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Coat of arms of Lugano
State : SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland
Canton : Canton of TicinoCanton of Ticino Ticino (TI)
District : Luganow
Circle : