|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Freiburg|
|County :||Ortenau district|
|Height :||163 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||78.38 km 2|
|Residents:||59,646 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||761 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||77652, 77654, 77656|
|Area code :||0781|
|License plate :||OG, BH , KEL, LR, WOL|
|Community key :||08 3 17 096|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Marco Steffens ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Offenburg in the Ortenau district|
Offenburg ( city in the west of Baden-Württemberg , about 20 kilometers southeast of Strasbourg . The former imperial city is the district town and largest city in the Ortenau district . Offenburg is a regional center within the Southern Upper Rhine region .) is a
Offenburg is located in the foothills of the Middle Black Forest, roughly halfway between Karlsruhe , about 66 kilometers to the north, and Freiburg im Breisgau , about 54 kilometers to the south. It is located at the exit of the Kinzig valley in the Rheingraben . The Kinzig reached by the Black Forest Coming in the southeast, near the district Elgersweier the urban area, turns to the dam on the Great Dyke north, then then flows on the western edge of Offenburg's urban core along, between the districts of Weier and Buhl through to the Offenburg district then to leave again northwest of the district Griesheim in the direction of the Rhine .
The following cities and communities (clockwise, starting from the northeast quadrant) border the city of Offenburg: Appenweier , Durbach , Ortenberg (Baden) , Ohlsbach , Gengenbach , Berghaupten , Hohberg , Schutterwald , Kehl and Willstätt .
The city of Offenburg divided into the following districts: urban core , Hildboltsweier , Uffhofen , Albers Bösch and in the context of local government reform in the 1970s incorporated communities and today's districts Bohlsbach, Buhl, Elgersweier , Fessenbach , Griesheim, Rammersweier , Waltersweier , Weier , Windschläg, cell -Weierbach and Zunsweier.
The eleven unincorporated neighborhoods are also towns within the meaning of Baden-Wuerttemberg Municipal Code, that is, there is one of the voters in each municipal election to be elected Ortschaftsrat with a mayor as chairman.
Some parts of the city have further separately located residential areas with their own names, which usually have very few residents, but have now partly grown together with the main town. On the other hand, there are also new residential areas with their own names, the boundaries of which, however, are usually not precisely defined. In detail, the following residential spaces belong to the districts:
- to Fessenbach : Albersbach, Maisenhalder Hof and Rießhof
- to the city center : Am Kalbsbrunnen, Bleiche, Großer Deich, Laubenlindle, Pumpwerk, Spitalhof, Weingarten and Ziegelhof
- to Albersbösch : regular lay
- zu Weier : In the Gottswald
- to Zell-Weierbach : Hasengrund and Riedle
- to Zunsweier : Hagenbach, Kieswerk and Rütihof
Offenburg falls into a zone with a warm and humid temperate climate. The climate in this region varies slightly between highs and lows, and there is sufficient rainfall all year round. However, it is almost a "humid subtropical climate", as the average temperatures in July and August are just under 22 ° C and the Upper Rhine region creates a subtropical climate over the summer months.
|Measuring station Lahr Jan 2011 - December 2018|
Monthly average temperatures and precipitation for the Lahr measuring station Jan 2011 - December 2018
According to the state development plan in 1996, Offenburg was upgraded from the middle center to the upper center , to which the middle centers Achern , Haslach / Hausach / Wolfach , Kehl and Lahr / Black Forest are assigned. This makes it the second regional center of the Southern Upper Rhine region alongside Freiburg .
The Offenburg regional center also takes on the function of the central area for the surrounding communities. In detail, the following towns and communities in the Ortenaukreis belong to the central area of Offenburg: Appenweier , Bad Peterstal-Griesbach , Berghaupten , Biberach (Baden) , Durbach , Gengenbach , Hohberg , Lautenbach , Neuried (Baden) , Nordrach , Oberharmersbach , Oberkirch , Ohlsbach , Oppenau , Ortenberg (Baden) , Schutterwald and Zell am Harmersbach . There are also links with the Strasbourg area in France .
Settlement in Roman times
Extensive traces of the settlement of the Offenburg area by the Roman Empire have been secured since the middle of the 19th century . The most important find from Roman times is a silver statue of Mercury, which was found in 1936 on Offenburg in the municipal gravel pit in Gewann Nachtweide. In today's district of Rammersweier , the Romans built a small fort , near which a brick kiln was operated in the second half of the 1st century AD. Remains of a fort building in Offenburg's old town could also be detected. After the relocation of the Limes and the resulting withdrawal of troops under Trajan , there was still a vicus , which had a street-village-like structure with gable-front row houses. The length of the village is estimated to be around 500 m. A stone extension did not take place until the end of the settlement in the first third of the 3rd century .
Free imperial city
Offenburg was first mentioned in a document in 1148. Offenburg became a Free Imperial City as early as 1240, but was later pledged several times. The silver deposits near Prinzbach , Haslach and Biberach in the Kinzig valley were used by Emperor Friedrich II. Here, as in Hagenau , silver denars were minted with the Offenburg imperial coin. But as early as 1300 King Albrecht had this canceled again. The city was surrounded by a triple wall, provided with numerous towers, and provided with a bastion, as a copper engraving by Merian and a drawing by Grimmelshausen show.
From 1500 the city was part of the Swabian Empire . At the beginning of the 16th century the foothills of the Landshut War of Succession reached the Ortenau. After Offenburg had sided with the latter in the wake of the power struggles between Elector Philip of the Palatinate and King Maximilian I, the city's district was documented for the first time in 1504 with the privilege granted by the later emperor.
Witch hunts were carried out in Offenburg from 1586 to 1631 . 104 women and men got into a witch trial , 89 people were executed, including families of councilors and craftsmen. The fate of Agnes Gotter became particularly well known .
