|Canton :||Ticino (TI)|
Lugano East ,
Lugano West ,
|BFS no. :||5192|
|Postal code :||69xx|
|UN / LOCODE :||CH LUG|
|Height range :||269–2114 m above sea level M.|
|Area :||75.85 km²|
|Residents:||63,185 (December 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||833 inhabitants per km²|
Proportion of foreigners :
|37.3% (December 31, 2,013)|
|City President :||Marco Borradori ( Lega )|
Lugano seen from Sighignola
|Location of the municipality|
Lombard Lügàn [lyˈgaŋ, lyˈgeɲ] , German outdatedLauis,Rhaeto-Romanic ) is atownandpolitical municipalityinthe Lugano district oftheSwisscanton ofTicino. It is located in theSottoceneriand is the largest in the canton. It is divided into the districts ofLugano West,Lugano Eastand, since 2013, alsoLugano North.(
The city is Switzerland 's third largest financial center after Zurich and Geneva . Since the incorporation of Pregassona (2004), then Barbengo , Carabbia and Villa Luganese in 2008 and of Bogno , Cadro , Carona , Certara , Cimadera , Sonvico and Val Colla in 2013, Lugano is the seventh largest Swiss city in terms of area, occupying ninth place in terms of population and tenth place in terms of existing jobs.
The place is located in the south of the Lugano district and the canton at the mouth of the Cassarate river into Lake Lugano . As a university, congress and cultural city (especially between spring and autumn), Lugano attracts numerous visitors from Italy and from beyond the Alps.
In the statistical spatial category defined by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office , Lugano was assigned to the metropolitan region of Ticino , which was newly downgraded to a multipolar agglomeration system. This includes several agglomerations of Ticino and Lombardy with a total of over 500,000 inhabitants. It is with Como - Chiasso - Mendrisio neighboring agglomeration of the metropolitan area of Milan (Grande Milano) with around 7.5 million inhabitants. The center of Milan can be reached by car and train in around an hour.
Lugano is located on Lake Lugano (in Italian: Lago di Lugano, in Italy Lago Ceresio) and is surrounded by the three panoramic mountains Monte Brè ( ) in the east, Monte San Salvatore ( ) in the west and Sighignola ( ) (on the opposite Lakeshore), the peak of which Balcone d'Italia is already on Italian soil.
The neighboring municipalities are Arogno , Melide , Morcote , Vico Morcote , Grancia , Collina d'Oro , Sorengo , Muzzano , Bioggio , Massagno , Savosa , Porza , Vezia , Canobbio , Capriasca and Ponte Capriasca and on Italian territory Valsolda , Campione d'Italia , Alta Valle Intelvi and Brusimpiano .
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Lugano
Quarters 1–9 are the old city quarters that belonged to the city even before the major incorporation in 2004. Quarters 11–18 are the areas of the municipalities that merged with Lugano in 2004. Quarters 19–21 were added through incorporation in 2008, Quartier 22–25 through incorporation in 2013.
December 31, 2015
Based on some archaeological finds and grave inscriptions found in the Lugano area, it can be assumed that the area around Lugano was inhabited by Leponti people. 804, 844 (copy around 1300), 854 (copy around 1300) and 875 Lugano is first mentioned in a document; the name forms were first Luanasco, then Luano . The meaning of the name is uncertain, possibly it goes back to the Latin lūcus "grove, forest".
In the Middle Ages, Lugano was affected by conflicts between Como and Milan for centuries, as these were often fought on battlefields in what is now the canton of Ticino. In the second half of the fourteenth century the city came under the rule of the Milanese Visconti . It was later occupied by French mercenaries, who in turn were driven out by the Confederates in 1513 ; since then, Lugano has been under federal rule. With the entry of French revolutionary troops into the territory of the Confederation in 1798, Ticino's status as a subject ended, and Lugano became the capital of the canton of Lugano in the Helvetic Republic for a few years . In 1803, Lugano became part of the canton of Ticino, the capital of which changed between Bellinzona , Locarno and Lugano every six years until 1878 .
Development of the urban area
In 2004 eight other municipalities merged with the city of Lugano: Breganzona , Cureggia , Davesco-Soragno , Gandria , Pambio-Noranco , Pazzallo , Pregassona and Viganello. As a result, both the area and the population of Lugano increased considerably.
