Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

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Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Logo of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Basic data
Abbreviated name : LDS Church
President : Russell M. Nelson
President of the Twelve Apostles : M. Russell Ballard
Presiding Bishopric : Gérald Caussé
Relief Society : Jean B. Bingham
Worldwide distribution (click on map to enlarge)
176 countries,
  • Countries with LDS temples
  • With churches and missionaries
  • Without LDS presence
  • Church Education : Brigham Young University
    Church funding : Tithing , fast donation
    Founding: April 6, 1830 as the Church of Christ
    Founder: Joseph Smith , Brigham Young
    Origin: Christianity
    ↳ Mormonism
    ↳ LDS Church
    Temple in DA-CH : Freiberg , Frankfurt , Bern
    Documents on marriage : 1 manifesto , 2 manifesto , family
    Situation of colored people : Priesthood Revelation ,
    Genesis Group
    Symbols : Christ ,
    Moroni (Prophet) ,
    Mormon Pioneers
    Members in DA-CH : 40,037, 4,664, 9,002 (2018)
    Missionaries worldwide : 67,049 (December 31, 2017)
    Members worldwide: 16,118,169 (December 31, 2017)
    Headquarters in Salt Lake City
    Address: Church Office Building
    50 East North Temple
    Salt Lake City, Utah 84150
    Website: Church of Jesus

    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, LDS) is a Christian denomination. Together with smaller splinter groups, it is combined to form the Mormon denominational group . In the United States , it is 1.7% of the population - level with Judaism - the third largest religious community after Protestants and Catholics; in the US state of Utah , it makes up the majority of the population, according to a 2007 survey.

    The denomination was formally organized by Joseph Smith Jr. on April 6, 1830 in Fayette , New York, United States . Today it is headquartered in Salt Lake City , Utah, USA. As of December 31, 2017, the membership was 16,118,169 worldwide.

    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints sees itself as a restoration of the early Christian Church, initiated by Jesus Christ , which was originally founded by him. Since the church appeals to other sources of its faith besides the Bible, its teaching is viewed by the Roman Catholic Church and most Protestant churches as a syncretistic new religion. According to the report of an independent expert commission of the German Bundestag, it is referred to as the “ New Religious Movement ”. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has no ecumenical relationships with other churches and denies them spiritual authority to speak in God's name and, in particular, to administer the sacraments . But she recognizes Christians as such and advocates interdenominational tolerance.



    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that the Church arose from direct divine revelation to Joseph Smith and has since been directed by continuous revelation from Jesus Christ. This happens through prophets, apostles and other church leaders, as there were also in the early Christian church (see Eph 2,19–20  EU ; 4,11–13 EU ). In addition, it is explained that every person has the right and the opportunity to receive direct divine revelations for their personal sphere, their families and their church tasks, for example at the congregation level. The continuation of the revelation also implies that the scriptures are not closed. Just as God spoke to the prophets of the Old Testament and the New Testament at that time, it is also possible for him today to speak to people in the same way.

    The President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is considered a prophet, seer, and revelator and is recognized and sustained as such by the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and by all membership. It is believed that only such revelations as testified by the President and Quorum of the Twelve Apostles as of God have significance to all membership and to the whole world; they are canonically included as scriptures in the Doctrine and Covenants . The overwhelming majority of the passages in this scripture were written by the founder, Joseph Smith. Next to it are sections by John Taylor (on the martyrdom of Joseph Smith), Brigham Young (on the departure of the Church to the West) and Josef F. Smith (on the ministry of Christ in the spirit world). The Doctrine and Covenants also includes two official declarations on the abolition of polygamy and the admission of the priesthood for people of color.

    Scripture canon

    The Church recognizes the Book of Mormon , Doctrine and Covenants and the Pearl of Great Price as canonical scriptures in addition to the Bible with the Old and New Testaments . This canon of scriptures is not concluded (by God's Word authority), since the church claims to continue to receive revelation.

    While the Bible is not considered perfect, as is the case in many Protestant denominations, it is highly valued as the real word of God. The reservation that statements have been lost and falsified through numerous transmissions, translations and adaptations only applies to a very limited extent. The Bible stands on an equal footing with the Book of Mormon, and Latter-day Saints believe that the two volumes of scripture are complementary and illuminating. There is also the so-called Joseph Smith Translation, a supplementary and new interpretation of the King James Bible which Joseph Smith claims to have received from God through revelation. Joseph Smith's translation was incomplete because the author died before it was completed. Therefore it does not claim to be complete. The standard version for use in English is the non-denominational King James Version of the Bible.

    The Church has published a separate, textually unchanged edition of the King James Bible, which includes the Joseph Smith translations as footnotes or as an appendix , and which also contains a scripture guide with cross-references to the other canonical scriptures of the Church. The footnotes and the Guide to the Scriptures are comparable to the Bible commentaries and concordances of other Bible institutions.

    German-speaking members today use the standard translation of the Bible in official use . Therefore, essential parts of the Joseph Smith translation can be found in the Guide to the Scriptures , which in the course of the German-language new edition 2003 both in the triple combination (The Book of Mormon, Doctrine and Covenants and The Pearl of Great Price in one volume) and in the single volume Das Buch Mormon - Another witness for Jesus Christ was added.

    Plan of salvation

    In the plan of salvation , the church sees the purpose of the earth in providing people, who are all pre-earthly created spirit children of God ( Heb. 12: 9  EU ), with a place of further learning in the physicality. This is also associated with a temporary forgetting of a premortal existence as a spiritual being ( 1 Cor 13.12  EU , 2 Cor 5.7  EU ). Developing strong faith is an essential meaning of earthly life ( Heb 11: 6  EU ). Humans also take part in this divine plan by enabling other spirit beings to live on earth through the fathering of children.

    Everyone can always decide whether he wants to do good or bad. Everyone except Jesus Christ fails to exactly fulfill all of God's commandments at all times ( Rom. 3:23  EU ). With this he is defiled and unable to return to the presence of God on his own.

    Through his Atonement, Jesus Christ gave all people the opportunity to repent of their sins and to be saved by grace after all that they can do for themselves. For this, baptism by an authorized person is essential, see, for example, Joh 3,5  EU . This baptism can be performed at the earliest after completion of the eighth year of life, on the grounds that this is the revealed age of responsibility. Young children would not be held accountable for Adam's transgression and were therefore free of sin, which made baptism for the forgiveness of sins ( Acts 2.38  EU ; 22.16 EU ) superfluous. Against this background, the church sharply criticizes what it sees as the futile infant baptism of the large Christian churches.

    The Mormon plan of salvation is based on the concept of work righteousness . Man is not saved by God's grace alone, but must contribute to it with his deeds. The third of the thirteen Mormon Articles of Faith says: "We believe that through the Atonement of Christ all people can be saved by obeying the laws and ordinances of the gospel."

    After death, people temporarily lost their bodies, but continue to live as spirit beings in the spirit world and can continue to learn. For those who have not received the valid baptism by a priest or member of higher office of the church in earth life, this act can be received by a living person on behalf of the dead through baptism ( 1 Cor 15:29  EU ).