War of the Palatinate Succession and destruction of Offenburg
During the wars of conquest of Louis XIV, Offenburg repeatedly suffered from military actions by the French king's troops. During the Palatinate War of Succession , the Strasbourg governor, Lieutenant General Chamilly, forced a French occupation of Offenburg after threatening to destroy the city. On October 4, 1688, a surrender treaty had to be signed, on October 8, the city was occupied by 33 companies of infantry and cavalry, and until the withdrawal of the troops at the end of February 1689, the population not only had to make extensive contributions , but also became extremely heavy bullied. In addition, the fortification was destroyed. The population then began to rebuild, but on August 18, 1689, Marshal Duras and ten companies forced the peasants of the area to grind the fortifications and remove them down to the foundations. On September 9, 1689, the city was set on fire and completely destroyed except for the Capuchin monastery and two other houses.
From 1701 to 1771 Offenburg and the Landvogtei were given to the Margrave of Baden as a fief.
Transition to bathing
In 1803 Offenburg lost its status as a Free Imperial City at the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss and was assigned to the state of Baden , which was elevated to the Grand Duchy in 1806 . Offenburg became the seat of an office, later a district office.
During the revolution of 1848/49 , three events took place in Offenburg that were to become essential for the democracy movement . In the run-up to the Baden revolution , the demands of the people in Baden were proclaimed in the Salmen inn on September 12, 1847 in the radical democratic Offenburg assembly . The Karlovy Vary resolutions were rejected, calling for basic and human rights such as freedom of the press and a progressive income tax .
On March 19, 1848, the second Offenburg People's Assembly took place with 20,000 participants, which confirmed and expanded the demands of 1847. Among other things, the demand was brought into the country to found a "patriotic association" in every municipality, whose task it was to provide for the arming, the political and social education of the people as well as for their rights. This request did not go unheard. According to conservative estimates, a year later there were between 420 and 430 people's associations with around 35,000 to 40,000 members. Together with the gymnastics, singing and shooting clubs, a level of political mobilization was achieved that is unique in the history of Baden.
In the first regional assembly of the Baden Volksvereine, on May 12th to 13th, 1849, the democratic forces met in Bethlehem Baden , from where, after the mutiny of the Baden troops in Rastatt became known, the Baden Volksvereine regional committee followed on May 13th Karlsruhe moved to take over political power there as the first republican-democratic government on German soil. That is why Offenburg is now a central station on the Straße der Demokratie from Frankfurt am Main to Lörrach .
But it was still a very long way to get to today's constitution , because initially the provisional government fled to Offenburg and on to Freiburg, and the revolutionary army and militants had no chance against the rapidly advancing Prussians and imperial associations. Although they also achieved success in the beginning, they could not hold up. When the guerrillas under Franz Sigel in Waghäusel in the battle of Waghausel dissolved to escape, the successor Sigel, General put Ludwik Mierosławski down the command on July 1, 1849th On July 2, 1849, a 11,000-strong Prussian force under Prince Wilhelm occupied the city after he had declared a state of war in the Grand Duchy of Baden. Numerous punitive measures followed. The city remained occupied, but the Grand Duke's birthday was celebrated together in 1849.
The Waldbachfriedhof Offenburg was laid out in 1871.
First World War
During the First World War, the Offenburg railway systems were repeatedly the target of Allied air raids, especially during the summer of 1918.
The outstanding event of this era was the occupation of Offenburg by French troops. As a result of the Allied occupation of the Rhineland , Offenburg was also occupied as an annex to the Kehl bridgehead on February 4, 1923. The reason for this was the accusation by the French government of a breach of the provisions of Article 367 of the Treaty of Versailles. This read: "The German government suspended the international trains Paris-Bucharest and Paris-Munich-Prague from January 30th and did not take the necessary arrangements to ensure the passage of the Allied wagons attached to these international trains through German territory" . The German government had given the coal shortage as the reason for this. Therefore it was decided on February 2, 1923, as a sanction, to extend the border of the Kehler bridgehead to the train stations of Appenweier and Offenburg. As a result, rail traffic on the important Karlsruhe-Basel main line was interrupted and extensive diversion measures were necessary. The withdrawal of the occupation troops took place on August 18, 1924.
The NSDAP came to power and established Hitler's dictatorship
As in other parts of Germany, when the NSDAP came to power in 1933, the local institutions were brought into line and taken over. At the end of the 1930s, the population of the city of Offenburg exceeded the 20,000 mark. In 1939 Offenburg became the seat of the Offenburg district , which emerged from the previous district office.
The Jewish population and their persecution during the National Socialist tyranny
Jewish families had lived in the city at least since the beginning of the 19th century . The “Zum Salmen” inn was converted into a synagogue in 1875 . In the course of the November pogroms on November 10, 1938, the synagogue and a Jewish café were devastated and objects from the synagogue, such as the Torah , were burned in front of the town hall. All adult male residents of Jewish faith were arrested and deported to the Dachau concentration camp . Before that, members of the SS drove them on a one and a half hour march through the city to the train station, during which they were humiliated and beaten. On October 22, 1940, as part of the Wagner-Bürckel campaign, the last Germans of Jewish faith living in Offenburg were deported to Camp de Gurs . A memorial in Neckarzimmern and a memorial that was erected in 1990 on the Jewish cemetery are a reminder of this . There is also a memorial in the cemetery that commemorates victims of forced labor . Towards the end of the Second World War , Gestapo officials carried out murders in the Rammersweier forest : on November 27, 1944, four French women were shot in the neck and, on December 6, of the same year, eleven family fathers who wanted to evade compulsory recruitment . Theirs is also commemorated with a memorial. Since there was no longer a Jewish community in Offenburg after the war, the Council of the Israelites in Baden sold the synagogue building. The front building was torn down in 1955 and a residential and commercial building was built. Today, a monument erected in 1978 commemorates the events.
Second World War
During the Second World War, due to the proximity to the French border, the civilian population was exposed to a wide variety of effects and restrictions, such as evacuation measures after the start of the war in 1939 and towards the end of the war in 1945. In addition, parts of the population were called in to work in connection with the construction of the western wall . During the Second World War, the railway facilities in the northeast of the city of Offenburg were repeatedly the target of attacks by the Allied air forces. The heaviest air raid to hit Offenburg on November 27, 1944 was USAAF Operation 727 .
