag , Stuttgart.
The RAC was founded in 1935 on the initiative of Theodor Klauser , Helmut Kruse and the Dutch Latinist Jan Hendrik Waszink , who were able to get their teacher Franz Joseph Dölger and Hans Lietzmann to collaborate. Their approach was based on the (preliminary) work of Dölger, who had been dealing with the subject of "Antiquity and Christianity" since his doctorate in 1904. Methodologically, it was about an interdisciplinary bundling of the special competencies of the traditional subjects Ancient History , Church History , Classical Archeology , Christian Archeology , Classical Philology and Patristic / Patrology . In 1939 Klauser presented her plan at the Congress for Classical Archeology in Berlin . The majority of the feedback was positive and many important scholars agreed to cooperate. The first delivery finally appeared in 1941. With the exception of the last delivery, Volume 1 could be completed by the end of the Second World War despite all the obstacles . The new beginning after the end of the war turned out to be difficult: Dölger and Lietzmann had died, Kruse gave up his academic career for professional reasons, Waszink, whose family had suffered greatly from the Germans during the war, supported the continuation of the RAC as a German-speaking company cautious about it, Klauser had to take on a variety of tasks in the reconstruction of the science industry in Germany. In addition, many of the manuscripts that Klauser had kept in his apartment in Bonn were destroyed along with the apartment in a bomb attack. The completed first volume of the RAC does not have a publication date until 1950.
When Klauser realized that he could not carry out this project on his own and finish it successfully, he initiated an institution that was to bring it to an end - the Franz Joseph Dölger Institute . The sponsor of the institute, which was located at the University of Bonn and is now part of it, was initially an association. In addition, an expanded editorial board was installed, which included Klauser and the co-founder Waszink, the church historian Bernhard Kötting (another Dölger student), the religious scholar Carsten Colpe and the Graecist Albrecht Dihle . The first volume appeared again in 1950.
When it became clear that the private association could not secure the sponsorship of such a company in the long term, it was converted into a pure sponsorship association and the scientific work was transferred to the remit of today's North Rhine-Westphalian Academy of Sciences and the Arts . On their behalf, the RAC is being processed today in the Franz Joseph Dölger Institute. This is also the "Institute for Research into Late Antiquity " at the University of Bonn.
Founder and Editor
- Franz Joseph Dölger (1878–1940)
- Theodor Klauser (1894–1984)
- Helmut Kruse (1908–1999)
- Hans Lietzmann (1875–1942)
- Jan Hendrik Waszink (1908–1990)
- Georg Schöllgen , editor-in-chief since 2001
- Sible de Blaauw , since 2007
- Heinzgerd Brakmann , since 1995
- Therese Fuhrer , since 2004
- Hartmut Leppin , since 2011
- Winrich Löhr , since 2004
- Heinz-Günther Nesselrath , since 2015
- Carsten Colpe , 1964-2001
- Ernst Dassmann , 1972–2001, 1984–2001 editor-in-chief
- Albrecht Dihle , 1964-2004
- Josef Engemann , 1984-2006
- Karl Hoheisel , 1995-2011
- Theodor Klauser , co-founder and main editor, until 1984
- Bernhard Kötting , 1964–1990
- Hans Lietzmann , co-founder, until 1942
- Wolfgang Speyer , 1972–2013
- Klaus Thraede , 1984-2010
- Jan Hendrik Waszink , co-founder and co-editor 1964–1984
- Leopold Wenger , before 1950–1953
In general, there is a section on antiquity and a section on Christianity for each keyword. Contrary to what one might suspect, the parts of the article that deal with antiquity are independent research on antiquity and not from a Christian point of view.
The lexicon focuses on research into late antiquity and the beginning of the early Middle Ages, as well as the early Byzantine period. The Roman imperial period that preceded late antiquity is also dealt with, if it is thematically necessary. The main question is how the multi-layered, by no means uniform, ancient culture that emerged from the Hellenistic period in the Mediterranean world developed into the late ancient Christian culture of the following centuries. The importance of this question should result from the fact that this late antique Christian culture is a preliminary stage of the medieval and thus partly of today's culture.
