Federal motorway 5
|Bundesautobahn 5 in Germany|
|Operator:||Federal Republic of Germany|
|further operator:||Via Solutions Südwest GmbH & Co. KG
(between Malsch and Offenburg )
|Start of the street:||
|End of street:||
Weil am Rhein
|Overall length:||440 km|
|Development condition:||2 × 2, 2 × 3, 2 × 4 lanes|
|Federal motorway 5 near Frankfurt am Main|
The federal autobahn 5 (abbreviation: BAB 5 ) - short form: Autobahn 5 (abbreviation: A 5 ) - is a 440 kilometer long German autobahn . Starting at the Hattenbacher Dreieck in Hesse , it runs through the conurbations of Rhine-Main and Rhine-Neckar south to Weil am Rhein in Baden-Württemberg on the German-Swiss border . In addition, it is part of an important north-south motorway connection in Europe, which extends from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean.
Its route is essentially based on the southern section of the so-called HaFraBa , a road planned in the 1920s from Hamburg via Frankfurt to Basel , which was largely built as a Reichsautobahn in the 1930s . With the introduction of the numbering system for the motorways in 1975, the route was given its current designation A 5.
The first 178 kilometers of the A5 run through Hesse . It begins at the Hattenbacher Dreieck as a continuation of the A 7 carriageway from Kassel and heads west. Initially, the route is relatively curvy and poor at junctions due to the crossing of the southern Knüllgebirge , before the first somewhat larger town is reached after around 20 kilometers, Alsfeld . As far as the Giessen area, the route now leads through the northern foothills of the Vogelsberg , with comparatively large distances between the junctions. From the Reiskirchener Dreieck , where the A 480 branches off to the Gießener Ring , the motorway makes a slight bend and from this point on only leads south. Next, there is a connection to the A 45 , the so-called Sauerland line, at the Gambacher Kreuz , whereby the missing connections for traffic from Dortmund are partially replaced by the Gießener Ring.
The Wetterau is crossed to the south of the cross , whereby the route is characterized by long straight lines due to the flat terrain. At Friedberg , the A 5 briefly touches the easternmost foothills of the Taunus before reaching the first northern and western suburbs of Frankfurt am Main . Three motorway junctions follow one another in the city: The Bad Homburg junction connects the A 5 with the A 661 as an eastern bypass of Frankfurt in the direction of Offenbach am Main . At the Nordwestkreuz Frankfurt the A 66 is crossed, which serves as a connection to the Hessian state capital Wiesbaden . Finally, the A 648 branches off at Westkreuz Frankfurt , which is a feeder for downtown Frankfurt and the Frankfurt exhibition center . After the Main is crossed on the Europabrücke , the A 5 reaches the Frankfurter Kreuz after a short time , which connects the A 3 in the direction of Cologne or Würzburg , the most heavily frequented motorway junction in Germany, shortly before the cross the high-speed route Cologne - Rhine crosses under Main the highway.
Immediately south of the Frankfurter Kreuz junction, the motorway runs east past the grounds of Frankfurt Airport (Rhein-Main-Flughafen) , which is one of the largest commercial airports in Europe. The Zeppelinheim junction also had the function of developing the former Rhein-Main Airbase of the US military; after the completion of Terminal 3 of the airport, it will gain greater importance again. This is followed by a route through an extensive forest area. On this section, which was released in 1935 as the second oldest motorway route in Germany, the motorway has had eight lanes since 1978. The first test track for overhead line trucks on a German motorway has been located here since 2019. The A 672 crosses west of Darmstadt and serves as a feeder into Darmstadt's city center. Immediately to the south, the A 5 swaps its route with the A 67 at the Darmstädter Kreuz , both of which run largely parallel to each other from this point on to the Rhine-Neckar region. As far as after Heppenheim , where the state border with Baden-Württemberg is reached, the now four-lane A5 runs along the Bergstrasse , which represents the transition from the Upper Rhine Plain to the Odenwald .
At Laudenbach you change to Baden-Württemberg , where the remaining 262 kilometers of the A5 are located. The Rhine-Neckar metropolitan region is crossed roughly in the middle. At Kreuz Weinheim you can change to the A 659 to Mannheim . The Neckar is crossed at Dossenheim before the A 656 branches off to Mannheim or Heidelberg at the Heidelberger Kreuz . About 15 kilometers to the south there is a connection to the A 6 at the Walldorf junction , which joins the A 67 at the Viernheimer Dreieck and represents an alternative route for the A 5, which is heavily congested at times. As far as Karlsruhe , the route now leads along the western foothills of the Kraichgau . The section past Bruchsal is characterized by long straights, a few junctions and large forest areas such as the Hardtwald and Lußhardt .
The urban area of Karlsruhe is affected in the east, roughly at the level of the Durlach district . In addition, the A 8 branches off at the Karlsruhe triangle in the direction of the provincial capitals Stuttgart and Munich . On the approximately 180 kilometers south of Karlsruhe to the end of the route at the Swiss border, the motorway runs mostly between the Vosges in the west and the Black Forest in the east through the Upper Rhine Rift . In the further course, the cities of Rastatt and Baden-Baden are passed before the roads to Strasbourg in Alsace cross at Appenweier and Offenburg . The A 5 initially approaches the Upper Rhine up to around three kilometers (near Lahr ), before heading east of the Kaiserstuhl to Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany's southernmost city. The area of the university town is touched to the west. From the Hartheim / Heitersheim junction, the A 5 runs in close proximity to the Rhine and France . This proximity to the border is also noticeable in the fact that the French A 36 is connected at the Neuchâtel triangle , which leads via Mulhouse to Dijon and serves as an important link towards southern France and Spain .