Between March and April 1945, over 600 prisoners from the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp were quartered in Artillery Barracks 41 (“La Horie”) , who were deployed to disarm unexploded bombs, to remove bomb damage and to repair damaged train tracks.
On April 15, 1945, French troops marched into the city from the north and took over military and administrative power. Until the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany, Offenburg was part of the French occupation zone . As a result, units of the Forces françaises en Allemagne were quartered in Offenburg and Offenburg became a French garrison town until the withdrawal of the troops in 1992.
After the Second World War, Offenburg was in the French occupation zone and thus in the state of Baden until the formation of the so-called south-western state of Baden-Württemberg on April 25, 1952 . After the occupation and the currency reform, the city experienced a steady economic boom. The advancing European unification and the resulting reversal of the former location disadvantage of a conflict-laden border with France into a location advantage continued this positive development and favored the development of Offenburg into a prosperous, easily accessible business location.
In 1980 the Baden-Württemberg Home Days took place in Offenburg .
Territorial reform in the 1970s and incorporations
In the early 1970s, eleven formerly independent communities were incorporated into the city as part of the community reform. The urban area thus reached its present size. As part of the district reform , Offenburg became the seat of the Ortenau district, which was newly formed from several districts on January 1, 1973 . The following communities were incorporated into the city of Offenburg as districts:
- January 1, 1971: Fessenbach , Zell-Weierbach
- December 1, 1971: Bühl , Elgersweier , Griesheim, Rammersweier , Waltersweier , Weier
- January 1, 1973: Zunsweier
- January 1, 1975: Bohlsbach , Windschläg
The formerly independent districts of Offenburg each have their own independent, far-reaching history, which, compared to that of the former imperial city of Offenburg, was determined by the respective territorial affiliation until the transition to Baden. Almost all the surrounding communities belonged to the Landvogtei of Ortenau in front of Austria since the late Middle Ages and were subordinate to the courts of Griesheim and Ortenberg. Windschläg was handed over to Carl von Neveu in 1656 by the Austrian regent Archduke Ferdinand. The family ruled over the place until 1805, when Windschläg came to Baden like all other districts (except parts of Zunsweier) and were assigned to the Offenburg district. The gentlemen von Geroldseck had shares in Zunsweier. Your governors resided in the “Leyenschen Hof”. Their share in the village of Zunsweier only came to Baden in 1819. Bühl was co-settled around 1696 by the noble von Bank family, who came from Ausserbraz in the Vorarlberg-Tirol area. The districts were first mentioned in a document as follows:
Bohlsbach 960 as Badelsbach , Buhl in 1242 as a villa Buhele , Elgersweier 1242 villa Ergerswilre , Fessenbach 1245 as rivus Vessenbach , Griesheim 1242, Rammersweier 1242 Romeswilre , Waltersweier 777 as "Waltharisvillare" Weier 1308 as "Wilre" Windschläg 1111 or 1114 as Windisleh and Zunsweier in 1136 as Zunswilre . Zell-Weierbach was created in 1820 through the unification of several places, including Zell, which was mentioned in 1242 as Celle and Weierbach, which was first mentioned in 1235 as Weyerbach , and also Hasengrund, which was separated from Weierbach in 1655.
Coats of arms of the districts
Population figures according to the respective area. The figures are census results (¹) or official updates from the respective statistical offices ( main residences only ).
¹ census result
As of December 31, 2017, the city had 35.4% of residents with an immigrant background, including 12.9% foreigners and 8.2% German repatriates.
Offenburg initially belonged to the diocese of Strasbourg and was subordinate to the Archdiaconate Ortenau. As early as 774, Offenburg was the seat of a dean for the entire surrounding area. A separate parish was first mentioned in 1182. This is probably today's Holy Cross Church, which was built in the 13th century and rebuilt from 1700 after the city fire of 1689. In 1280 Franciscans were called to Offenburg. They founded a monastery, which was also rebuilt after the city fire. In 1396 the branch church of Our Lady was built in the neighboring vineyard. From 1497 there was still the Bühlweg church in Käfersberg. From 1350 the parish church of Offenburg had up to eleven chaplains. After 1525 the city went over to the Reformation , but after 1530 it returned to the old faith and remained an exclusively Catholic city for centuries. In 1591 the city council even forbade the admission of non-Catholic citizens. After the abolition of the diocese of Strasbourg in 1803, the parish initially belonged to the diocese of Constance , before it became part of the newly founded Archdiocese of Freiburg in 1821/1827 . Here, too, Offenburg became the seat of a deanery , to which all Catholic parishes in today's urban area belong. In addition to the parishes already mentioned, the Trinity Parish was established in 1917 (church from 1906) and in 1956 the St. Josef Parish Curate (Josefskirche in the Hildboltsweier district from 1938/1939), from which the Heilig Geist parish emerged in 1973 (Heilig-Geist-Kirche in the Albersbösch district 1973 ) and the parish of St. Fidelis. There is also a Catholic parish each in the districts of Bohlsbach, Bühl, Elgersweier, Griesheim, Rammersweier, Waltersweier, Weier, Weingarten (Zell-Weierbach), Windschläg and Zunsweier (for the associated churches see under Buildings). Fessenbach belongs to the municipality of Weingarten.