Supplements were initially preprinted in the Yearbook for Antiquity and Christianity . Since 1985 there have been supplementary articles in supplementary volumes (RAC Suppl.).
In 2013 the RAC reached the letter N ; Volume 25 ( Mosaic - Nymphaeum ). An average of four deliveries appear annually, so one volume every two years. The articles, which often reach the length of a technical essay, are usually written by leading experts, which is why the lexicon enjoys great authority in the professional world. The RAC can be cited without restrictions .
|part 1||1950||Theodor Klauser||A and O - building||1–8|
|Volume 2||1954||Farmer - Christ||Delivered 9-16|
|Volume 3||1957||Image of Christ - Dogma I.||Delivered 17-24|
|Volume 4||1959||Dogma II - gallery||Run 25-32|
|Volume 5||1962||Endelechius - inventor||Run 33-40|
|Volume 6||1966||Fulfillment - Exitus illustrium virorum||Delivered 41-48|
|Volume 7||1969||Excommunication - curse formulas||49-56|
|Volume 8||1972||Escape Table (Defixion) - Prayer I.||57-64|
|Volume 9||1976||Prayer II - Generatianism||Run 65-72|
|Volume 10||1978||Genesis - giant||Delivered 73-80|
|Volume 11||1981||Garland - God's names||Run 81-88|
|Volume 12||1983||Divine show (Visio beatifica) - belt||Run 89-96|
Theodor Klauser /
|Community of goods - healing gods||97-104|
|Volume 14||1988||Ernst Dassmann||Holy - witch||Delivered 105-112|
|Volume 15||1991||Hibernia - hope||Delivered 113-120|
|Volume 16||1994||Court ceremony - Ianus||Delivered 121-128|
|Volume 17||1996||Iao - Indicatio feriarum||Run 129-136|
|Volume 18||1998||India - Italia II||137-145|
|Volume 19||2001||Itinerarium - cannibalism||Ran. 146-153|
|Volume 20||2004||Georg Schöllgen||Canon I - clothing I.||Delivered 154-161|
|Volume 21||2006||Clothing II - Sign of the Cross||Ran. 162-169|
|Volume 22||2008||War - Lexicon I.||Ran. 170-177|
|Volume 23||2010||Lexicon II - Manes||Run 178-185|
|Volume 24||2012||Manethon - Montanism||Ran. 186-193|
|Volume 25||2013||Mosaic - Nymphaeum||Run 194-201|
|Volume 26||2015||Nymphs - Pegasus||Run 202-209|
|Volume 27||2016||Pelagius - portrait||Delivered 210-217|
|Volume 28||2018||Poseidon - repentance||Delivered 218-225|
|Volume 29||since 2018||Rhetoric - ...||Delivery 226 -...|
|Supplement volume 1||2001||
Theodor Klauser /
|Aaron - biography II||1–8|
- Theodor Klauser : The Real Lexicon for Antiquity and Christianity and the FJ Dölger Institute in Bonn. Reports, considerations, guidelines . 2nd ext. Ed., Anton Hiersemann Verlag , Stuttgart 1970, ISBN 3-7772-7014-8 .
- Ernst Dassmann (Ed.): The Real Lexicon for Antiquity and Christianity and the FJ Dölger Institute in Bonn. With indexes for the keywords A to Ianus and the authors, volumes 1–16 . Anton Hiersemann Verlag, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-7772-9427-6 .
- Ernst Dassmann: Origin and development of the “Real Lexicon for Antiquity and Christianity” and the Franz Joseph Dölger Institute in Bonn . In: Yearbook for Antiquity and Christianity . No. 40, Aschendorff Verlag , Münster 1997, pp. 5-17.
- N. Borengässer: Correspondence between Theodor Klauser and Jan Hendrik Waszink 1946–1951. A historical contribution to the continuation of the RAC after World War II . In: Yearbook for Antiquity and Christianity . No. 40, Aschendorff Verlag , Münster 1997, pp. 18-37.
- N. Borengässer: Helmut Kruse - a denied research life. In: Roman quarterly for Christian antiquity and church history. No. 108, Herder , Rome / Freiburg / Vienna 2013, pp. 145–149.