On September 30, 2007, the voters of Barbengo , Carabbia and Villa Luganese as well as Lugano approved the incorporation of these three municipalities. The voters of the municipality of Cadro, however, rejected the merger, which is why Villa Luganese became an exclave of the city of Lugano. The incorporation was completed on April 20, 2008.
Due to the cramped conditions in the urban area due to the lake and mountains, the economic development takes place today mainly outside the municipal boundaries in the Vedeggio valley.
The official language is Italian . The Ticinese dialect ( Ticinées ), a variety of Lombard , belonging to the area type Northern Italian or Padan , is on the decline; Urbanization , internal migration and tourism are seen as causes.
In 2014, 87.6% stated Italian, 9.7% German, 6.1% English and 5.8% French as their main language (more than one main language can be mentioned).
In the schools in Ticino, French is taught as the first foreign language and German as the second.
Religions - denominations
- Roman Catholic : 65.5% (68%)
- Non-denominational : 19.3% (5%)
- other Christian communities: 6.7% (5%)
- Protestant Reformed : 2.8% (5%)
- Muslim : 2.9% (4%)
- other: 2.8% (14%)
The legislature is represented by the consiglio comunale ( municipal council ). It consists of 60 members from 6 parties and is elected every four years by the people. Distribution of seats 2016–2020 (results from 2013 in brackets): FDP 18 (19), Lega 18 (18), CVP 9 (9), SP 9 (9), SVP 3 (2), GPS 3 (3).
The executive branch is the city council . It consists of seven members and, like the local council, is elected by the people every four years.
City Councilors (since 2016): Mayor Marco Borradori ( Lega ), Lorenzo Quadri ( Lega ), Michele Foletti ( Lega ), Michele Bertini ( FDP ), Giovanna Masoni Brenni ( FDP ), Cristina Zanini Barzaghi ( SP ), Angelo Jelmini ( CVP ) .
National Council elections
In the 2019 Swiss parliamentary elections, the share of the vote in Lugano was: Lega 20.6%, FDP 20.3%, CVP 14.0%, SP 13.9%, SVP 13.1%, Greens 11.1%, glp 1, 0%, POP / Sol 0.9%, Più Donne 0.9%, LEGA VERDE 0.9%.
Local civil parish (patriciate)
- Active local citizen families of Lugano
- Airoldi, Alleoni, Anastasi, Bariffi, Bellasi, Beretta, Beretta-Piccoli, Bernasconi (two tribes), Bianchi, Bossi, Brentani, Camuzzi, Conti (two tribes), Crivelli, De Carli, De Filippis, De Marchi, Domeniconi, Fioratti , Foppa, Gorini, Laghi, Lepori, Lurati, Luvini, Moroni-Stampa, Morosini, Peri-Morosini, Perlasca, Riva (two tribes), Salmini, Snorghi, Solari, Soldini, Torricelli, Vegezzi, Viglezio
- Aprile, Caratti, Danesi, Demarchi, Gianini, Gilardi, Malacrida, Monti, Navoni, Pedrotta, Prati, Raselli, Sabbioni, Sala, Scopazzini, Taddei, Zeppi
Former local families of Brè-Aldesago
- Gedra, Molinari, Snaghi, Talleri
The townscape is classified in the inventory of protected sites in Switzerland (ISOS) as a site of national importance in Switzerland.
Green areas, promenades, local mountains
The Parco civico with its lush southern vegetation and the Villa Ciani are worth seeing . To the west of the park is the lake promenade, which was built in stages between 1864 and 1920 and leads to Paradiso .
Other attractions of Lugano are the two local mountains, Monte San Salvatore and Monte Brè , from which a panorama over the city, Lake Lugano and the Ticino mountains is offered. Both mountains can be reached both by train and on foot. At the foot of Monte Brè are the village of Gandria and Villa Favorita .
The medieval and early modern old town of Lugano was largely demolished or gutted on the basis of the structure plan from 1902 between 1910 and 1942 and replaced by a new city center. Therefore, only a few churches and a few secular buildings still exist from the former building structure. Besides these, the promenade Via Nassa and the Piazza della Riforma are particularly worth a visit.
- The Cathedral of San Lorenzo is an early medieval foundation. It was first mentioned as a parish church in 818 and as a collegiate church in 1078; It has been a cathedral since the diocese of Lugano was founded in 1888. The current building, which still incorporates Romanesque walls, essentially dates from the Gothic period, but was later rebuilt several times (most recently 1905–1910). The stage facade, a masterpiece of the Lombard Renaissance (very likely by Giovanni Antonio Amadeo ), was started in 1517 and completed towards the end of the 16th century.
- The parish church of Santa Maria degli Angioli originally belonged to a Franciscan monastery and was built between 1499 and 1515. Inside is the most famous fresco cycle of the Renaissance in Switzerland: the depictions "Crucifixion of Christ", "The Last Supper" and "The Mother of God with Child" were painted by Bernardino Luini , a student of da Vinci .
- The Church of San Rocco was built between 1528 and 1723. Inside, it has rich pseudo-architecture and frescoes from the Baroque era .
- The current construction of the church of Sant'Antonio Abate dates from the 17th century and the early 20th century. The interior is rich in baroque architecture.
- The monastery of San Giuseppe of the Capuchin Clarissins was founded in 1747 by Bishop of Como Agostino Maria Neuroni . Inside there are halls with painted wooden ceilings and mirror vaults with illusionist paintings and frescoes painted around 1774 by the brothers Giovanni Antonio and Giuseppe Antonio Torricelli.
- The Capuchin monastery Santissima Trinità was founded in 1646, the late baroque church was consecrated in 1654. In the south of the building area is the Salita dei Frati public library planned by Mario Botta in 1976–1979 and completely buried in the ground with a skylight above the reading room.
- Other churches in the city center are San Carlo (1640–1661), San Giuseppe (1758–1759) and Santa Maria Immacolata (consecrated in 1852, facade from 1917).
Palazzi and other buildings
Only a few civil buildings remain from the former old town. The three of them bear the name of the noble family of the Riva.
- La Piccionaia on Corso Pestalozzi is a rare example of a civil Renaissance building. It was built at the end of the 15th century.
- The Palazzo Riva on Via Soave received its present-day appearance around 1730.
- The Palazzo Riva on Via Magatti is one of the most important examples of late Baroque civil architecture in Ticino.
- The Palazzo Riva on Via Pretorio is a late Baroque building that was built between 1742 and 1752.
- The town hall on the Piazza della Riforma is a monumental classicist rectangular building that was built in 1843–1844 as a government building.
- The Villa Ciani in today's Parco Civico is one of the most beautiful residences of the 19th century in Ticino and shows itself in simple classicist forms. In its place originally stood a castle of the Duke of Milan, which was razed by the Confederates in 1517.
Buildings that were erected as part of urban renewal include the Palazzo Primavesi (1911–1913, decorative eclectic architectural elements ), the Palazzi Gargantini (1912–1930, Neo-Baroque to Art Deco ), the Palazzina Alhambra (1926, neo-Renaissance ), the Palazzo degli Studi (1903–1904, historicism ) and the cantonal library (1937–1941, a milestone in modern architecture in Ticino) should be mentioned. One of the most important examples of cinema architecture from the 1950s is the Corso , built according to plans by Rino Tami .
North of the city center, in the Molino Nuovo district , is the monumental city cemetery, laid out between 1897 and 1899, with numerous grave monuments of outstanding artistic quality.
Museo d'arte della Svizzera italiana (MASILugano) in the cultural center Lugano Arte e Cultura (LAC)
- Museo d'arte della Svizzera italiana in the Palazzo Reali (formerly Museo Cantonale d'Arte )
- Collezione Giancarlo e Danna Olgiati
- Museo delle Culture , Museum of Cultures in the Villa Malpensata
- Cantonal Natural History Museum (Museo cantonale di storia naturale)
- Swiss Customs Museum (Museo doganale svizzero) in Cantine di Gandria
- Villa Ciani and Park
- Villa Favorita and park in the Castagnola district
Lugano is the third largest financial center in Switzerland. In addition to Banca della Svizzera Italiana BSI SA , the oldest bank in the Canton of Ticino, founded in 1873, Banca Arner , Banca Commerciale Lugano , Banca del Ceresio , Banca del Sempione and Cornèr Bank have their headquarters in Lugano. What was once the largest bank in the Canton of Ticino, the Banca del Gottardo , was also based in Lugano . In addition to the two major Swiss banks UBS and Credit Suisse , numerous other Swiss and international private banking institutions are also represented with branches in Lugano , such as Banque Cramer & Cie SA.
The municipality houses the studio of the Swiss radio of the Italian language RSI in Lugano-Besso and the Orchestra della Svizzera italiana (OSI), which emerged from the RSI Orchestra founded in 1935. Lugano is the seat of various independent theater groups that are active in Lugano and Ticino as well as in Switzerland and around the world. a. Teatro Pan, Markus Zohner Theater Compagnie , Teatro Sunil , Teatro delle Radici.
Internationally known is the Estival Jazz , the largest jazz event in Europe , which has been held since 1979 .
In 1956, the first edition of the Eurovision Song Contest took place in Lugano under the title Gran Premio Eurovisione della Canzone Europea . The Progetto Martha Argerich , directed by the world-famous pianist, is also famous.
The Lugano railway station lies on the railway line Zurich / Basel-Milan ( Gotthard Bahn ). EuroCity trains, Intercity , RegioExpress and the S-Bahn stop here . After a two-year construction period, the renovated station was inaugurated on December 11, 2016.
The city lies on the A2 motorway (Basel-Gotthard-Lugano-Chiasso) with two exits (No. 49 Lugano North and No. 50 Lugano South).
Four meter-gauge trams were operated in and around Lugano until the second half of the 20th century, namely the Lugano tram , the Lugano-Cadro-Dino-Bahn (LCD), the Lugano-Tesserete-Bahn (LT) and the Lugano-Ponte -Tresa-Bahn (FLP). The first three were later converted to bus operation, while the FLP was gradually expanded into a high-performance suburban railway. For the future, an underground introduction to the city center (abandoning the current end point at the SBB train station) is up for debate.
Within the city, the old, mostly single-lane tram routes were replaced by the Lugano trolleybus between 1954 and 1959 . In the 1990s, the maintenance of the trolleybuses and their infrastructure were increasingly reduced. After the Federal Office of Transport only granted temporary operating permits for parts of the vehicle fleet and linked various other conditions to the continued operation of the network, trolleybus operation was switched to diesel buses on June 30, 2001 and the electrical systems dismantled. In connection with the FLP conversion plans, the reintroduction of tram operation is also being discussed.
The Lugano – Bahnhof SBB funicular , which opened in 1886 and has been known as Sassellina since 2016 , is important for inner-city traffic and is therefore heavily frequented . It connects Piazza Cioccaro in the old town with the SBB train station . After a two-year renovation, the funicular reopened on December 11, 2016. The train overcomes a difference in altitude of 50 meters and is the most popular funicular in Switzerland.
To the west of the city is the Lugano-Agno airport , from which scheduled flights to Geneva and Zurich are operated. It is connected to the city center by train by the Lugano-Ponte-Tresa-Bahn (line S60 of the Ticino S-Bahn ), by car you can reach it in the direction of Ponte Tresa and over the hill of Sorengo (junction to Collina d ' Oro).
The Società Navigazione del Lago di Lugano (Shipping Company of Lake Lugano ) connects several landing stages located within the city and the places on Lake Lugano.
The Università della Svizzera italiana, founded in 1996, is located in Lugano with the faculties of communication science , economics and computer science . The architecture academy in Mendrisio belongs to the same university .
In the center of Lugano at the Università della Svizzera italiana is the Scuola Europea di Studi Avanzati in Oftalmologia (ESASO), a further training facility for ophthalmologists .
Franklin College, a private university recognized by Switzerland and the USA, is based in Lugano. His focus is on the subjects of international relations, economics and history.
In Manno there is the Università professionale della Svizzera italiana (SUPSI) and the Scuola superiore di teatro di movimento.
The regional hospital of Lugano (Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, ORLugano) emerged from the two hospitals Ospedale Civico and Ospedale Italiano .
The following clinics are also located in the city of Lugano:
- Cardiocentro Ticino (clinic specializing in heart diseases)
- Neurocentro della Svizzera italiana
- Clinica luganese Moncucco e San Rocco (private clinic for acute pathology including intensive care)
- Clinica Viarnetto (private psychiatric clinic) in the Pregassona district
The health system in the greater Lugano area is also supplemented by the following institutions:
- Ars Medica Clinic (private clinic in Gravesano )
- Clinica Sant'Anna (private maternity clinic in Sorengo )
- Federal Rehabilitation Clinic (Clinic for rehabilitation of the musculoskeletal system and the back in Novaggio )
- Ospedale Malcantonese (semi-private clinic for general medicine and psychiatry in Castelrotto )
The HC Lugano ice hockey club plays in Switzerland's highest ice hockey league, the NLA, in the La Resega stadium. He is a seven-time Swiss champion (1986, '87, '88, '90, '99, 2003, '06) and thus the most successful national ice hockey team since the play-offs were introduced in 1985.
The football club FC Lugano has been playing in the top football league in Switzerland in the Stadio di Cornaredo since 2015 . He was three times Swiss champion (1938, '41 and '49) and three times Swiss cup winner (1931, '68 and '93). Ottmar Hitzfeld played for FC Lugano from 1978 to 1980.
There is also Football Club Rapid Lugano, Football Club Femminile Rapid Lugano, Football Club Trevano and F. C. Os Lusiadas.
Personalities who worked in Lugano
Personalities born in Lugano
Grotto Morchino, Pazzallo, mentioned in Hermann Hesse's novella Klingsor's last summer of 1919
- Mario Agliati : La Lugano del buon tempo. Credito Svizzero, Lugano 1963.
- Giuseppe Negro: Lugano (municipality). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . June 26, 2017 , accessed December 30, 2019 .
- Eligio Pometta , Virgilio Chiesa , Vittorino Maestrini: Storia di Lugano. 2 volumes. Edited by the Società dei commercianti di Lugano. Lugano 1975.
- Celestino Trezzini : Lugano. In: Historical-Biographical Lexicon of Switzerland , Volume 4: Liebegg - Milan. Attinger, Neuchâtel 1927, pp. 724-727 ( digitized version ).
- Andreas Hauser: Lugano. In: INSA. Inventory of newer Swiss architecture 1850–1920 . Volume 6. Orell Füssli, Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-280-02058-1 , pp. 205-356.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History . Volume 2. GSK, Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , pp. 695-713.
- Simona Martinoli u. a .: Lugano. In: Guida d'arte della Svizzera italiana. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Edizioni Casagrande, Bellinzona 2007, pp. 293-321.
Further content in the
sister projects of Wikipedia:
|Commons||- multimedia content|
|Wikivoyage||- Travel Guide|
- Official website of the municipality of Lugano
- Data from the municipality of Lugano
- Office for Statistics of the Canton of Ticino: Lugano (Italian)
- Lugano Monte Brè
- Lugano: inventory of cultural assets of the Canton of Ticino
- Federal inventory ISOS: Lugano (PDF; 30.3 MB)
- Lugano on elexikon.ch
- Permanent and non-permanent resident population by year, canton, district, municipality, population type and gender (permanent resident population). In: bfs. admin.ch . Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 31, 2019, accessed on December 22, 2019 .
- Permanent and non-permanent resident population by institutional structure, gender, nationality and age. City of Lugano. Status: April 1, 2012, accessed on July 11, 2014
- Lexicon of Swiss municipality names . Edited by the Center de Dialectologie at the University of Neuchâtel under the direction of Andres Kristol. Frauenfeld / Lausanne 2005, p. 548.
- Lugano. Origine del toponimo (Italian) on archiviostoricolugano.ch (accessed on January 18, 2017).
- Schuler Martin, Joye Dominique, Dessemontet Pierre; Federal population census 2000. The spatial structures of Switzerland, FSO, Neuchâtel 2005.
- Bernhard Maier: The Celts: their history from the beginnings to the present, p. 98.
- Giuseppe Negro: Lugano (Pieve, Vogtei, district). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . May 30, 2017 .
- The authenticity of a deed of gift from 724, in which Lugano is mentioned, is doubted; see Giuseppe Negro: Lugano (municipality). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . July 12, 2017 .
- Giuseppe Chiesi: Visconti (dukes). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . 4th November 2014 .
- Giuseppe Negro: Lugano (municipality). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . July 12, 2017 .
- Permanent resident population aged 15 and over by main language, by canton and city at bfs.admin.ch/bfs/de/home/statistiken/bevoelkerung/sprache-religionen (accessed on April 1, 2017).
- Permanent resident population aged 15 and over according to religious affiliation at bfs.admin.ch/bfs/de/home/statistiken/bevoelkerung/sprache-religionen (accessed on April 1, 2017).
- seats for the city council from 2016
- seats for the City Council 2013–2016
- Federal elections 2019 | opendata.swiss. Retrieved December 5, 2019 .
- Risultati elezioni federali 2019, Consiglio nazionale, LUGANO, Risultati delle liste. Republic and Canton of Ticino, 2019, accessed December 5, 2019 (Italian).
- Local citizens' community on luganobre.ch
- Family name book of Switzerland
- List of sites of national importance , directory on the website of the Federal Office of Culture (BAK), accessed on January 10, 2018.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely revised edition. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , pp. 697-699.
- Lugano on the ETHorama platform
- Riccardo Bergossi, Lara Calderari: Il complesso di Santa Maria degli angeli e il centro culturale LAC Lugano Arte e Cultura (= Swiss Art Guide , No. 978–979). Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History GSK. Bern 2015, ISBN 978-3-03797-219-9 ; Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , pp. 701–703.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , pp. 705-706.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , p. 707.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , p. 708.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , pp. 700, 707 f.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , p. 709.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , p. 699 f.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , pp. 704 f.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , pp. 703 f.
- Municipio di Lugano on ethorama.library.ethz.ch/en/node
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , p. 710.
- Villa Ciani on ethorama.library.ethz.ch/en/node
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , p. 701.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , p. 705.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , p. 712.
- Art guide through Switzerland. Completely re-edit Output. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History. Volume 2. Bern 2005, ISBN 3-906131-96-3 , p. 717 f.
- the MASILugano site
- Website of the LAC Lugano Arte e Cultura
- Collezione Giancarlo e Danna Olgiati
- Simona Martinoli u. a .: Guida d'arte della Svizzera italiana. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History GSK, Edizioni Casagrande, Bellinzona 2007, ISBN 978-88-7713-482-0 , pp. 295-318.
- Cantonal Natural History Museum (Museo cantonale di storia naturale)
- Cantonal Natural History Museum
- Villa Ciani and Park
- Villa Favorita and Park (PDF; 12 kB)
- Studio Radio Svizzera Italiana on ethorama.library.ethz.ch/en/node
- Progetto Martha Argerich (Italian) on luganofestival.ch (accessed on March 3, 2017).
- Aargauer Zeitung: Completely renovated train station and new funicular in Lugano inaugurated
- Funicolare Lugano-Stazione FFS. In: ticino.ch. Retrieved December 24, 2019 (Italian).
- TPL Trasporti Pubblici Luganesi SA La funicolare
- 6900.01 Lugano Piazza Cioccaro - Lugano Stazione FFS. In: standseilbahnen.ch. Markus Seitz, 2019 .
- Società Navigazione del Lago di Lugano
- Marco Marcacci: University of Italian Switzerland. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . February 7, 2013 .
- Scuola Europea di Studi Avanzati in Oftalmologia
- Franklin College (Italian) on fus.edu/
- Centro svizzero di calcolo scientifico (Italian) on cscs.ch/
- high-performance data center (photo)
- Scuola superiore di teatro di movimento
- Ospedale Regionale di Lugano (Italian) on eoc.ch/Ospedali-e-Istituti/
- Lugano regional hospital at ethorama.library.ethz.ch/en/node
- Cardiocentro Ticino
- Neurocentro della Svizzera italiana (Italian) on eoc.ch/en/Centri-specialistici/
- Clinica luganese Moncucco (Italian) on moncucco.ch/
- Clinica Viarnetto on clinicaviarnetto.ch/d/
- Football Club Rapid Lugano .
- Football Club Femminile Rapid Lugano
- Football Club Trevano on football.ch/ftc/Club-FTC.aspx/
- F. C. Os Lusiadas (Italian) on fcoslusiadas.com/