    At the end of the development of the stand resurrection with the subsequent Last Judgment in which Jesus Christ each will allocate it deserves glory These are according to the teachings of the Church, the Celestial Empire with the greatest glory (presence of God the Father), the Terrestrial Kingdom ( Presence of Jesus Christ) as the middle and the Telestial Kingdom (presence of the Holy Spirit) as the lowest ( 1 Cor 15,40–42  EU , 2 Cor 12,2  EU ). Only he who consciously denies the Holy Spirit , although he has already felt it strongly enough, will be thrust into utter darkness and become a son of perdition . For more information see under Realms of Glory .

    According to this teaching, human agency plays an essential role in the divine plan. Therefore, the fall of Adam and Eve, which took place in the Garden of Eden, is not viewed as an accidental "sin" case, but as a voluntary decision to set in motion the plan of salvation, as mortality, with all its educational labors and temptations sin first came into the world through the knowledge of good and bad. Also, with the fall of Adam and Eve, the conception of children only got underway, since they previously knew “no shame” ( Gen 2.25  EU ).

    The connection between the fall of Adam and Eve and the Atonement of Jesus Christ and the role each person plays in it is a central teaching that is frequently referred to in sermons, seminars, and teaching. This also plays a central role in the temple .

    Power of attorney

    The Church of Jesus Christ declares that only someone who has received authority from Jesus Christ is allowed to speak and perform ordinances in his name, which is justified, among other things, with Heb 5,4  EU : “Nobody takes this dignity from himself, but he is called by God like Aaron ”. The first authorized representative was Adam. Since then the authority has been passed on to Moses. Later, Jesus Christ transferred authority to the apostles Peter, James, John and others ( Mt 10.1–4  EU ). After the apostles' death it was lost again through apostasy ( Mt 24,9  EU , 2 Thess 2,3  EU ). The authority was restored ( Acts 3.20  EU ) by first John the Baptist and later the apostles Peter, James and John Joseph Smith appearing as risen beings and conferring them on him by the laying on of hands as complete key authority . Starting from Joseph Smith, partial powers (depending on the calling area) were passed on to the worthy members in an unbroken line. The living President of the Church and the living Quorum of the Twelve Apostles always hold full key authority ( Matt. 16 : 16-19  EU ). According to the teaching of the Church, no one outside of this circle has full authority.

    Exclusive rights

    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints claims to be the only true Church on earth because it is the Church founded by Jesus Christ mentioned in the Bible and therefore the only one that holds priesthood authority pause. Accordingly, all other religions and churches are only partially true. Early representatives of the Mormon Church in particular made very derogatory comments about Christian churches in their day, which is evident from documents in various collections of texts.

    • Brigham Young , second President of the Church, said of other Christian communities: "When it comes to God, they are the greatest fools" and "A people more ignorant than today's so-called Christianity have never lived before."
    • John Taylor , third President of the Church, said they are "as corrupt as hell".

    According to the Church, the great apostasy began shortly after Jesus' ascension to heaven and ended with the First Vision of Joseph Smith in 1820. For Mormons, the great apostasy can be seen in the following circumstances:

    • the apostles ' difficulties in preventing early Christians from distorting Jesus' teachings and preventing their followers from splitting into different ideological groups;
    • the persecution and martyrdom of the apostles of the Church;
    • the loss of church leaders who hold the priesthood to govern the Church and to administer the sacraments;
    • a lack of revelation to direct church leaders and the Church; and
    • the corruption of Christian teaching by Greek or other supposedly pagan philosophies such as Neoplatonism .

    Therefore, Mormons refer to the "restoration of everything" mentioned in Acts 3:21  EU and claim that a restoration of all the original and important teachings of Christianity was necessary.

    The Catholic Church believes that this great apostasy never took place. Individual Protestant churches see an apostasy in the Catholic Church, but not with them.

    Regardless of its claim to exclusivity, the church has always advocated interdenominational and interreligious tolerance and understanding and a. known for supporting other religious communities through donations. Examples include the Synagogue and Russian Orthodox Cathedral of Salt Lake City and the Hindu Temple of Spanish Fork, which were built with the help of church donations. In 2003, then President of the Church, Gordon B. Hinckley , received the Medal of Freedom , one of the highest honors of the American government, from US President George W. Bush for his efforts to promote tolerance .

    The name of the church

    When it was founded on April 6, 1830, the church was still called "The Church of Christ". However, this name was changed to "The Church of Latter-day Saints" on May 3, 1834 by the unanimous resolution of the church leadership. In Doctrine and Covenants , section 115 verse 4, Joseph Smith wrote on April 26, 1838 as the revelation from God: "For thus shall my church be called in the last days, even The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ." Because of a last change was made on April 26, 1838: the name Jesus Christ was reinserted.

    The name is intended to make it clear that the focus in the church is Jesus Christ and that it is the restored "Church of Jesus Christ" from the New Testament. The addition “of the last days” distinguishes the church from the original “Church of Jesus Christ” in the New Testament period. Joseph Smith saw his mission usher in the end times ; However, he did not believe that the end of the world would be imminent .

    Understanding of god and gods

    Smith's First Vision on stained 1913 stained glass window on display in the Museum of Church History in Salt Lake City, Utah

    In the Church, the title God generally refers to God the Father. He is called the father because he is the father of the spirit of every human being ( Heb 12,9  EU ). God the Father is the supreme ruler of the universe. Church founder Joseph Smith taught that under God the Father there are an indefinite number of gods and divine personalities, which is justified, among other things, with Ps 82,6  EU : "I have said: You are gods, you are all sons of the Most High". At the same time it is possible for every human being as a child of God through the grace of Christ to one day become a god or a goddess himself - which means that one attains all essential qualities that God possesses; Smith referred to 2 Cor 3:18  EU and Acts 17,29  EU . According to this doctrine, God the Father is in principle an exalted person with a body made of flesh and bones ( Gen 1,26–27  EU ).

    According to the teaching of the Church, Jesus Christ is the firstborn of the spirit children of the Heavenly Father ( Ps 89.27  EU ) and a heavenly mother and thus our brother in the Spirit. However, he is the only begotten in the flesh. Christ had the most important role as Savior in the plan of salvation. He works under the direction of the Father and is in complete harmony with him. He is Jehovah ( Yahweh ), God of the Old Testament, and created the earth together with other premortal spirit beings (i.e. spirit children) and gods, including Adam , who is also the Archangel Michael ( Col. 1,13-16  EU ).

    The Holy Spirit is an independent, physically disembodied deity. Let him be of one mind with God the Father and one in purpose. It is the task of the Holy Spirit as revelator, affirmer of truth, comforter and warner to exercise his influence on people individually. If the Holy Spirit also had a physical body, the Holy Spirit could not dwell in man. As a spirit without a body, he could dwell in people's hearts and at the same time confirm truth in many people.

    Lucifer ( Satan ), the son of the morning, is also a spirit child of the father ( Job 1.6  EU ; 2.1 EU ). But because of his rebellion and his desire to rise above God the Father, he was expelled from the presence of the Heavenly Father ( Isa 14 : 12–15  EU ). He is the wicked spirit brother who has no body made of flesh and bones, who wants to destroy the work of salvation and wants bad things for people, the opposite pole of his spirit brother Jesus Christ, who wants good for people.