On the last kilometers of the A 5, the A 98 branches off to Rheinfelden at the Weil am Rhein triangle , which bypasses the greater Basel area . Just under five kilometers south of the triangle is the Weil am Rhein border crossing , where the motorway ends. As a continuation on the Swiss side the toll serves Gotthard -Highway A 2 .
View of the Feldberg near Teningen
The first plans for roads that were to be reserved exclusively for motorized individual traffic came up with the advancement of motorization in the 1920s. One of the most important projects was the long-distance road from Hamburg via Frankfurt am Main to the Swiss border to Basel , which was developed by the HaFraBa eV association ( association for the construction of a road for express motor vehicle traffic from Hamburg via Frankfurt am Main to Basel ) , which was founded at the end of 1926 . Later, from around 1928, a connection to the Hanseatic cities of Lübeck and Bremen was planned in the north via branch lines (the abbreviation HaFraBa was therefore reinterpreted in May 1928 in the association for the preparation of the Hansestädte – Frankfurt – Basel road), while the road continues through the Switzerland should lead via Zurich and Lugano to Italy and there via Milan to Genoa . Due to the lack of support for this project on the part of the state authorities, financing through user fees ( tolls ) was considered. The association finally worked out plans for an all-German basic network of trunk roads that contained many connections that were implemented later. From 1929 on, the term “ autobahn” , coined by Otzen, was used instead of the previously usual name Nur-Autostraße .
Although the NSDAP was hostile to road construction projects in the Reichstag (“luxury roads of the rich”), this view changed quickly after Hitler came to power in 1933. The background, however, was to use a propaganda pretext by building new roads in order to curb the then high unemployment. For example, the HaFraBa association was renamed GEZUVOR ("Society for the preparation of the Reichsautobahn eV") by the National Socialists and it was advocated that 1000 km of Reichsautobahn should be built every year . In order to declare the motorway as a new National Socialist invention, the Cologne – Bonn motorway was downgraded to a state road.
Frankfurt – Darmstadt (–Mannheim)
With the groundbreaking on September 23, 1933, the construction of the first Reichsautobahn route 34 from Frankfurt am Main via Darmstadt to Mannheim with a cross connection to Heidelberg as part of a first labor battle was initiated on the south bank of the Main in Frankfurt-Niederrad in the presence of Adolf Hitler . The first work on this route, such as the construction of the Main Bridge, began a few months before the ceremony in July 1933. After just 20 months of construction, the section from Frankfurt to Darmstadt was the first to be completed on May 19, 1935 during the Nazi era The line opened, the continuation from Darmstadt to Mannheim (today part of the federal highways 67 and 6 ) followed on October 3, 1935.
The use of construction machinery to promote job creation was initially prohibited, which is why all earthworks were carried out by hand. Only for the compaction of single carriageway layers were later steam rollers and construction of concrete pavements paver used. Although it was claimed that 700 workers were employed on the line after the groundbreaking, only around 450 were employed. At peak times, around 7,000 workers were employed in the catchment area of the Oberste Bauleitung Kraftfahrbahnen Frankfurt (OBK). Nevertheless, these numbers were negligible compared to the unemployment rate prevailing at the time. The main focus of the autobahn was not on the use of private transport, as this was still very limited at the time, but more on trucks and the express buses of the Deutsche Reichsbahn Frankfurt-Mannheim-Heidelberg. These frequented the route between Darmstadt and Frankfurt six times a day in both directions.
The route was based on the planning of the HaFraBa route, ready for construction since 1932, which Fritz Todt , who had been responsible for the construction of the Reichsautobahn as General Inspector for Roads since July 1933 , unchanged. The straight line through the Frankfurt city forest and the Hessian state forest as the shortest connection between the two cities is characteristic of the route between Frankfurt and Darmstadt . The street width was only 20 meters, of which 7.50 m per lane without hard shoulder and 5 m median. The roadway consisted in sections of concrete, paving and bitumen of different thicknesses - the aim was to test different road surfaces. The northern end point (name Frankfurt-Süd ) was at the height of today's Frankfurter Kreuz , the Darmstadt junction , which marked the transition between the two construction sections, led to today's B 26 . In between there was only one other junction ( Mörfelden ). There was also only one other junction at Lorsch between Darmstadt and Mannheim .
Already in the HaFraBa plans, a branch to the southwest of Frankfurt was planned for a route towards Wiesbaden . During the construction of the Reichsautobahn, a motorway junction with the route Ruhrgebiet - Frankfurt - Nuremberg was planned at this point . While this route coming from the west to Wiesbaden was completed and opened to traffic before the war, the clearing work and the bridge construction at the motorway junction were in progress from the end of 1939. Inspired by the Schkeuditz cross near Leipzig built in 1936, the shape of a clover leaf cross was chosen for this knot .
This planned junction served as an infrastructural advance service for the airships promoted by the National Socialists. Although it was planned to move the first Frankfurt airport at Rebstock out of the city area as early as the 1920s , this project was not pursued for financial reasons. In January 1934, to the west of the Reichsautobahn construction site, the development and clearing of an approx. 300 hectare forest area southwest of the crossing point for the Rhein-Main airport and airship port , which officially began operations in July 1936, was dubbed a world airport . The airfield got its own junction (today AS Zeppelinheim ). From the flight and the airship port Rhein-Main the time of evolved over Frankfurt airport , the largest airport in Germany today.