At the beginning of the 19th century Protestants also moved to Offenburg. In 1847 the Protestant community was founded. Initially, she was able to hold her services in the former monastery church of the Capuchin monastery until the Protestant town church was built from 1857 to 1864 according to plans by Jakob Friedrich Eisenlohr († 1855), Eduard Hermann († 1860) and Ludwig Arnold (* 1826). The Protestants of today's districts of Offenburg also belonged to the community, if there were any Protestants there at that time. In 1912 a second parish was established in the town parish. In 1927 the resurrection congregation was established, which today is also responsible for the Fessenbach district (today's church is a new concrete building). After the Second World War, other Protestant congregations were founded, namely the Redeemer congregation in 1958 with a church from 1963 (this then resulted in the Christ congregation in 1970 for the Elgersweier district and in 1995 the Lukas congregation in Schutterwald), the Johannes Brenz congregation (1975 among others for Rammersweier, Zell-Weierbach, Durbach and Ebersweier) and the Matthäusgemeinde (1980 for the districts of Bohlsbach, Bühl, Griesheim, Waltersweier, Weier and Windschläg). Thus the Protestants of the neighboring parishes of Durbach , Ortenberg and Schutterwald also belong to the Offenburg parishes . All parishes initially belonged to the Lahr church district of the Evangelical Regional Church in Baden . Today Offenburg is the seat of its own deanery, to which the parishes now belong.
Since 1870 there has been an old Catholic parish in Offenburg, the parish of St. Mattias Offenburg. In 1874 the right to use the church was transferred to the old Catholic parish that was established in 1870. The church was built by the Capuchins as a monastery church and is now located in Gymnasiumstrasse 7. St. Mattias is the oldest church in Offenburg in terms of architectural history.
The Association of Evangelical Free Churches is represented by four parishes in Offenburg. The Evangelical Free Church Baptist Congregation has its church at Grimmelshausenstrasse 32, which is also used by the International Gospelchurch Overcomers . The community center of the Free Christian Congregation is on Scherersmatt 10 and the Seventh-day Adventist Church on Seestrasse 4 in the Ortenau district .
The Islamic religious community, which has existed in Offenburg since 1978 , was able to open a mosque in Stegermattstrasse (Offenburg-Süd) in 2002 . According to the 2011 census , 51.6% of Offenburg's citizens were Roman Catholic , 24.6% Protestant , 1.9% Orthodox , 3.0% belonged to another and 18.2% to no religious community under public law.
The local elections on May 26, 2019 , with a voter turnout of 52.74% (2014: 43.79%), produced the result shown in the following diagrams:
At the head of the Free Imperial City of Offenburg was the council with the mayor. The council had twelve members. From around 1300 there was also a “young council” of the guilds. In the 14th century the mayors were ousted by four “Stettmeisters”. After the transition to Baden, the mayor and council as well as the citizens' committee ran the city. In addition to the mayor, there was a second mayor from 1898. The mayor has been the mayor of the city since 1903 . Today he is directly elected for a term of eight years. He is chairman of the municipal council . His deputies are the first and second alderman, each with the official title of “mayor”.
- 1801–1803: Leopold Witsch (the last Reichsschultheiß until the transition from Offenburg to Baden)
- 1803–1832: Johann Nepomuk Lihl and Joseph Matthäus Sebastian Gottwald
- 1832–1840: Josef Karl Burger
- 1840-1845: Landolin Löffler
- 1845–1849: Gustav Rée
- 1849–1859: August Wiedemeyer (1849–1851 as official administrator )
- 1860–1875: Bernhard Schaible
- 1875–1890: Franz Volk
- 1893–1921: Fritz Hermann (member of the 1st Chamber of the Baden Estates Assembly from 1913 to 1919)
- 1921–1934: Josef Holler
- 1934–1945: Wolfram Rombach
- 1945: Hermann Isenmann (provisional, deployed by the French occupation forces)
- 1945–1946: Ludwig Heß (provisional, deployed by the French occupying forces)
- 1946–1947: Gustav Ernst (provisional, deployed by the French occupation forces)
- 1947–1948: R. Moßbrugger (provisional, deployed by the French occupation forces)
- 1949–1975: Karl Heitz
- 1975–1989: Martin Grüber
- 1989–2002: Wolfgang Bruder
- 2003–2018: Edith Schreiner
- Since December 3, 2018: Marco Steffens . In the election on October 14, 2018, Steffens received 52% of the votes in the first ballot with a turnout of 49.6%.
- CDU: Wolfgang Schäuble (BT election 2017: direct mandate, 48.1% of the first votes), President of the German Bundestag , Member of the Bundestag since 1972;
In the past, the German Bundestag for the Offenburg constituency included:
- 1957–1972: Hans Furler , CDU
- 1972–1992: Harald B. Schäfer , SPD
- 2002–2013: Sibylle Laurischk , FDP
- 2004–2017: Elvira Drobinski-Weiß , SPD
State Parliament of Baden-Württemberg (since 1952)
The 16th state parliament of Baden-Württemberg has the following members for the regional constituency of Offenburg (51):
- B'90 / Greens: Thomas Marwein , Member of the Bundestag since 2011, (state election 2016: direct mandate, 33.7% of the votes);
- CDU: Volker Schebesta , Member of the Bundestag since 2001, (state election 2016: second mandate, 28.4% of the votes); State Secretary for Culture, Youth and Sport 2nd Cabinet of the Kretschmann Government ;
In the past, the state parliament of Baden-Württemberg for the state electoral district of Offenburg included:
- 1970–2001: Robert Ruder , CDU
- 1992–1996: Harald B. Schäfer , SPD, Environment Minister in the 2nd cabinet of the Teufel government
Baden State Parliament (1947–1952)
State Parliament of the Republic of Baden (1919–1933)
The state parliament of the Republic of Baden for the constituency "City of Offenburg" included:
- 1919: Oskar Muser , DDP
- 1919: Franz Geiler
- 1919–1921: Philipp Martzloff , SPD
- 1925–1929: Wilhelm Egger, center
Baden Estates Assembly (1819–1918)
The 2nd Chamber of the Baden Estates Assembly for Offenburg included:
- 1819: (1st Baden State Parliament, June 26, 1819 - September 5, 1820): Leopold von Lassolaye
- 1820: Joseph Matthäus Sebastian Gottwald
- 1822–1828: Dominik Hog
- 1831: Josef Anton Billet
- 1831–1833: Josef Gläs
- 1835–1842: Josef Merk
- 1842–1846: Landolin Löffler
- 1846–1848: Johann Georg Christian Kapp
- 1850–1860: Josef Karl Burger
- 1861–1870: Karl Maria Josef Eckhard
- 1863–1870: Christian Wilhelm Gerbel
- 1871–1874: Mathias Intlekofer , National Liberal Party
- 1875–1880: Karl von Grimm , National Liberal Party
- 1881–1888: Karl Emil Burg
- 1889–1897: Oskar Muser , Liberal Party
- 1897–1899: Karl Heimburger , German Progressive Party
- 1899–1918: Oskar Muser , Progressive People's Party
- 1913: Franz Hauser, center
- 1909–1912: Georg Monsch (as a member of parliament for the constituency of Lahr)
coat of arms
Blazon (until 2009): "In silver, a red city gate with a knocked tent roof, flanked by two black-windowed tin towers, swiveled, golden gate wings on black hinges and drawn black portcullis."
In its current use, however, the coat of arms is strongly stylized: "In silver, an open, red city gate (gate castle) with a blunt gable and swiveled, golden gate wings, flanked by two silver-windowed tin towers." - As it is an open gate castle , it is a " talking coat of arms ".
The city flag is white and red. The coat of arms symbol can be traced on seals since 1284. In the 18th century, an eagle was also used as a symbol of the imperial city. The blazon has been known since the 16th century.
Offenburg maintains the following cities a twinning :
- Lons-le-Saunier , Bourgogne-Franche-Comté , France, since 1959
- Weiz , Styria , Austria, since 1964
- Borehamwood , Hertfordshire , United Kingdom, since 1982
- Altenburg , Thuringia , since 1988
- Olsztyn , Warmia-Masuria , Poland, since 1999
- Pietra Ligure , Liguria , Italy, since September 29, 2007
The district of Zell-Weierbach maintains a town partnership with the following city :
The Bohlsbach district maintains a town partnership with the following city :
Culture and sights
Theaters and museums
The Oberrheinhalle and the Baden Arena on the exhibition grounds, the riding arena on the Kulturforum, the historical Salmen and the Schillersaal are used for theater performances.
The museum in the Ritterhaus , founded around 1900 by Carl Frowin Mayer , has an inventory of more than 9,000 objects. In addition to archaeological excavations, evidence of the city's history from the Middle Ages to the present day, objects of religious folk art and Judaica can be seen. You will also find interesting facts about regional natural history, geological exhibits and a curious colonial ethnographic collection with big game trophies and masks.
In the Städtische Galerie Offenburg at the Kulturforum, changing exhibitions of modern and contemporary art can be seen. The work of the Offenburg painter Gretel Haas-Gerber is shown in a special room in changing presentations.
Since the reconstruction after the city fire of 1689, Offenburg's old town is still characterized by baroque buildings. The city wall, which has been preserved for around 1.4 km, is older. The representative center of the old town is the southern part of the main street running in north-south direction, which here is widened to form an elongated square. The fish market, also a widened street, forms one of the cross connections to the east to Klosterstraße. The Lange Straße in the very east of the old town branches off from Klosterstraße in the north and forms a triangle with several cross streets, and as a space between Ritterstraße and Gerberstraße, Rechtsstraße. To the west of the main street, separated from it by a block, is the rectangular market square.
- Main road:
- Town hall from 1741
- Former royal court from 1714–17, portal 1756–68, built as the seat of the Ortenau bailiff , now the police headquarters
- Unicorn pharmacy, front part 1720, rear part 1772, on foundation walls and with a window of the previous Gothic building
- St. Ursulasäule from 1961, dedicated to the patron saint of Offenburg
- fish market
- Deer pharmacy, built in 1698
- Salt house from 1786, classicistic
- Lion fountain
- Long street
- Salmen, a former inn, in which the demands of the people of Baden were written in 1847
- Mikveh (Jewish ritual bath), 14. or 16./17. century
- Ritterhaus, 18th century, former seat of the Ortenau Imperial Knighthood , today a museum
- Beck's house from 1760
- Sacred buildings:
- Holy Cross Church , on the foundation walls of a church from the 13th century, built after the destruction in 1689 using some old masonry from 1700, the main Catholic church of the city
- Capuchin monastery with church, built between 1641 and 1647, served as a Protestant church from 1847 after the monastery was dissolved, and as an Old Catholic church from 1873
- Franciscan monastery, rebuilt after 1689
- Church of the former Andreasspital, renovated in baroque style in 1700, with candlestick Burning Bush by Bernhard Philipp
Remaining core city and districts
- Villa Billet, "Billet'sche Schlösschen", before 1800, now used as a registry office
- Place of the constitution friends in the cultural forum in the east city:
- Evangelical town church, built 1857–1864
- Dreifaltigkeitskirche , second Catholic parish church, built from 1906 to 1908 in the eastern part of the city by Johannes Schroth
- Catholic St. Josef Church in Hildboltsweier from 1938/39
- Catholic parish church of St. Fidelis in the northwest town from 1960
- Evangelical Church of the Redeemer with community center in Albersbösch from 1963
- Catholic Heilig-Geist-Kirche in Albersbösch from 1973
- Catholic St. Martin Church in the Stegermatt district (Offenburg-Süd) from 1980.
Churches in the incorporated places
- St. Laurentius in Bohlsbach (built 1666),
- St. Peter and Paul in Bühl (built in 1861/1862 in neo-Gothic style),
- St. Markus in Elgersweier (built in 1761 with probably an older choir and west tower from 1881)
- Catholic Church of St. Nikolaus in Griesheim (built in 1740 in baroque style with an old choir tower),
- Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in Rammersweier (built 1955),
- St. Johannes Nepomuk and Quirin in Waltersweier (built in 1748 probably on older foundations, enlarged in 1878),
- St. John the Baptist in Weier (built in 1862/1880 including the choir of the earlier church, consecrated in 1531),
- St. Pankratius in Windschläg (built in 1835/1837 in neo-Romanesque style using the tower of the previous church, first mentioned in 1350),
- Church of St. Philip and Jacob in Weingarten, Zell-Weierbach (under Bishop Wilhelm von Diest in 1396 the pilgrimage chapel Mariae virginis was consecrated in the same place, built in 1596 on the site of the building that burned down during the Peasants' War, destroyed by lightning in 1631 and using the old one The choir was rebuilt. In the 1870s, the nave was expanded.
- St. Sixtus in Zunsweier (built in 1736/1743 in Baroque style on older foundations of a church mentioned in 1136, fundamentally changed in 1954/1956)
- Pilgrimage Church of Maria Pain in the Zell-Weierbach district
- The Gothic Mount of Olives was named " Monument of the Month November 2006" by the Baden-Württemberg Monument Foundation.
- Christ Church from 1970 in Offenburg-Uffhofen (for Uffhofen and Elgersweier)
- Johannes Brenz Church from 1975 in Rammersweier.
- Matthew Church from 1980 in Weier
- The fistball club Offenburg plays in the fistball Bundesliga .
- The ladies of the DJK Offenburg have been playing in the second table tennis league since the 2008/09 season. The men, formerly the Bundesliga team, are currently active in the Oberliga BaWü.
- The VC Offenburg is one of the most successful volleyball teams in the youth field in southern Germany. The club's women's team has been playing in the 2nd Bundesliga South since the 2009/10 season , while the men have been successful in the regional league for years. The club's best- known former player is the national player Atika Bouagaa .
- The Offenburger FV celebrated its greatest success in 1984 with the German Amateur Football Championship . Between 2011 and 2017 the OFV played in the Oberliga Baden-Württemberg , currently in the Association League South Baden .
- After the end of HR Ortenau , TV Willstätt is the highest playing handball club in the Ortenau in the South Baden league.
- In 2008 the Baden Classics in show jumping took place for the first time.
- The LG Offenburg has some top athletes athletics under contract. The club's figureheads are the 2013 world champion and former European record holder in the javelin throw Christina Obergföll and the three-time German champion over 110 meter hurdles Matthias Bühler . Johannes Vetter , the world champion in javelin throwing 2017, also trains at LG Offenburg. His trainer is Boris Obergföll .
- From 2007 to 2013, an annual mountain bike world cup race , the Worldclass MTB Challenge, took place in Offenburg-Rammersweier .
- Waltraud Geiler from the Offenburg shooting club took part in the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles with the sport pistol. She was one of the most successful pistol shooters at the German Championships from the 1980s to the mid-2000s.
- The Südbadischer Sportschützenverband has had its headquarters in Offenburg since the 1960s.
Offenburg is a stronghold of the Swabian-Alemannic Carnival , called Fasent in High Alemannic . During this time, numerous traditional events take place, such as the baptism of the Fasent child on the "Schmutzige Dunnerschdig", the witch feeding and the burning of straw witches on Shrove Tuesday. Carriers of this very lively cultivation of customs are in particular the old historical fools guild Offenburg and the Offenburg witch guild with their most famous masks, the "witch" and the "Spättlehansele", but also a large number of newly founded guilds in the districts of Offenburg.
Trade fairs and congresses
Drawing on a long tradition of agricultural exhibitions, Offenburg has established itself as a modern and high-performance exhibition and congress location since the 1960s, and events take place regularly on the exhibition grounds with its 52,400 m² outdoor area and a hall area of 22,500 m², for example:
- Oberrhein Messe (last week of September, since 1924)
- Euro Cheval (every two years)
- Baden Wine Fair (since 1872)
- GeoTHERM (leading trade fair for geothermal energy in Europe)
- TeenStreet (Christian Youth Congress)
Other regular important events are:
- SHORTS Film Festival: Trinational film festival for students at film schools in Germany, France and Switzerland (beginning of April, organized by the Offenburg University of Applied Sciences )
- Ortenau Wine Festival (on the last weekend in September, parallel to the Upper Rhine Fair)
- Family concerts Offenburg: concerts by professional musicians for people aged five and over under the patronage of Federal Finance Minister Wolfgang Schäuble.
- Offenburg cloister concerts: classical chamber music in the old Capuchin monastery, six open-air concerts a year from mid-June to the end of July, artistic direction: Offenburg string trio.
- Freedom Festival (on September 12th)
- Awarding of the European Translator Prize Offenburg together with the Offenburg Hubert Burda Foundation (since 2006, every two years)
- WortSpiel, annual Offenburg Literature Days, designed by the Offenburg City Library and the Offenburg Adult Education Center
- Children's and Young People's Literature Days: an event organized by the Offenburg City Library every autumn
Economy and Infrastructure
Offenburg is best known as the seat of the Burda publishing house and used to be a place heavily dominated by the railways. Due to the Upper Rhine Fair, the city is also an important trade fair city in Baden-Württemberg.
The Offenburg is an important hub and ICE - and TGV -Stop. It has hourly long-distance connections with direct connections (to the north) via Mannheim to Cologne and via Frankfurt am Main u. a. to Hamburg and Berlin . In addition, a pair of trains runs daily to Paris and Amsterdam . To the south there are ICE connections to Basel on the former Baden main line, as well as individual trains to Zurich , Chur and Interlaken . Since the timetable change in winter 2018, there has been a direct TGV connection to Paris' Gare de l'Est with a stop in Strasbourg , which can be completed in 2 hours and 22 minutes without changing.
During the off-peak times there is a direct IC connection to the state capital Stuttgart . A total of four railway lines meet in Offenburg : The Rhine Valley Railway , on which many international ICE trains stop in Offenburg, connects the city with Basel and Mannheim . Offenburg is also the starting point for the Black Forest Railway to Constance, the Europabahn to Strasbourg and the Renchtalbahn to Bad Griesbach . However , it has lost its former economic importance as a railway town due to the closure of the repair shop and the marshalling yard . The latter is only partially used as a freight yard. In addition to the main train station, the Offenburg district school center to the south of it is served by SWEG . To the north of Offenburg, the railway line to Rastatt-Süd has four tracks and is designed for top speeds of up to 250 km / h; south of Offenburg, the current route allows a maximum of 160 km / h. In the future, freight trains are to pass under the urban area in the Offenburg tunnel.
Junction 55 Offenburg on federal motorway 5 is just under five kilometers from the city center. In its original state from 1960, the motorway connection was also known as the "Offenburg Egg". Furthermore, the federal highways 3 and 33 run through Offenburg.
There is also a dense city bus network ( key bus ) that connects the city center with the city and districts as well as the surrounding communities without rail connections. The operators are Südwestdeutsche Landesverkehrs-AG (SWEG) and RVS Regionalbusverkehr Südwest GmbH , while the technical operations of Offenburg (TBO) are the operators.
The Offenburg airfield is located in the south-western part of the district (ICAO identification EDTO). The first flight use dates back to 1911, when the Upper Rhine reliability flight stopped here. Since then, the square has had an eventful history, which u. a. was determined by the location in the demilitarized zone defined by the Versailles Treaty , the Second World War and the occupation regime that followed, as well as urban planning and transport requirements up to the present day.
Manufacturing and trade
The city is the seat of a large number of nationally known companies in the manufacturing, trading and printing and publishing industries, such as Burda Verlag, Vivil , Meiko Maschinenbau , Hobart , Hiwin , Tesa , Witzig & Frank ( FFG ), the trade fair Offenburg-Ortenau GmbH, Markant Handels und Service GmbH , Schwarzwaldmilch GmbH, Edeka Südwest , Printus and Raup & Ritter Schulbuchverlag . Since November 20, 1998, Offenburg has also been the headquarters of Deutsche Post AG's letter center 77 . A technology park (TPO) has been set up for company founders. The E.optimum , a nationwide energy supplier, has its headquarters in Offenburg.
Offenburg is located in the Baden wine-growing region . Located in the foothills of the central Black Forest, here and in the districts of Fessenbach, Zell-Weierbach and Rammersweier, especially Riesling wines mature.
Hubert Burda Media, one of the largest magazine and online media publishers in Germany, is based in Offenburg . In addition to various editorial offices located in the media center , one of the most modern large-scale printing plants for rotogravure printing is also located here. Well-known print products are, for example, Bunte , Focus , My beautiful garden , Playboy and TV Spielfilm .
Two daily newspapers appear in Offenburg : The Offenburger Tageblatt from Reiff Verlag and the Badische Zeitung with a local section for Offenburg and the southern Ortenau district from Freiburg-based Badischer Verlag.
In addition, two weekly newspapers, the Stadtanzeiger (Wednesdays) and Der Guller (Sundays), have their headquarters in Offenburg , are financed by advertisements and have a large editorial content . They both belong to the Stadtanzeiger-Verlag and reach all around 176,000 households in the Ortenau district in five editorial editions. From Offenburg, Tietge Publishing publishes the nationwide magazine #heimat - the culinary ambassador for the Black Forest (food and lifestyle). The regional business magazine Econo is also based in Offenburg. The local radio station Hitradio Ohr , a subsidiary of Reiff Verlag , has existed in Offenburg since 1987 . Another subsidiary, Schwarzwaldradio, has been broadcasting from Offenburg since 2008. This station has been on digital radio in Baden-Württemberg since May 2012. In addition, the private broadcaster Radio Regenbogen maintained a branch in Offenburg until the summer of 2013. The Südwestrundfunk has a regional office in Offenburg.
At the Offenburg University of Applied Sciences there is, among other things, the Faculty of Media and Information Systems , which offers media-specific courses. At the Gengenbach location, the degree courses in technical business administration and industrial engineering are offered.
Authorities, courts and government institutions
Offenburg is home to the district office Ortenaukreis, the District Court of Offenburg , the District Court of Offenburg and the prosecution Offenburg. There are also the Offenburg external chambers of the Freiburg Labor Court , a branch of the Federal Employment Agency , a tax office and a police headquarters. The city is the seat of the church district Offenburg of the Evangelical Church in Baden and the regional office of Ortenau of the Archdiocese of Freiburg , to which the deaneries Offenburg-Kinzigtal , Acher-Renchtal in Achern and Lahr in Lahr / Black Forest belong. In the intermunicipal industrial area GRO / Königswaldfeld is the correctional facility of Offenburg, which was built between 2006 and 2009 and still has a branch office for open execution in Kenzingen .
Offenburg is also the seat of the Southern Upper Rhine Nutrition Center (opened in 1997), one of four such centers in Baden-Württemberg. This is affiliated with the Ortenaukreis district office in its function as the lower agricultural authority.
The Offenburg branch of the Federal Agency for Technical Relief (THW) has existed since the 1950s. So far, he has worked across Germany and abroad, for example after flood disasters. Part of the local association is the water damage / pumps specialist group, which was in action in Arles / France in 2003 and in New Orleans in 2005.
At the Offenburg University of Applied Sciences (formerly: University of Applied Sciences) technical, economic and media-specific Bachelor and Master courses are offered.
There is also a state seminar for didactics and teacher training (primary and secondary schools) in Offenburg.
At general schools in Offenburg there are:
- seven grammar schools (Schiller grammar school, Grimmelshausen grammar school , Oken grammar school, monastery grammar school, business grammar school , (information) technical grammar school and the nutritional and biotechnological grammar school). There is also the evening grammar school, which is housed in the rooms of the Oken grammar school.
- two secondary schools (Erich Kästner and Theodor Heuss secondary school),
- a special education and advice center (special needs learning) (Waldbach School II),
- eleven primary and secondary schools (Eichendorffschule, Georg-Monsch-Schule, Konrad-Adenauer-Schule, Lorenz-Oken-Schule Bohlsbach and Waldbach-Schule I as well as one primary and secondary school each in the city and districts of Durbach, Elgersweier, Weier, Windschläg, Zell-Weierbach and Zunsweier) and
- five primary schools (Anne Frank primary school and one primary school each in the districts of Ebersweier, Fessenbach, Griesheim and Rammersweier).