    The Articles of Faith

    The editor of the Chicago Democrat, John Wentworth, asked Joseph Smith for a summary of the "Mormon" faith. The result was 13 points, which were later canonized under the name "Articles of Faith" and added to the book The Pearl of Great Price . They give the doctrine well but not completely:

    Origin and history

    The Eastern United States, with the major LDS movements from 1830 to 1839

    The church was built in the rural north of New York State in the early 19th century, when this area was still uncharted territory. The population living there was essentially Protestant and believed in the Bible, but often did not belong to any church. Superstitious beliefs were also widespread. Sometimes different family members confessed to different denominations.

    Foundation (1820–1830)

    Portrait of Joseph Smith

    The eventual founder, Joseph Smith Jr. , declared that in 1820, after praying about which church was the true one, he had a vision. In this so-called First Vision two people, God the Father and Jesus Christ , appeared to him. They told him that all the churches that existed at that time were in error and that he should not join any. (There are several reports, each of which does not mention one or the other element of the event)

    In the years from 1823 to 1827 he had other apparitions, this time from an angel named Moroni , who had given him the task of translating the Book of Mormon from gold plates that had been stored in a nearby hill for centuries, as contributed by Smith "Seer stones" Urim and Thummim kept on the plates to help. After that, Moroni took the plates into safekeeping. The book was first published in 1830, shortly before the Church was organized.

    In 1829 the risen John the Baptist appeared to Joseph Smith and his associate, Oliver Cowdery , and gave them the Aaronic priesthood with authority to baptize. A few weeks later the apostles of Christ Peter , James, and John appeared and conferred the Melchizedek priesthood on them, clearing the way for the "restoration" of the Church of Jesus Christ. The formal establishment took place on April 6, 1830 with Joseph Smith as "first elder" and President and Oliver Cowdery as "second elder", Hyrum and Samuel Smith (brothers of Joseph) and Peter Whitmer Jr. and David Whitmer as registered members.

    The church quickly found loyal followers and bitter opponents. As early as 1830, Joseph Smith sent his brother Samuel to be the first missionary. Relatively many people from the surrounding area joined the new church. Opponents of the church resorted to means such as boycotts and reports, but also sometimes to assault. The first newspaper articles and leaflets, which were also directed against Joseph Smith's personality, date from this period. Newspaper articles and criticism directed against the leaders and founders of the church have been and are often classified in the church as an indirect work of Satan against the restored gospel.

    Kirtland and Missouri (1830-1840)

    Because of these uncomfortable circumstances, Joseph Smith moved Church headquarters to Kirtland, Ohio, in 1831. This meant the move of most of the members, losing their farms and businesses that they rebuilt in the still sparsely populated Ohio.

    It is here that the Church built its first temple, the Kirtland Temple , in which Joseph Smith claims to have received further authority to act in the name of God , as he explains in Doctrine and Covenants section 110. In 1834 the " Quorum of the Twelve Apostles " was established as a governing body under Joseph Smith as a prophet. It was here in 1833 that Joseph Smith developed his concept of the city ​​of Zion . In the early days of the Church, people should not only confess to the doctrines of the faith, but should also settle together in the places designated for this by the prophet. The common settlement of those "who are pure in heart" was considered Zion, a theocratic polity. In order to revive the spirit of the community of goods of the early Jerusalem community , the principle of the united order was preached and an attempt was made to live within the church .

    With the collapse of the Kirtland Safety Society Anti-Banking Company, a private credit institution founded by Joseph Smith, in 1837, many Church members, including leaders, lost large amounts of money. This caused a greater number to not only question Joseph Smith's divine mandate , but to oppose it as a lie.

    As early as 1831, Joseph had orientated himself to Missouri - at that time the border of the USA in the west - and founded church units there. He wanted to move the church there centrally in the long term and in the city of Independence had already marked out a place for a future main temple in the city of Independence before the temple was built in Kirtland, which, however, has not yet been built. After bloody persecution in 1833, the local "saints", as they called themselves, fled to the northern districts of Missouri around the city of Far West. After the collapse of Kirtland, Smith had to leave Ohio with his followers and followed the "Saints" to Missouri. Joseph Smith was arrested there in 1838 and placed under arrest along with several co-workers.

    1838 issued Governor Lilburn Boggs , the Missouri Executive Order 44 : "Mormons must be expelled from the country or destroyed."

    Another temple site was inaugurated in Far West in 1839. However, there was no more construction. Plans to build cities of Zion got stuck because of the persecution and the ensuing departure.

    Nauvoo (1840-1845)

    The refugees were taken into Illinois and founded there as a new beginning on the banks of the Mississippi in Commerce, the city they then called Nauvoo . From there the missionary work began all over the world, especially to Europe. Again a temple was built. Nauvoo received a special status, practically as a city-state with its own militia, the Nauvoo Legion.

    On March 17, 1842, the Relief Society (Relief Society) was organized in Nauvoo as an organization for women in the Church under the direction of Emma Smith , wife of the “Prophet” Joseph Smith, Jr.

    After the destruction of the printing press of the Mormon-critical newspaper "Nauvoo Expositor" - in its only published issue, this mainly denounced the secret polygamy of the church leaders - by a marshal commissioned by Mayor Joseph Smith, popular anger against the church in the surrounding communities sparked. This culminated in the murder of Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum by a mob on June 27, 1844. A heated dispute arose over the question of succession, which led to a series of secessionists. The senior apostle, Brigham Young , took charge of the bulk of the membership. Most of the other factions united much later (from 1860) to form the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , which since 2001 has been called the Community of Christ .

    Moved to Salt Lake City

    Exodus of the Mormons between 1846 and 1869 into the great basin of the Rocky Mountains as well as part of the route of the Mormon Battalion and the route of the handcart
    Mormon settlements in North America

    Joseph Smith had already considered whether the Church should move to a deserted area to avoid further persecution. Brigham Young realized this with the (prematurely forced) exodus of almost all Mormons from Nauvoo and their relocation to the valley of the Great Salt Lake in the Rocky Mountains, where he founded today's city of Salt Lake City on July 24, 1847 . It has remained the headquarters of the church to this day.

    Consolidation in Salt Lake City (1850-1896)

    First the new territory was opened up. Soon, however, missionaries were sent out again to try to convince people of their teachings , especially in the east of the USA , Canada and Europe . This also included the “Collection in Zion”, emigration to the newly founded “State of Deseret ”. Due to the high level of immigration and the high number of children, the population grew rapidly. As a result, the previously almost uninhabited land was developed and cultivated more and more, both religiously and economically and in the legislation very much shaped by the church. Since 1852, plural marriage , which had previously been practiced in secret, was practiced openly.

    The early history of Utah and that of the "State of Deseret" were largely shaped by the Church as a whole, as its members were almost completely among themselves in the first few years. The Utah War of 1857, in the course of which the so-called Mountain Meadows Massacre , committed by Mormons, came about in this context .