Germany's first motorway filling station was built in 1936 on the east side of what was then the Darmstadt junction. It also had a bus stop for the Frankfurt – Mannheim bus.
Due to the long straight stretch and the relatively wide roadway for the time, this section of the motorway seemed suitable for speed records, which were also carried out under the banner of Nazi propaganda. On October 25, 1937, racing driver Bernd Rosemeyer set the speed record for the first time here at 406.32 km / h. In another record run on January 28, 1938, he was killed in an accident near the Mörfelden junction after the racing car rolled over several times at almost 430 km / h. In the vicinity of this place, at the car park north of today's Langen / Mörfelden junction , there is still a memorial today.
(Göttingen–) Bad Hersfeld – Frankfurt
The official start of construction for the first phase of the continuation from Frankfurt to Gießen was December 20, 1935. This section of the motorway, known as route 30 , which was also essentially based on the HaFraBa plans, was opened on December 7, 1936 after only about a year of construction and initially led to Bad Nauheim . Although large parts of the route were already ready for construction in September 1936, the overall approval was postponed to December due to the rainy weather in summer and the necessary drainage. The section from Bad Nauheim to Oppenrod near Gießen was opened to traffic on October 17, 1937.
Junction points on the route existed in the west of Frankfurt, near Bad Homburg and Friedberg . The Bad Homburg junction was initially designed as a simple entry and exit to the subordinate road network and led to a feeder into the Bad Homburg urban area. In the 1960s, the junction was converted into a clover-shaped motorway junction in order to connect the planned Frankfurt bypass, a section of today's BAB 661 . During the alignment, reference was made to the feeder from the 1930s on the western side of the cross.
The junction in the west of Frankfurt was called Frankfurt-Nord and was designed as a cloverleaf intersection, similar to a motorway junction, with the Frankfurt – Höchst road. From May 1937, there was a motorway filling station in the north-western quadrant there, similar to the one near Darmstadt. With the complete conversion of the motor road into a motorway, this junction was also converted into a motorway junction in the 1970s.
What is striking compared to the Frankfurt – Darmstadt route is the route that is more adapted to the landscape. The "car wandering" that was so possible was part of National Socialist propaganda, which combined the achievements in road construction with a conscious staging of the "German homeland". So the route between Bad Homburg and Friedberg was not parallel to the existing country road and the railway line along the Niddatal , but across the Taunus to the eastern slope of the Steinkopf about one kilometer to the west. The drive over this crest offers a northward view of the Wetterau plain and to the south of the Frankfurt area.
Between Gießen and Bad Hersfeld , construction began in 1936 with extensive clearing work. Also for reasons of landscape staging, the route planned by HaFraBa eV via Marburg to Kassel was not adopted, but instead the motorway was led over the heights of the Knüllgebirge to Bad Hersfeld. In Reiskirchen a camp for road construction workers emerged.
The north Hessian section between Göttingen and Kassel was already completed in several sections in the course of 1937 (for more details see motorway construction in North Hesse (1933–1945) ). At Hattenbach , a branch to Würzburg was planned ( route 46 ) , corresponding to the Hattenbach triangle that was realized later . The section from Oppenrod to Alsfeld was opened on December 4, 1938, making a continuous motorway from Göttingen via Kassel, Gießen, Frankfurt, Mannheim and Heidelberg to Karlsruhe available. On the Rimberg east of Alsfeld, a rest area was planned on the summit, which is the highest point of the entire HaFraBa route, but this was no longer realized before the Second World War. Today's rest house was built in 1950.
Heidelberg – Karlsruhe
This part of the HaFraBa route was also built in the mid-1930s under the name route 35 . It branched off west of Heidelberg from the Mannheim – Heidelberg cross-connection to the south in the direction of Karlsruhe . The section from Heidelberg to Bruchsal was opened on September 27, 1936, at the same time as the Frankfurt – Bad Nauheim route and some other motorway sections. The opening ceremony took place at the southern end of the motorway near Bruchsal and was under the sign of Nazi propaganda, which could now announce that it had completed 1000 km of the Reichsautobahn. The newspaper “Hakenkreuzbanner” praises the construction of the motorway insofar as there was no expropriation for the required route - in reality, the route construction was accompanied by land consolidation . The continuation from Bruchsal to Karlsruhe was opened on October 1, 1937.
A motorway filling station was built near Bruchsal on the eastern and near Karlsruhe on the western side. The facilities were demolished in the 1970s.
Although there was a continuous motorway connection from Göttingen to Karlsruhe until the Second World War, it was not yet a continuous route - the section coming from the north led to the Mannheim – Heidelberg route, from which the section leading further south a few kilometers further east branched off. Only at the end of the 1960s, with the construction of the mountain road freeway, was what is now the continuous route between Frankfurt and Karlsruhe.
After the Second World War
After the work on the Reichsautobahn was largely stopped in 1940 and completely stopped in 1943, further construction in the newly founded Federal Republic of Germany gradually began in the course of the 1950s with increasing motorization as a result of the economic miracle . Initially, it was limited to repairing structures that had been destroyed in the war, then to continuing to build lines that were already under construction before the war. The first completely new autobahns were built in the 1960s.
Karlsruhe – Weil am Rhein (1955–1963)
In the 1950s and 1960s, the Karlsruhe motorway was gradually built further south. When the Transport Financing Act was passed in 1955, the federal government was entitled to more financial resources for road construction due to the increased mineral oil tax, which is why numerous motorway projects that were interrupted due to the Second World War are being resumed. In principle, construction began, first piece by piece, from north to south and then from Weil am Rhein to the north, so that the last gap north of Freiburg could be closed by 1962. The following year, the southern end of the autobahn was reached in Weil am Rhein just before the Swiss border.
In the first section between the Ettlingen junction (then Ettlingen / Karlsruhe-Rüppurr ) and a temporary connection to the B 3 near Bruchhausen, construction began again from July 1954. The eastern lane of the 6 km long route was opened to traffic on December 18, 1954, the western lane followed a year later on December 13, 1955. The Bruchhausen – Baden-Baden section followed in 1956 Opened to traffic in December 1958. In 1959 the Bühl – Achern sections (opened to traffic on December 11, 1959) and Müllheim / Neuchâtel – Märkt (released on December 19, 1959) followed.
When the section between Neuchâtel and Märkt was built, some communities lost their access to the Rhine due to the limited space available. In Rheinweiler , the entire village center was even torn down for the construction of the motorway, the route here is on a slope and has lanes at different heights on retaining walls without hard shoulder. A myriameter stone erected in 1863 by the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine had to give way to the motorway and, after having been in the possession of the Efringen-Kirchen motorway maintenance authority for more than half a century, was re-erected at the Fischergrund rest area in October 2012 .
The Achern – Appenweier section opened on May 24, 1960, followed a few months later on October 1, 1960 by the Appenweier – Offenburg section. On August 1, 1961, two further sections of the motorway between Offenburg and Lahr and between Freiburg-Süd (at that time the Tiengen junction ) and Neuchâtel were opened to traffic. The Lahr-Riegel section followed on November 24, 1961. With the completion of the last section between Riegel and Freiburg-Süd, from July 20, 1962, the autobahn from Karlsruhe was continuously passable as far as Märkt just before Weil am Rhein. An extension of 3 km from Märkt to the provisional end of the motorway in Weil am Rhein, just before the Swiss border, was opened on July 11, 1963.
Darmstadt – Heidelberg (1967–1970)
The construction of a second north-south motorway between the Rhine-Main and Rhine-Neckar areas had been planned since the late 1950s. The first discussions between the Hessian and Baden-Wuerttemberg transport ministries took place in 1956. Primarily intended to relieve the old HaFraBa route Frankfurt-Mannheim, an alternative route with a hard shoulder and a wider standard cross-section should be available. The Frankfurt – Darmstadt – Mannheim autobahn, built in 1935, largely in its original state with two lanes in each direction and no hard shoulder, already had an average of over 40,000 vehicles per day at that time, making it the most heavily used autobahn in Germany. The route from the Cologne – Frankfurt motorway northeast of Rüsselsheim via Darmstadt , Bensheim and Weinheim to Heidelberg means that traffic coming from Cologne can also bypass the Frankfurter Kreuz . The construction work for the route called Main-Neckar-Schnellweg or Bergstraßenlinie began on the Hessian side between Darmstadt and Weinheim in 1965, on the Baden-Württemberg side between Weinheim and Heidelberg one year later, in 1966. The aim was to use the autobahn by the summer of 1970 to be completed continuously.
The first section between the Pfungstadt and Zwingenberg junctions was opened to traffic as early as 1967, followed a year later by the sections from the Darmstädter Kreuz to the Pfungstadt junction and from the Zwingenberg junction and the Weinheim junction. The official opening ceremony of the 37 km long section between Darmstadt and Weinheim took place on August 23, 1968 on both the northern and southern new sections. Present at the northern end was the Hessian Minister of Economic Affairs and Transport, Rudi Arndt , and at the southern end, the then Federal Transport Minister Georg Leber .
With the construction of the Darmstädter Kreuz , the junction to the B 26 between Darmstadt and Griesheim was no longer necessary . It was replaced by a crossbar to downtown Darmstadt (today's BAB 672 ). The autobahn filling station integrated into the original exit was also eliminated. Instead, the service area was north of Weiterstadt in the 1960s Gräfenhausen built.
The last missing section between Weinheim and Heidelberg was completed in 1970 and opened to traffic in two stages. Initially, from June 26th, traffic in a southerly direction on the western lane could use the section, only from July 31st it was also possible to drive northwards on the eastern lane. This was a compromise with the Federal Ministry of Transport to give summer travel to the south the opportunity to use the recently completed route at an early stage. Traffic to the north had to use the old route between Mannheim and Viernheim / Weinheim temporarily during the holidays.
Of the almost 53 km long route between Darmstadt and Heidelberg, 28.8 km are in Hesse and 24 km in Baden-Württemberg. Until the reorganization of the motorway numbering in 1975, the route from the Mönchhof triangle to the Heidelberg junction was internally referred to as the A 81 . The construction of the line cost almost 300 million DM , of which 115 million fell on the Hessian and 180 million on the Baden-Württemberg section. The higher construction costs for the Baden-Württemberg section result from the higher land prices and the construction of the 400 m long Neckar bridge between Dossenheim and Wieblingen , which cost 11 million DM. According to the Federal Ministry of Transport, the completion of the northern section to Weinheim in 1968 relieved the traffic of the old Frankfurt – Mannheim motorway by 40%.
Weil am Rhein-Swiss border (1980)
The route in the Weil am Rhein area was planned a little further east in the Reichsautobahn planning at the time of National Socialism, so the autobahn was supposed to cross under the freight station and the border crossing at Riehen should be set up. Until the completion of the German-Swiss joint customs system in 1980, the provisional southern end of the motorway was on the main road between Weil am Rhein and Friedlingen , a little south of today's customs system and only a few hundred meters from the Swiss border.
The joint customs facility in Basel / Weil am Rhein was built entirely on German territory and started operations on June 14, 1980 in the first stage of expansion. On the same day, the German-Swiss link between the BAB 5 and the Swiss A 2 (then N 2) was released. The completed route follows the former provisional access south of the customs facility to the south and then leads over an elevated road on which the actual state border is crossed to the Basel district of Kleinhüningen , where the route merges into the Basel city motorway, which has been in existence since the 1970s.
An extension of the customs facility went into operation on January 3, 1983. The approximately 35 hectare facility, as it is entirely on German territory, is operated by both German and Swiss customs on the basis of intergovernmental agreements. Due to the adjacent, densely built-up urban area of Basel, as with most customs facilities, part of the facility could not be implemented on Swiss territory. There is also a rest stop behind the customs clearance in both directions. The service area in the direction of Basel is called Schweizer Raststätte Basel-Weil (signposted as CH-Raststätte Basel-Weil / Rhein on the information boards ) and is operated as a secondary facility within the meaning of the Swiss National Road Ordinance, but outside of the Swiss national territory. As a result, in the petrol station shop (Swiss operator Migrolino ), for example, contrary to Swiss law, alcoholic beverages may be sold.
Introduction of the name Bundesautobahn 5
On January 1, 1975, a new, uniform numbering scheme was introduced for the motorways in the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin. Initially, only internally managed numbering was used and only the numbers of the European roads running along the route were indicated on the signposts, but the new national numbering was brought forward. A previously in demand plan national highways 1971-1985 described system, the by Berliner Ring the digit numbers A 1 zuordnete branching routes to A 6, could, also in view of the then still existing German division , not prevail. The A 5 would have been the Berlin – Frankfurt / Oder line, which was then in the GDR , and is today's federal motorway 12 to the Polish border .
With the introduction of the currently existing system, the most important for the long-distance routes, most of which already at the time of the Weimar Republic , zuordnete were provided as the main routes digit numbers, was the route of casting, later from Hattenbacher triangle to Basel as National Highway 5 refers - the previously used system referred to the Flensburg – Basel route as the A10 . The section from Flensburg to the Hattenbacher Dreieck is now part of the A 7 .
Between Darmstadt and Heidelberg, the A 5 was placed on the route of the Main-Neckar expressway, as this continues seamlessly to Basel. The old route from Darmstadt to Mannheim from the 1930s, like the section from Mönchhof-Dreieck to Darmstädter Kreuz , was dedicated as A 67 . By changing the lane of the respective motorways at Darmstädter Kreuz, a double-numbered section with the A 6 near Mannheim is no longer necessary .
List of traffic clearances
|Hattenbacher Dreieck-Fernwald||1938||65 km|
|Fernwald – Bad Nauheim||1937||20 km|
|Bad Nauheim – Frankfurt||1936||40 km|
|Frankfurt – Darmstadt Cross||1935||22 km|
|Darmstädter Kreuz – Darmstadt-Eberstadt||1968||6 km|
|Zwingenberg – Kreuz Weinheim||1968||22 km|
|Kreuz Weinheim – Kreuz Heidelberg||1970||16 km|
|Cross Heidelberg – Bruchsal||1936||33 km|
|Bruchsal – Karlsruhe-center||1937||17 km|
|Ettlingen – Bruchhausen||1955||6 km|
|Bruchhausen – Baden-Baden||1956||22 km|
|Achern – Offenburg||1960||22 km|
|Offenburg bolt||1961||39 km|
|Riegel – Freiburg-South||1962||22 km|
|Freiburg-Süd – Müllheim / Neuchâtel||1961||25 km|
|Müllheim / Neuchâtel market||1959||25 km|
|Märkt – Weil am Rhein / Huningue||1963||3 km|
|Because on the Rhine / Huningue – Swiss border||1980||2 km|
In contrast to the remaining single-digit federal highways, i. H. the main routes, the A5 is relatively short and does not go through Germany completely, but begins in the middle of the country. This fact is a relic from the 1970s, when in 1975, with the introduction of today's numbering system as federal motorway 5, a motorway stretch from the North Sea coast near Nordenham via Bremen , Syke , Sulingen , Ostwestfalen-Lippe , Warburg , Korbach and Marburg to around today's Reiskirchener Dreieck was planned, where the A 5 will continue on the existing route to Frankfurt and Basel. The section between the Hattenbacher triangle and the Reiskirchener triangle was therefore not added to the A 5, but was given the number A 48 , just like today's federal motorways 480 and 64 - a continuous motorway was planned from the Hattenbacher triangle via Gießen, Wetzlar , Koblenz and Trier to Luxembourg .
When the planning for the northern A 5 (name before 1974 A 100 ) was given up in 1985 , the continuous route to the Hattenbacher Dreieck was finally included in the A 5 and the plans for the A 48 were finally given up. Since 1992 this has only consisted of the Vulkaneifel triangle - Dernbach triangle in Rhineland-Palatinate . This had no effect on the numbers of the interchanges, as these numbers were also only introduced in 1992.
The only relic of the A5 north of Gießen is the B 611 between the A 30 and A 2 federal motorways . A short stretch of the B 611 has been developed like a motorway. Until the completion of the northern bypass of Bad Oeynhausen , the Löhne triangle was a junction of the A 30 in the form of an unfinished motorway junction that connected the B 61 to the A 30.
- The Karlsruhe-Nord junction (43) was opened on March 5, 2007 after more than three years of construction. It is part of the controversial Karlsruhe north bypass that currently connects Hagsfeld with the B 10 near Grötzingen . The total costs for this section amount to around 11 million euros.
- On April 28, 2008, after more than two years of construction, the newly built Rastatt-Süd junction (50) was opened to traffic. It was built together with the Sandweier bypass in the course of the B 3 , whereby the entire construction work cost around 11 million euros. At the same time, the previous Rastatt junction was renamed Rastatt-Nord .
- For more than half a century, the junction Frankfurt-Niederrad (21), which also connects the Niederrad office district , an important commercial location, was not fully developed because there was no exit from the north to Schwanheimer Ufer. The junction could only be reached from there by turning in the following Frankfurter Kreuz by driving two ears , which meant a detour of several kilometers. Since the Main or the Europabrücke are located directly north of the Niederrad junction , an exit there could only have been realized with great effort. The exit ramp from the north was therefore built around 1000 m south of the existing junction and leads to Straßburger Straße. After almost two years of construction, it was opened to traffic on July 8, 2013. The total costs for this measure amounted to around six million euros, of which the federal government took on around 70 percent.
Large parts of the BAB 5 are characterized by heavy traffic volumes due to their function as a north-south main traffic route with simultaneous development of important metropolitan regions. These include in particular the multi-lane sections from the Gambacher Kreuz past Frankfurt am Main to the Darmstädter Kreuz and from the Walldorf cross to Karlsruhe . The four-lane section along the Bergstrasse from Darmstadt via Heidelberg to Walldorf is also relatively busy, although there is an alternative route with the 6 and 67 motorways that runs parallel to the west and partially has six lanes.
Sections of the BAB 5 near Frankfurt and Karlsruhe are among the busiest roads in Germany. According to a survey by the Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt) in 2015, the section from Westkreuz Frankfurt to the Frankfurt-Niederrad junction was one of the top 10 routes with the highest average daily traffic volume (DTV) . Only the BAB 3 near Cologne and the Berlin city motorway BAB 100 are heavily used.
Sections with DTV in excess of 120,000 per day
|Bad Homburg Cross - Northwest Cross Frankfurt||132,200|
|Northwest Cross Frankfurt - West Cross Frankfurt||120,000|
|Westkreuz Frankfurt - Frankfurt-Westhafen||160,800|
|Frankfurt-Westhafen - Frankfurt-Niederrad||150,900|
|Frankfurt-Niederrad - Frankfurt Cross||156,500|
|Frankfurt Cross - Zeppelinheim||143,800|
|Zeppelinheim - Langen / Mörfelden||135,700|
|Langen / Mörfelden - Weiterstadt||130,700|
|Weiterstadt - Darmstadt Cross||138,100|
|Karlsruhe-Mitte - Karlsruhe triangle||134,500|
Current state of development
Hattenbacher triangle - Gambacher cross
On the northernmost section between the Hattenbacher Dreieck and the Gambacher Kreuz , most of the motorway has four lanes. On the Rimberg just before the Hattenbacher Dreieck and between the junctions Reiskirchen (9) and Homberg (Ohm) (6) there are three lanes available due to the gradient in the direction of Kassel. A special feature here is that the additional lane on Rimberg is designated as a slow lane instead of the hard shoulder and is separated from the other two lanes with block markings, similar to a deceleration lane.
After the opening of the border in 1989, traffic on this section increased noticeably - in addition to the north-south main connection, east-west traffic towards Eastern Europe has been using this section since then, as the A4 in the Sauerland still has a vacant lot. The section, which was still in the cross-section of the Reichsautobahn, with tight curves and steep longitudinal slopes, was no longer able to cope with the volume of traffic. Over the years, hard shoulders were created and the lane between Reiskirchen and Homberg (Ohm) in the direction of Kassel / Hattenbacher Dreieck was extended by one lane.
With the approximately 10 km long section between Nieder-Gemünden (between the Alsfeld- West and Homberg (Ohm) junctions ) and the Finkenwald and Heg-Berg rest areas , the last Hessian motorway section with the original Reichsautobahn cross-section without hard shoulder until the 2000s, This project was completed in 2009.
Gambacher Kreuz - Darmstadt Cross
Due to the high volume of traffic in the Rhine-Main area , the originally four-lane section between the Gambacher Kreuz and the Darmstädter Kreuz was expanded to six to eight lanes in the 1970s. There are six lanes available in both directions from Gambacher Kreuz to Westkreuz Frankfurt , and from there to Darmstädter Kreuz there are eight lanes, with the main carriageway at Frankfurter Kreuz having six lanes. The eight-lane expansion took place south of the Frankfurter Kreuz from 1972 to 1978 and north from 1974 to 1978. The Main Bridge near Frankfurt-Griesheim was replaced by a new building with eight lanes. In June 1978 both halves of the bridge were opened to traffic.
With a length of almost 20 km, the section from Frankfurt to Darmstädter Kreuz is the longest section of the motorway in Germany with more than six lanes and was also the only one until the expansion of BAB 3 between the Frankfurt-Süd junction and the Offenbacher Kreuz in the early 1990s. In the meantime, other sections on the A 3 near Cologne, the A 8 near Stuttgart and the A 9 north of Munich have eight lanes.
Early 2000s, the portions of the junction were additionally Friedberg (16) and the Nordwestkreuz Frankfurt in both directions as well as from Frankfurt cross in northern direction of the junction Frankfurt-Niederrad (21) having a temporary page strip released equipped so that at high traffic by variable message signs of Hard shoulder is shown as an additional lane. To the north of the Frankfurter Kreuz, a total of five main lanes are available in a northerly direction when the hard shoulder is open.
Since 2009, when the Weiterstadt junction (25) was rebuilt in the course of the expansion of the commercial area, all connections to lower-ranking streets between Frankfurt and Darmstädter Kreuz have been designed as unplaned junctions in the form of trefoil crosses .
Since the end of May 2020, five lanes in the north direction have been available between Darmstädter Nordkreuz and the Weiterstadt exit. Since there were regular backlogs from the B 42 as a feeder to the north of Darmstadt, the previous hard shoulder was re-marked as another lane. This is intended to reduce the disruption to the four continuous lanes.
Darmstadt Cross - Walldorf Cross
From the Darmstädter Kreuz, where the motorway section changes to the main lane, the BAB 5 only has four lanes, although this section is heavily used (around 80,000 vehicles per day with a high proportion of commuters). Since 2010, there has been a temporary hard shoulder release system (TSF) on the section between the Darmstädter Kreuz and the Darmstadt-Eberstadt junction in the south direction, through which the hard shoulder can be released as an additional third lane when there is high traffic. For 3.6 million euros, this system was expanded by 4 km to the next junction in a southerly direction (Seeheim-Jugenheim) by December 2019. The plan is to gradually extend the hard shoulder clearance to the entire route between Darmstadt and the state border with Baden-Württemberg.
Walldorf cross - Karlsruhe triangle
Between the Walldorf junction and the Rastatt junction, the motorway was expanded from four to six lanes from the mid-1980s to around 1990. The petrol stations in the area of the Karlsruhe-Durlach junction , which were opened on the west side in 1937 and on the east side in 1958, were no longer available for reasons of space and were demolished. The Bruchsal rest area approx. 20 km further north serves as a replacement.
In the course of the expansion, the Karlsruhe-Mitte junction was extensively rebuilt so that there is no intersection, so that there is a continuous four-lane connection between the BAB 5 and the BAB 65 near Wörth am Rhein via the southern bypass. The redesigned junction was opened to traffic on July 24, 1988.
Triangle Karlsruhe - Swiss border
The motorway has six lanes as far as the Baden-Baden junction (51). From 2009 to 2014 the motorway was extended to six lanes as far as the Offenburg junction (55). From there to the German-Swiss border there are again only four lanes. On the last few kilometers in German territory between the Weil triangle and the federal border, there are three lanes in the southern direction of travel, but no hard shoulder; In addition, the area up to the Weil / Hüningen exit is used to park the trucks waiting for customs clearance.
Via Solutions Südwest, a consortium made up of Vinci , Meridiam and Kirchhoff , received the order from the Federal Ministry of Transport on February 10, 2009 to renovate the A 5 between Malsch and Offenburg and expand it to six lanes. In return, the consortium secured the truck toll income on this section for 30 years as part of the PPP project .
The kilometers on the A5 do not start at km 0 at the Hattenbacher Dreieck, but at km 372 and end at the Swiss border at km 814. This numbering comes from the time of the Reichsautobahn construction, when the zero point was set on the Berliner Ring for many routes . The kilometers of the A 5 thus originate at the Potsdam triangle , follow the A 9 to the Hermsdorfer Kreuz (and also to the end of the motorway in Munich ), there along the A 4 to the Kirchheimer Dreieck and then the A 7 to the south. The continuation of the A 7 in the direction of Würzburg also takes the same kilometer.
Since the original route ran through Mannheim and Heidelberg and the roadway is now part of other motorways ( A 67 , A 6 , A 656 ) and the road now signposted as A 5 takes a more direct route, the kilometering on the Hessian- / Baden-Württemberg state border today an offset of 2 km. The kilometers were laid from the Darmstadt – Mannheim line (today the A 67 from Mönchhof-Dreieck) to the Darmstadt – Heidelberg route from the 1960s and from there to the Swiss border.
Temporary hard shoulder release (TSF)
On several sections of the BAB 5, the hard shoulder can be released as an additional lane to prevent traffic jams. These are the sections
- Hattenbacher Dreieck - Alsfeld-West (only northbound)
- Friedberg - Nordwestkreuz Frankfurt (both directions)
- Frankfurt-Niederrad - Frankfurter Kreuz (only northbound)
- Darmstädter Kreuz - Darmstadt-Eberstadt (both driving directions) or Seeheim-Jugenheim (only driving south)
This test phase with a 52.5-kilometer route on federal highways 3 and 5 began in 2007. For this purpose, the sections concerned are video-monitored. Temporary hard shoulder releases on other sections are currently (end of 2016) in planning (between AS Friedberg and T + R Wetterau, and in the northerly direction of travel from Alsfeld-Ost to Hattenbacher Dreieck) and feasibility studies (Darmstadt - Heidelberg, Wetterau - Gambacher Kreuz, as well as north Freiburg).
Large parts of the A5 are used by more than 100,000 vehicles every day, the Westkreuz Frankfurt - F-Westhafen section is one of the busiest roads in Germany with 161,000 vehicles per day. In the five-year count from 2010, the section between Darmstadt-Eberstadt and Seeheim-Jugenheim was the second most heavily loaded four-lane motorway section in Germany with over 100,000 vehicles. The Frankfurter Kreuz has been the busiest road junction in Germany for years and one of the busiest in Europe.
Motorway and airport
South of the Frankfurter Kreuz junction, the A 5 passes under the approach lane for Frankfurt Airport right at the beginning of two runways . Also south of the Frankfurter Kreuz, on the site of the former Rhein-Main Air Base , is the airlift monument on the west side of the motorway.
Bernd Rosemeyer Memorial
High-speed tests were carried out on the A 5 south of today's Frankfurter Kreuz in the 1930s. The racing driver Bernd Rosemeyer had a fatal accident on January 28, 1938 . A memorial stone ("Bernd-Rosemeyer-Mahnmal") was erected at the parking lot after the Langen / Mörfelden exit (route kilometer 508).
"Autobahn racer case"
Between Karlsruhe and Bruchsal, there was a serious accident on the A 5 in July 2003, which became known nationwide as the “Autobahn racer case” and led to the conviction of a test driver.
Karlsruhe triangle race
eHighway test track
Since March 2018, the first German test track for trucks with pantographs has been built on the 5 km long section between Langen / Mörfelden and Weiterstadt. Commissioning took place in May 2019. The project is called Elisa, the abbreviation of El ektrifizierter, i NNOVATIVE S chwerlastverkehr on A is utobahnen.
Planning / construction
A renovation and expansion of several nodes is classified in the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2030 in the newly introduced highest category Urgent Need - Congestion Removal (VB-E). This applies to the Bad Homburg Cross , Nordwestkreuz Frankfurt , Westkreuz Frankfurt , Darmstädter Kreuz and the Walldorf motorway junction .
For the northernmost part of the A 5 from the Hattenbacher Dreieck to Gambacher Kreuz, the previously applicable Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2003 provided for a six-lane expansion along the entire length with the status of further requirements , while planning rights existed for the section south of the future triangle with the A 49 . In the new edition valid until 2030, the section north of the triangle with the A 49 was completely omitted, and planning rights no longer exist between Reiskirchen and Gambacher Kreuz. However, the section between Reiskirchen and the Ohmtaldreieck with the A 49 was classified in the VB-E .
For the section from Gambacher Kreuz to Nordwestkreuz Frankfurt, an eight-lane expansion is planned in the federal traffic route plan. To the north of AS Friedberg there was a classification in the additional requirement with planning rights, south of AS Friedberg in the highest category of priority requirement (or even VB-E in the BVWP 2030 ). The current planning provides that 24 structures / overpasses would have to be built, four widened and three demolished without replacement. The expansion is intended to help improve traffic conditions and increase road safety. In addition, as before, it should be possible to temporarily release the hard shoulder as a lane. In advance, the Friedberg junction is to be rebuilt by 2018 (new direct ramp to the north, and additional distribution lane to the south) and designed for future eight-lane expansion.
As well as the already achtstreifige section between the Westkreuz Frankfurt and the Frankfurter Kreuz is reaching its capacity limit is ten planned for this route and the north adjoining section to Nordwestkreuz one to zwölfstreifiger expansion and BVWP 2030 in the highest category VB-E classified . Due to the short sequence of several interchanges, after the first feasibility studies, long-distance and local traffic should each be given their own lanes with two to four lanes in each direction, depending on the variant and section. The planning work did not start at the end of 2018. However, the exit from AS Frankfurt-Niederrad, which was previously missing in the direction of travel, was rebuilt by July 8, 2013. A special feature here is that this exit is located approx. 500 meters behind the driveway, as the existing Main Bridge initially did not allow any other option that could be implemented with little effort.
A six-lane expansion is planned between Darmstädter Kreuz and Kreuz Walldorf. Only the southernmost part from the Heidelberg cross was classified as urgent . The rest is planned as an additional requirement . As part of the BVWP 2030 , the sections between Darmstädter Kreuz and Seeheim-Jugenheim and between AK Heidelberg and AK Walldorf were classified in the VB-E . The section in between is still required, but now with planning rights.
The further course from the Walldorf junction to the Karlsruhe motorway triangle (in the old BVWP 2003 even to the Karlsruhe-Süd junction) is to be expanded from six to eight lanes. The planning is also classified with the status of further requirements (in the new BVWP 2030 with planning rights) in the federal transport infrastructure plan .
A six-lane expansion is also planned between Offenburg and Bad Krozingen and classified as an additional requirement - planning rights exist between Offenburg and Freiburg-Mitte. From 2024, the Offenburg-Freiburg-Mitte section is to be expanded to six lanes. In the BVWP 2003, which was valid until 2016, this expansion was planned even further up to the Weil border crossing, and the section between the Teningen and Freiburg-Mitte junctions was classified as urgent .
The construction of an additional Rastatt-Mitte junction was in the preliminary planning stage in spring 2009. In 2012, however, the Karlsruhe regional council presented the now favored plan to expand the Rastatt-Nord junction into a full clover leaf.
The Schauinsland service area in the southern direction of the city of Freiburg does not offer enough parking space for trucks and so there were plans to expand it at the end of the 20th century. But then she would move too close to the Hochdorf residential area , from where there was resistance. The regional council of Freiburg, as the planner, then considered an area north of the Freiburg-Nord junction on the district of March as a replacement . Resistance came from there too. The Association of Spedition und Logistik Baden-Württemberg points to the aggravated situation of truck drivers who currently have to move to commercial and residential areas in order to keep their rest times. From 2021, Autobahn GmbH will be responsible for the planning that will also include keeping the old one as a parking lot for the new rest area.
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- provisional connection
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