The Ortenaukreis is responsible for the three vocational schools (Friedrich-August-Haselwander-Gewerblich-Technische Schule with technical high school (profiles technology, information technology and technology and management), commercial school with business high school and home and agricultural school Offenburg with nutritional and biotechnological high school) as well as the Hansjakob school with school kindergarten (special educational and advisory center with a special focus on intellectual development), the school for students in long-term hospital treatment at the Offenburg Clinic and the special educational and advisory center for physical and motor development with school kindergarten.
Several private schools complete Offenburg's educational offer. These include a free Waldorf school (since 1982), an evening high school, an evening high school, the girls 'high school and the girls' high school at the monastery of Our Lady, the Free School Spatz (special educational and advisory center with a focus on emotional and social development), and Haus Fichtenhalde with a special educational Education and counseling center with a focus on emotional and social development, the CJD Christophorus School Offenburg, an evangelical geriatric nursing school, a technical school for agriculture, a nursing school at the clinic and at the St. Josefsklinik as well as a school for the sick at the clinic on the Lindenhöhe.
- Samuel Dzialoszynski, Martin Ruch: The good place. The Jewish cemetery in Offenburg. BoD, Norderstedt 2000, ISBN 3-8311-0734-3 . (300 tombstones are described)
- Klaus Gaßner, Diana Finkele: The uprising of the Baden democrats. Stories from the revolution of 1848/49. Regional culture publishing house, Ubstadt-Weiher 1999, ISBN 3-929366-97-5 .
- Vera Joggerst, Wolfgang Bientzle and Karl Joggerst: Ortsfamilienbuch Windschläg, Ortenaukreis / Baden, with pictures from the collection of the Förderverein Dorfgeschichte Windschläg eV (= Badische Ortssippenbücher . 161). Friends of village history Windschläg, Offenburg 2014 (processed period 1703–1928)
- Otto Kähni: Offenburg and the Ortenau . Publishing house City of Offenburg, Offenburg 1976
- Erich Keyser (Ed.): Badisches Städtebuch. Volume IV 2nd part of volume from “German City Book. Handbook of urban history “- On behalf of the working group of historical commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities, the German Association of Cities and the German Association of Municipalities, Stuttgart 1959.
- Kristian-Heinrich Schüssler: WALTERSWEIER 1200 years of local history. From farmer to part-time farmer and from village to district. Published by the Offenburg-Waltersweier local administration 1999, ISBN 3-00-004766-2 .
- Max Wingenroth (arrangement): The art monuments of the district of Offenburg (= The art monuments of the Grand Duchy of Baden, 7th volume ), JCB Mohr, Tübingen 1908.
- Official website of the city of Offenburg
- The historical sights on "Baukunst Baden"
- Aerial photos of Offenburg by Pascal Horn
- State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- The Roman god Mercury. Museum in the Ritterhaus, accessed on April 10, 2016.
- Ulrich Brandl, Emmi Federhofer: Sound + Technology. Roman bricks. ( Writings of the Limes Museum Aalen. No. 61). Theiss, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-8062-2403-0 .
- Johann Schrempp (2012): The Roman Settlement in Offenburg. In: Archaeological News from Baden - Volume 84.
- Otto Kähni: Offenburg and the Ortenau. Verlag Stadt Offenburg, Offenburg 1976, p. 61.
- Peter Oestmann : The Offenburg witch trials in the area of tension between the Reichshofrat and the Reichskammergericht. In: The Ortenau. Publications of the Historical Association for Mittelbaden, Offenburg 1995, pp. 179–220.
- Otto Kähni: Offenburg and the Ortenau. Verlag Stadt Offenburg, Offenburg 1976, pp. 147–150.
- M. Ruch: The November Pogrom 1938 and the "Synagogue Trial" 1948 in Offenburg. Norderstedt 2008, ISBN 978-3-8370-5338-8 .
- Memorial for the victims of National Socialism . A documentation, Volume I, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-89331-208-0 , p. 67f.
- Peter Nath: Air war operations against the city of Offenburg in the First and Second World War. In: The Ortenau. 1990, pp. 574-659.
- Barracks area. Retrieved November 5, 2014 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 500 .
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 514 .
- Resident population in Offenburg by immigration background and districts on December 31, 2017. (PDF) City of Offenburg, Urban Development Office, municipal statistics office, March 29, 2018, accessed on August 17, 2018 .
- Evangelical town church , offenburg.de, accessed on 10 April 2016th
- Community. Accessed December 31, 2019 .
- Internet presence of EFG Offenburg ; accessed on December 30, 2019
- Internet the Free Christian Community Offenburg ; accessed on December 30, 2019
- Internet presence of the Adeventist community ; accessed on December 30, 2019
- Census database - results of the 2011 census. Retrieved on May 5, 2018 .
- City of Offenburg - election to the municipal council on May 26th, 2019, compilation of the final results , accessed on August 7th, 2019
- Clear decision in the first ballot of the Stuttgarter Zeitung on October 14, 2018
- Turnout in Offenburg was higher than the officially calculated Badische Zeitung of October 17, 2018
- SU Karlsruhe / Baden Landtag Protocols [1-3]. Retrieved May 5, 2018 .
- Norbert W. Großklaus: Offenburg: "You have to look carefully". In: Badische Zeitung. July 19, 2013. Retrieved March 19, 2017 .
- cf. Wingenroth, Max : The Art Monuments of the District of Offenburg (= The Art Monuments of the Grand Duchy of Baden, Volume 7 ), pp. 554–556.
- Catholic parish of Offenburg St. Ursula - parish church
- SHORTS18. Retrieved July 15, 2018 (American English).
- Integrated traffic concept. Analysis 2006. (No longer available online.) In: www.offenburg.de . City of Offenburg, archived from the original on November 28, 2010 ; Retrieved May 5, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Contact the editorial offices of all local Offenburg media
- Offenburg correctional facility - home page. Retrieved May 1, 2015 .