    In connection with the slave question , American domestic politics fought against polygamy , which had been publicly taught and practiced since 1852, and made this practice more difficult for the Church by increasingly restrictive laws. The enforcement of these laws, which the church leadership regarded as unconstitutional, led to mass arrests of members and large-scale confiscations of church property, such as B. Land and church buildings. A number of polygamy families evaded the pressure by immigrating to Mexico or Canada. In response, in 1890 then President and Prophet Wilford Woodruff declared polygamy as no longer acceptable in the Church in the 1890 Manifesto . This was a major factor in Utah's state independence in 1896. But it was not until the presidency of Joseph F. Smith (1901–1918), the founder's nephew, that polygamy could be completely abolished within the Church with the Second Manifesto . At this time there were further splits from groups, some of which still practice polygamy today.

    Worldwide spread (since 1900)

    Worldwide growth of the LDS Church in the millions since 1830

    After legal recognition and financial consolidation, and even more so since the First World War , the Church began to position itself internationally. At this time, the notion that all members should gather in Utah was abandoned. Instead, the members were given the task of building the Church in the parts of the world where they live.

    Until 1978 men of black African descent could not get the priesthood and consequently could not take on leadership roles. They were also not allowed to visit the temple or receive temple blessings. Prompted by large inflow of converts black African origin in Brazil president issued Spencer W. Kimball , the revelation to the priesthood , saying that now all men, regardless of their racial origin, can receive the priesthood.

    The church now has 16,118,169 members (as of December 31, 2017), more than half of whom live outside the United States; important focal points are Oceania, Latin America and Africa. A sign of the stronger international presence of the church is the massive increase in the number of temples in the church since 1990 . While the church in Eastern Europe shows strong (catching up) growth, the number of members in the Western European industrialized countries is either declining or stagnating.


    According to the theology of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the entire structure of the church is built on the organization of the priesthood . Priesthood means the power and authority to act in the name of God. This principle only applies to the church in its pastoral function itself, not to supporting organizations founded by it, such as the education system of the church or areas such as administration, construction, teaching material production, translation, which require professional, full-time work.

    Members are called to offices at all church levels. In the vast majority of cases there is no paid professional clergy, nor is there any university education to become a clergyman. So-called General Authorities (who bear responsibility at the world or area level) receive some payments from company holdings of the Church.

    The church organization, which varies greatly over time and can be flexibly adapted to the circumstances of the time and place, is structured hierarchically . Nobody can apply for an office, but one is appointed to an office. Those responsible are convinced that the selection of a specific function holder is based on personal disclosure to those who are allowed to assign the task. Who has to be appointed to which and to which organizational level is precisely defined. Whoever has been selected will be asked in a confidential conversation whether they will accept the office. If this is the case, the appeal is submitted to the members concerned for approval in a public meeting. By showing their hands, they agree to the appointment and undertake to support the newly appointed person in his office. You also have the option to speak out against it by raising your hand. The top management level of the church is presented to the entire church annually and confirmed in this way. (So ​​far, an appeal due to refusal of consent has only been ineffective in exceptional cases.)

    With the exception of the offices of prophet and apostle , which last until the end of life, callings are made for a limited time. As a result, the tasks and positions of the members in the hierarchy usually change several times in life. It is not uncommon for extensive functions at the supraregional level to be followed by tasks at the local level, in the local community, at a later time.

    Even if women are not given the priesthood, they have leadership roles at all hierarchical levels and are given leadership roles in the areas of Relief Society (Relief Society), the organization of young women and the primary association (organization for children from kindergarten age up to 12 years of age) Functions Priesthood Authority. Exchanges with male priesthood leaders are planned for each area.

    The principle of revelation plays an important role in the leadership of the Church. It is taught that anyone can find answers to questions and help solving problems through personal dialogue with God. This applies to one's own life as well as to family and church responsibilities. For example, a ward leader might receive revelations on questions about church leadership, but not for the entire church. The hierarchical structure of the church manifests itself in this teaching. A central tenet of the church's beliefs, however, is that receiving revelations requires cognitive and spiritual efforts in accordance with the biblical principle "seek and you will find, ask and you will receive, knock and it will be opened to you". That is why the church leadership has emphasized several times, especially in the last few decades, that they are aware of the challenges and problems of the members and that they seek inspiration and revelation in these matters. It is controversial whether reform approaches based on lower hierarchical levels within the church are not made more difficult or slowed down by the fact that leading ministers can nevertheless plead that they have a more far-reaching right to revelation in the exercise of their function.

    World level

    Schematic representation of the general organization

    Regional level

    Schematic representation of the regional organization

    Local level

    Schematic representation of the local organization

    Church life

    An essential part of church life takes place in meetinghouses built for this purpose. They are generally accessible for all events. In addition to the church services, social events from ball games to plays and dance evenings take place there. The congregations are kept manageable and do not have more than 500 members.

    Another place for church life is the temples . These are reserved only for baptized members who are committed to living the doctrine of the Church and have been found worthy by their bishop and stake president.

    Only male members of the Church are conferred the priesthood with which they are assigned leadership roles. Women participate in council bodies and assume leadership roles in their area.

    Family life is strongly influenced by the church.

    Joining the Church

    Mormon baptism

    Entry into the church takes place through baptism. The baptisms of other churches are not recognized. This is based not only on the rejection of infant baptism , but also on the Mormon understanding of authority: other churches lack the necessary divine authority for a valid baptism. Candidates are taught the basic doctrines over a longer period of time, usually through missionaries. Prior to baptism, an interview with a senior missionary is held to ensure that essential Church doctrines have been understood.

    Critical factors for admission to baptism are

    • Minimum age of eight years
    • Understand the main lines of the teachings
    • Knowledge of the commandments to be observed
    • Repentance from past sins
    • Married persons require the consent of their spouse to be baptized
    • For persons under the age of 18, the consent of the legal representative must be available

    In the case of serious transgressions (e.g. involvement in an abortion - including a man), the mission president must establish repentance through a clarifying discussion. Baptism candidates convicted of manslaughter or murder are subject to approval from the First Presidency as to whether or not they can be baptized. Once it has been clarified whether the candidate wants to lead a life according to the principles of the Church in the future and has repented and corrected his previous transgressions as far as possible, he will be admitted to baptism.

    Baptism is performed by total immersion by an authorized priesthood holder in the presence of at least two witnesses. Through baptism the person to be baptized is freed from all previous sins, provided that he has reversed them. The canonical membership is established solely through baptism. However, according to the teachings of the church, membership in the church of the kingdom of God is also required. This only takes place through the transmission of the Holy Spirit, usually carried out a few days later, through the laying on of the hands of several Melchizedek Priesthood holders. Membership is also confirmed verbatim.

    Unbaptized children are registered as registered members up to the age of nineteen.

    Baptized members usually prefix the names of other baptized members with the word “brother” or “sister”.

    Individuals who, in the judgment of the local bishop, are not sane will not be baptized because they are incapable of repentance. They enjoy a special status as unbaptized registered members.

    Sunday service

    A chapel in Salt Lake City

    The usual church service on Sunday includes:

    • The sacrament meeting (approx. 60 min)
      This is the most important part of the divine service. Here the Lord's Supper is given in the form of bread and water, hymns are sung, and there are some sermons called talks by members, male and female, including young people. Originally the Lord's Supper was celebrated with wine, but after the introduction of the “Word of Wisdom”, wine was replaced by water. Families participate completely in it. Visitors to the service should be decently and discreetly dressed in accordance with the solemn occasion of the service. This is especially true of priesthood holders performing ordinances during worship so that the dignity of the occasion is emphasized and not distracted from the ordinance. Men should preferably wear a shirt and tie, and possibly a jacket; Women usually wear a skirt or dress.
    • Sunday school (50 min)
      There are different classes for adults, young people and interested outsiders. Subjects from the scriptures, statements from prophets and other church leaders are discussed.
    • Quorum meeting or Relief Society / Young Women (50 min)
      This is where priesthood holders meet separately by quorum: "Deacons" (11 to 14 years old), "Teachers" (13 to 16 years old), "Priests" (15 to 18 years old), "Elders" and "High Priests" (from 18 years). Likewise, women in Relief Society and girls ages 12-18 meet in young women meetings. Here the teachings are discussed and discussed specifically for the group.
    • Primary association (short Primary; during Sunday school and college meeting)
      This is the essential religious education of children up to the age of twelve outside the family, separated by age group.

    On October 6, 2018, the Church announced that weekly services would be limited to two hours.

    Division of the service (from January 2019)
    Adults Teenagers children length
    Sacrament meeting 60 min
    Transition phase 10 min
    • Young Women and Youth Priesthood (2nd and 4th Sundays)
    • Under the direction of the bishop (5th Sunday)
    Primary Association of Children 50 min


    Public and personal prayers are always addressed to “Heavenly Father” and are said in the name of Jesus Christ. When saying a communal prayer, it is customary for those present to answer “ Amen ” in the affirmative after the prayer is over . You pray in a kneeling, standing or sitting position. Members are encouraged to pray daily in person, as a family, and before meals. All prayers are freely spoken, except for the sacrament and baptismal prayers, which are verbatim. Usually, prayers include thanks and a request depending on the personal circumstances and the reason for the prayer.

    Priesthood responsibilities

    In addition to teaching the “gospel” (meaning Mormon theology), the priesthood also has the task of performing “ordinances”. These ordinances include: baptism, confirmation, the sacrament, conferring the priesthood, blessing children , blessing the sick , paternal blessing, and the like. a.

    It is well established which priesthood office is allowed to perform which ordinances.

    Religious education

    The Carillon Tower of Brigham Young University , a Church educational institution

    In addition to the Sunday meetings, there is the seminar program for young people from 14 to 18 and the institute program for young adults from 18 to 30. Both are organized by Church Education (CES). It takes place weekly in the evening or daily in the morning before school or work, depending on local circumstances. The mostly volunteer teachers are provided and trained by CES.

    Pastoral care

    Pastoral care, like other church tasks, is distributed over the shoulders of many. Specifically, these are a pair of priesthood holders, often consisting of a youth (teacher or priest of the Aaronic priesthood) and a Melchizedek priesthood holder. Together they are assigned to some member families as so-called carers and have the task of showing them friendship and helping them in all kinds of needs. This can also include regular pastoral visits to convey a message that strengthens belief. Women are also paired with some wives whom they serve in the same way.

    Monthly fasting

    Members who are old enough and healthy are recommended to fast the first Sunday of each month to strengthen their spirituality. That means avoiding two meals. The money saved in this way is usually donated for the purpose of caring for the needy.

    The fast should be accompanied by prayer and end in the fasting and testimony meeting. This is a special sacrament meeting where everyone is invited to share their beliefs.

    Family life

    A Mormon family home evening

    The family is organized according to the doctrine of the Church of God and is of particular importance to salvation. An active and positive family life is strongly emphasized by church leaders. The role of women as a mother is highly regarded. The mother is primarily responsible for looking after and bringing up the children. The father is to preside over the family in love and righteousness. He has a duty to ensure that the family has everything they need to live and to be protected. Church teaching teaches that father and mother must stand by one another as equal partners in these sacred responsibilities. Disability, death and other circumstances may require individual adjustment.

    Following this dogma, families within the church tend to have more children, especially in comparison to the average child rate in western industrialized countries.

    The family takes not only at the Sunday services in part, but also comes opportunity Monday at a family home evening together. Problems and plans of the family can be discussed there. The parents use this evening to introduce the central gospel doctrines to their children in a fun and relaxed atmosphere.

    When a man and woman marry in the temple, the ceremony is called sealing . A temple seal allows families to last forever. This means that earthly family ties will continue beyond death provided individuals live according to the teachings of Jesus Christ. When children are later born to this couple, they are automatically sealed to their parents. Married couples who join the Church after they are married or who have not married in the temple for other reasons may still be sealed together in the temple later. Parents can also have their children sealed to them. These sealing ordinances can also be carried out on behalf of the deceased, so that families can be connected to one another over generations.

    Unmarried members are encouraged to marry a partner who is also a member of the Church. Entering into an interfaith marriage is not recommended; however, this is accepted by the church.

    If a family cannot take part in church life due to long distances or other circumstances, they should organize a rudimentary church life with the Lord's Supper, songs, prayers, teachings, etc. under the direction of the father, remotely supervised by the responsible church leader.


    The temple is understood by members of the Church as a particularly holy place. There one enters into special obligations towards God (so-called temple covenants) and is taught symbolically about the plan of salvation. New members cannot participate in temple ordinances for one year or more after their baptism.

    Temple visitors undertake not to speak about particularly sacred parts of the temple ceremony outside the temple.

    Missionary work

    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a missionary religion and mobilizes around 65,000 full-time missionaries worldwide. Young men can do a two-year full-time mission from the age of 18. Women aged 19 and over and older married couples of retirement age can also perform this service, but for a shorter period of time (usually 18 months for young women and 12 to 23 months for older married couples). Mission is always voluntary, although young men are encouraged to serve full-time missions. According to some, it can "build the faith".

    Missionaries of the Church usually bear the full cost of their missionary work without the financial support of the Church for which they are serving during this time. The daily routine is predetermined to a certain extent; the focus is on personal contacts. Full-time missionaries do missionary work by addressing people on the street, organizing exhibitions and church activities, holding appointments with interested parties, getting involved in the social field or simply going from door to door. During the mission, missionaries follow an ascetic way of life. The use of radio, television and cinema is not permitted. It is also forbidden to meet privately, to go dancing or to flirt. During this time, keep your distance from the opposite sex. Missionaries are encouraged to communicate with their families weekly via telephone, video chat, online messaging, and mail. A uniform appearance (shirt, tie, name tag or skirt) is required.

    Members of the Church of Jesus Christ obey the biblical commandment to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ throughout the world. They seek to lead everyone to Christ and also to share the blessings of the restored gospel. On the one hand they try to draw attention to themselves by setting a good example, but on the other hand they also try to bring the message to those who have not yet received it. This preaching is done primarily by the local members, who are supported by the full-time missionaries. It is also why members take opportunities to share the gospel with other people and provide Church materials and invitations to various church events. Although members are encouraged to share the teachings of the Church among their acquaintances, they are encouraged not to use pressure but to respect the individual's freedom of choice.

    The work of these full-time missionaries is overseen by a mission president who is responsible for a specific geographic area and reports directly to the " Quorum of the Twelve Apostles ."

    Formative commandments

    Ten forms and envelopes used in the LDS Church

    Church members are encouraged to completely refrain from consuming alcohol , tobacco , coffee, and black tea , not to use drugs , and to eat healthily. This principle is known as "The Word of Wisdom ". Tattoos and piercings are refused; Earrings for women are an exception. Members must refrain from any kind of changes to the body that are regarded as mutilations . This is related to the fact that the body is viewed as a temple for the mind, which should not be defiled.

    The members pay the " tithe ", that is, one tenth of their monthly income . Income is understood to mean personal income and is not specified in more detail. The tithe proceeds are used to finance construction projects, building maintenance, teaching materials, humanitarian aid, activities, missionary work, and more.

    The law of chastity means complete sexual abstinence before marriage and complete fidelity in marriage. This also includes treating the opposite sex with respect, dressing properly and using clean language. Likewise, pornography and masturbation to avoid. A same-sex marriage is viewed as contrary to the laws of God, and homosexual behavior is considered as violation of the commandment of chastity. Serious violations of this commandment can lead to sanctions such as disfellowshipping through to excommunication if they become known to the church leaders and if the person guilty of the violation does not allow himself to be persuaded to "repent" from the violation. According to a 2019 statement, the Church no longer regards same-sex marriages as "apostasy". Nothing changes in the teaching of the Church on marriage. In principle, same-sex marriages would continue to be considered a “serious offense”.

    In the church, “keeping the Sabbath” means attending church services and foregoing commercial and sporting activities on Sunday, in accordance with Christian tradition. The members should devote themselves to their own family and spiritual matters on Sunday.


    Granary of Welfare Square in Salt Lake City , Utah . Welfare Square began as a bishop's storehouse in 1938 .

    The willingness to help and the “feeding of the poor” play a major role. Believing members of the Church fast at least once a month and make a "fast offering," which is used to help those in need within the ward. The church also maintains numerous charitable organizations that offer help worldwide regardless of religious affiliation and work in crisis areas. As early as the post-war period, the Mormons were known in Germany for feeding the poor. If there are particularly serious humanitarian crises, the members' fast offerings are used exclusively for certain aid organizations. During a drought in Africa, the church broke a donation record with the Red Cross . On a humanitarian level, the Church of Jesus Christ often works with other religious aid organizations, such as the Catholic Relief Organization or Islamic Relief .

    Outward effect

    Utah Genealogical Society

    In addition to the mission program, the church is increasingly making its public appearances on the Internet, with interviews with church leaders in the public media and with newspaper reports.

    Numerous members of the Church conduct intensive family research because, according to the teaching of their Church, they can provide their non-Mormon baptized ancestors with the possibility of salvation through baptism for the deceased if they know their names and dates of birth and death. They are supported by extensive genealogical archives, particularly that of the Utah Genealogical Society , which also supports non-members with family research.

    The personal data, which are freely available to everyone on the website , were entered into the database from church registers or fed in by family researchers. This website can also be used to search for filmed church records in the Family History Library Catalog. Some church archives refuse to make their church records accessible to family researchers via the genealogical research centers; In this case, the church book films are blocked for research centers in Germany or Europe. Little by little, church registers are also being made directly accessible to the public via the Internet.

    In view of the special teaching of baptism for the deceased, the Protestant Church in Germany rejects today to allow the Genealogical Society of Utah to continue filming church records.

    Theologians and religious scholars of the Evangelical Church in Germany describe the church as an independent syncretistic new religion. A conversion to Mormonism therefore means turning away from the Christian ecumenical church fellowship. A member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints will not be approved as a godfather. The church wedding of a member of the Church of Jesus Christ is also prohibited. It is also not possible to admit guests to the Protestant Supper. With the exception of the denial of access to genealogical data, the measures described by the Protestant Church are accepted by Mormons.

    Many international aid organizations praise the cooperation with the church in humanitarian aid projects.


    For detailed criticism, see Book of Mormon , Doctrine and Covenants, and Book of Abraham . The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has been exposed to criticism and open hostility because of its peculiar views, some of which conflict with the teachings of other Christian churches . Doubts are expressed above all about the person Joseph Smith and the authenticity of his visions . Smith is said not to have received revelations, but to have created his works through imagination and adaptation of other teachings.

    Criticism is expressed by some Christian groups who classify the church as non-Christian because they reject the Nicean creed and derive their teaching not only from the Bible but also from modern revelations. The religious community is often negatively accused of the fact that, according to their doctrine, there are other “lower” gods under God, the Father, and that one day man himself can become divine and create worlds. Furthermore, the claim to be the only church that is really led and recognized by Jesus Christ leads to rejection.

    Evangelical and fundamentalist Christians in particular also criticize the fact that Lucifer is referred to as the brother of Jesus Christ and that the Flood is understood as a kind of baptism of the earth. Church President Ezra Taft Benson , continuing the teachings of Brigham Young, taught that Jesus Christ was not begotten by the Holy Spirit , but that God the Father begotten Him in the flesh with the Virgin Mary.

    The statement that man's own works are necessary for salvation is often understood in Protestant circles to mean that the Church of Jesus Christ rejects the redemption of grace through the Atonement of Jesus Christ. It is also criticized that the locally responsible bishop should hold discussions with members on certain occasions, in which they should, among other things, voluntarily provide information about whether they live according to the commandment of chastity .

    The church leadership is occasionally accused of dealing superficially and one-sidedly with its own history. It is assumed that she tries to hide negative points of view from the "normal members". Her leadership style, which is viewed as authoritarian, is criticized, as are references to the “tithing” requirement and some business activities. Tithing is generally voluntary, but it is a condition for visiting the temple.

    Often polygamy and racism are discussed critically. Church representatives oppose this by saying that polygamy was abolished in 1890 and that since 1978 every man has been able to obtain the priesthood regardless of his ethnic origin. A number of women's rights activists see the doctrine of polygamy still latent and criticize such. B. Kate Kelly the patriarchal structure of the church and its corresponding image of women. However, numerous prominent women within the Church disagree.

    The accusation of racism is also derived from the doctrine that Hebrews are among the ancestors of today's native Americans, as well as the exclusion of members of black African descent from ordination in the period from 1850 to 1978. Critics see this as a colonialist self-image of one Superiority of the white race.

    The church has been criticized for baptizing proxy Jews who have died. It is true that in 1995 the church leadership prohibited Holocaust victims from being baptized on their behalf; Nevertheless, Anne Frank's baptism of death in the Dominican Republic in 2012 caused a sensation.

    Distribution in the German-speaking area


    year Members + -%
    2011 38.257 -
    2012 38.739 +1.3%
    2013 38,992 + 0.7%
    2014 39,401 +1.0%
    2015 39.726 + 0.8%
    2016 40.011 + 0.7%
    2017 40.037 + 0.1%
    2018 39.917 −0.3%
    2019 39.724 −0.5%

    The first Germans to be baptized were Jakob Zundel, who emigrated in America in 1837 and Alexander Nejbauer in England in 1838.

    The apostle Orson Hyde, who came to Regensburg in 1842, began missionary work in Germany. Although he was only able to stay ten months, during this time he tried to learn the German language so that his sermons could reach people in their mother tongue. He made a German translation of a tract and later taught the German language to the President of the Church, Joseph Smith.

    Under the direction of the missionary Johann Greenig, a first group of members was formed in Darmstadt in 1843. (At that time, a German church was being established in Nauvoo, Illinois, USA. Konrad Kleinmann was one of the first German pioneers to reach the Salt Lake Valley.)

    In 1852 the first German congregation with twelve members was founded in Hamburg. In the same year, the first German translation of the Book of Mormon was published in Hamburg. Translators were John Taylor and George P. Dykes. Because the members often had problems with the authorities and were sent to prison because of their religion, many immigrated to the United States. In 1854 the Hamburg community was dissolved again.

    Freiberg Temple (July 2006)

    In 1855 a community was founded in Dresden with Karl G. Mäser as president. Here, too, members immigrated to Utah, and the ward was dissolved in 1857.

    Karl G. Mäser, who in the meantime had become a well-known teacher in the United States and later co-founded Brigham Young University, returned to Germany in 1867 as a missionary and worked in the Karlsruhe church, which was founded in 1860. Over 600 people were baptized within three years. Many of them left Germany to practice their religion freely in Utah.

    The first German parish hall was built in 1929 in Selbongen (now Zełwągi in Poland ).

    In her historical study of the situation of Latter-day Saints during the National Socialist era, Merit Petersen comes to the conclusion that, apart from surveillance and occasional reprisals and parish dissolution, the church remained largely unmolested. She attributes this above all to the church's understanding of secular authorities as institutions directed and influenced by God for the implementation of his will (while at the same time the separation of church and state affairs is required). Church members are obliged to submit to the state if they are free to practice their religion. Therefore, there were hardly any points of conflict between the church and the regime. According to this doctrine, Mormons, regardless of their convictions, are also obliged to go to war at the behest of the state, which was a sign of loyalty for those in power, especially during World War II. According to Alan Keele of Brigham Young University, there have even been attempts by the church to draw divinely understood parallels and convergences with the Nazi regime with regard to both roles in the apocalyptic era . The execution of the ( posthumously excommunicated ) 17-year-old Helmuth Hübener for “preparation for high treason and treasonous favoring the enemy” in Plötzensee in 1942 and the arrest and expulsion of the US missionary Alvin Schoenhals remained exceptions. In contrast, there were community leaders who were staunch Nazis. At least 500 church members died as soldiers in World War II.

    After the American missionaries were called back from Germany in 1938, they were able to return in 1947. Many members who had to flee from the East after the Second World War found a new home in the communities in the GDR and the Federal Republic. Ezra Taft Benson, a member of the Council of the Twelve Apostles, Secretary of Agriculture of the United States under President Eisenhower and later President of the Church, was instrumental in founding the aid organization CARE after the war to help starving people in Germany and other countries.

    On September 10, 1961, the first stake (similar to a diocese) was organized in Berlin.

    The church continued to exist in the GDR even after the war. The faithful members always tried to maintain contact with the Church in the west. Church leaders helped through visits and donations. It is also thanks to these constant efforts of the leaders of the church that the first temple on German soil and the only temple in a (then) socialist country could be consecrated in Freiberg in 1985 . Henry Burkhardt became the first president of the temple .

    Today there are over 40,000 members in Germany (as of 2017), not all of whom actively participate in church life, i. H. they do not regularly attend Church meetings and activities.

    There are two temples: the Frankfurt temple in Friedrichsdorf im Taunus in Hesse and the Freiberg temple in Freiberg in Saxony .

    There are 179 wards and branches in the 14 stakes Berlin , Bremen , Dortmund , Dresden , Düsseldorf , Frankfurt am Main , Hamburg , Hanover , Heidelberg , Leipzig , Munich , Neumünster , Nuremberg , Stuttgart and the districts of Neubrandenburg , Erfurt, and Oldenburg . The Friborg Ward and Offenburg , Schwenningen , Singen, and Bad Säckingen Branches are part of the Zurich Switzerland Stake . The Ravensburg Branch has been a member of the St. Gallen Stake since May 6, 2007.

    The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has worked in the federal states of Hesse , Berlin (since 1954), Rhineland-Palatinate (since 2013), Saxony (since 2014), North Rhine-Westphalia (since December 19, 2015) and Hamburg (since 2016) the status of a corporation under public law . In the other countries, it is registered as a legal association organized under private law within the meaning of the BGB . Furthermore, the church in these countries is said to have submitted the application for the granting of corporate rights, but it has not yet been clearly clarified when these applications were made and when a decision by the responsible authorities can be expected. One opinion in the science of state church law doubts the effectiveness of the corporate status in the state of Berlin, since in 1954, contrary to the provisions of the Berlin state constitution, formal requirements were not complied with in the award procedure.


    In 1883 Paul Haslinger, the first member on Austrian territory, was baptized in Lambach . The first community was founded in Haag am Hausruck in 1901. The church was officially recognized in Austria on September 27, 1955 . In the 2001 census, 2,236 people living in Austria declared themselves members of the Church; the church itself gives the number of members as 4618 (as of 2017).

    Parish hall of the Vienna parish

    In 2009 there were 17 congregations and 2 stakes in Austria:

    The congregation in Dornbirn has been part of the newly established St. Gallen Stake since May 6, 2007.


    According to the census, there were 3436 members in Switzerland in 2000; the church itself gives 9213 membership (as of 2017), organized in 36 congregations and branches in the Bern , Geneva , Lausanne , St. Gallen and Zurich stakes . The Lugano Ward is part of the Milan Italy Stake .

    The first temple in Europe ( Bern-Tempel ), which was consecrated on September 11, 1955, is located in the municipality of Münchenbuchsee .

    See also

    Portal: Mormonism  - Additional topic Mormonism


    see. also the general descriptions of Mormonism in the main article of the same name.

    • Thomas G. Alexander: Mormonism in Transition. A history of the Latter-day Saints 1890-1930. Urbana, Ill. 1986.
    • James B. Allen, Glen M. Leonard: The Story of the Latter-day Saints , Salt Lake City, Utah 1976 (full representation).
    • Leonard J. Arrington, Davis Bitton: The Mormon Experience: A History of the Latterday Saints. New York 1979 (scientific paper written by Mormons).
    • Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz : The Mormons. Words of enlightenment and defense. Schriftenmission, Gladbeck 1976, ISBN 3-7958-0028-5 .
    • Helmut Essinger: The Mormons. Schriftenmission, Gladbeck 1962.
    • Hans-Martin Friedrich: The fake revelation. Claim and Reality of Mormon Beliefs. Brunnen, Gießen / Basel 1997, ISBN 3-7655-1130-7 .
    • Kai Funkschmidt (ed.): The Mormons between a sense of family and political commitment. EZW texts, Vol. 219, Berlin 2012.
    • Christian Gellinek: Christ in America, Mormonism as a Christian religion. Agenda, Münster 1999.
    • Friedrich-Wilhelm Haack: Mormons. Evangelical Press Association for Bavaria, Munich 1989.
    • Rüdiger Hauth: Temple cult and baptism of the dead. The secret rituals of the Mormons. Gütersloher Verlagshaus Mohn, Gütersloh 1985, ISBN 3-579-00777-7 .
    • Rüdiger Hauth: The Mormons. Sect or New Church of Jesus Christ? A guide. Herder, Freiburg 1995, ISBN 3-451-08830-4 .
    • Jon Krakauer : Murder on behalf of God. Piper, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-492-24276-6 .
    • Armand L. Mauss: The Angel and the Beehive. The Mormon Struggle with Assimilation. Urbana, Ill./Chicago 1994 (deals with responses to challenges posed by modern culture).
    • Albert Mössmer: The Mormons. Latter-day Saints. Walter, Solothurn / Düsseldorf 1995.
    • Robert Mullen: The Mormons. London 1967.
    • Rodney Stark: The Rise of Mormonism. Columbia University Press, New York 2005.
    • Werner Thiede : The "Latter-day Saints" - Christians Beyond Christianity. A systematic-theological perception of the largest Mormon church. EZW texts. Vol. 161. Evangelical Central Office for Weltanschauung questions, Berlin 2001.
    • David Trobisch : Mormons. The lately saints? Bahn, Neukirchen-Vluyn 1998, ISBN 3-7615-4956-3 .
    • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Basic Concepts of the Gospel. (pdf) 2009 (335 pages, teaching the doctrine of the Church).

    Web links

    Commons : Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints  - collection of images, videos, and audio files

    Individual evidence

    1. Statistical country information of the Church for Germany , accessed on December 14, 2018 (English).
    2. Statistical country information of the Church for Austria , accessed on December 14, 2018 (English).
    3. Statistical country information of the Church for Switzerland , accessed on December 14, 2018 (English).
    4. a b c d "2017 Spring General Conference Report 2017" , accessed February 8, 2019
    5. CIA - The World Factbook , People (Eng.)
    6. Final report of the study commission “So-called sects and psychogroups” (PDF; 6.5 MB), German Bundestag , printed matter 13/10950, p. 162.
    7. For example, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints helped fund the Reformed Synagogue of Salt Lake City and the Hindu Temple of Spanish Fork , Utah.
    8. The Articles of Faith of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , article 3.
    9. George D. Watt: Journal of Discourses , Volume 13, p. 225.
    10. George D. Watt: Journal of Discourses , Volume 8, p. 191.
    11. George D. Watt: Journal of Discourses , Volume 6, p. 167.
    12. a b Preach my gospel . Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2004, ISBN 0-402-36617-4 , p. 35.
    13. LeGrand Richards: A Marvelous Work and a Wonder . Deseret Book Company, 1976, ISBN 0-87747-161-4 , p. 24.
    14. James E. Talmage: The Great Apostasy . The Deseret News, 1909, ISBN 0-87579-843-8 , p. 68.
    15. Henry B. Eyring: The True and Living Church . LDS Church. Pp. 20-24. May 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
    16. James E. Talmage: The Great Apostasy . The Deseret News, 1909, ISBN 0-87579-843-8 , pp. 64-65.
    17. James E. Faust: The Restoration of All . LDS Church. Pp. 61-62, 67-68. May 2006. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
    18. Latter-day Saints and the “Great Apostasy” ( Memento from November 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
    19. ^ The Antichrist and the Protestant Reformation
    20. God, deity. In: Guide to the Scriptures. Church of Jesus Christ, accessed June 1, 2020 .
    21. Pre-mortal existence (Engl.)
    22. Jump up ↑ The Pearl of Great Price , Joseph Smith History 1: 5–20
    23. The Pearl of Great Price , Joseph Smith History 1: 27–54
    24. The Pearl of Great Price , Joseph Smith History 1: 68–72 ; Doctrine and Covenants, section 13
    25. Doctrine and Covenants 20: 1–3; Introduction to Section 21
    26. Article Extermination Order. In: Encyclopedia of Mormonism. McMillan, 1992, p. 480 ( online ).
    27. ( Memento from August 20, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) (content not freely accessible)
    28. Elder Dallin H. Oaks, The Keys and Powers of the Priesthood. Church of Jesus Christ, accessed October 19, 2019 .
    29. ^ Church Announces New Balance between Gospel Instruction in the Home and Church (en) . In: Newsroom , Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, October 6, 2018. 
    30. a b The Family: A Proclamation to the World ( Online as PDF (89.3 kB) , Salt Lake City , September 23, 1995.)
    31. Church of Jesus Christ: Sealing. Retrieved November 22, 2019 .
    32. Matthias Kolb: On behalf of the Lord., accessed on September 10, 2014
    33. Migros Magazin: Two years on the road on a mission. Retrieved November 23, 2019 .
    34. Mormons: "Gay marriage" no longer apostasy. Religion, April 5, 2019.
    35. Journal of Discourses , Vol. 8, p. 115 (Eng.)
    36. The Teachings of Ezra Taft Benson , pp. 6 ff .; see. also Bruce McConkie: Mormon Doctrine , 1966, p. 547 (Eng.)
    37. The position of Mormon Women: Perceptions, Prozac, Polygamy, Priesthood, Patriarchy and peace , November 7th 2009
    38. A Twist on Posthumous Baptisms Leaves Jews Miffed at Mormon Rite. In: The New York Times . March 3, 2012, accessed November 17, 2012 .
    39. ^ Benjamin Schulz: Ritual for Jewish Nazi Victims - Baptism in the Dead puts Mormons in distress. In: Der Spiegel . March 1, 2012, accessed February 10, 2019 .
    40. Figures and facts for Germany
    41. Merit Petersen: The fine line between tolerance and persecution. Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormons in the “Third Reich”. In: Manfred Gailus , Armin Nolzen (ed.): Quarreled “Volksgemeinschaft”. Belief, Denomination and Religion in National Socialism. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2011, pp. 122–150
    42. a b Development of the Church in Germany - Later Development ( Memento of September 7, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
    43. Statistical country information of the Church for Germany, accessed on October 25, 2017.
    44. ^ Church press release, August 2013
    45. Announcement of the Saxon State Ministry for Culture on the granting of corporate status to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the territory of the Free State of Saxony on October 24, 2014 ( SächsAbl. P. 1375 ; PDF, 839 kB)
    46. Ordinance on the granting of the rights of a corporation under public law ... Law and Ordinance Gazette (GV. NRW.) 2015, No. 46, dated December 18, 2015
    47. Mormons now corporation under public law in Hamburg from December 12, 2016 ( press portal )
    48. ^ Held: The small religious communities under public law in the state church law of the Federal Republic . Munich 1974, pp. 132, 149 f.
    49. ^ Statistical country information of the Church for Austria, accessed on October 25, 2017.
    50. Christianity in Switzerland ( Memento from December 30, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
    51. Statistical country information of the Church for Switzerland, accessed on October 25, 2017.
    52. Daniel C. Peterson: Reply to Rüdiger Hauth's book “The Mormons. Sect or new church of Jesus Christ? " LDS Books Schubert and Roth OHG, Bad Reichenhall ( online )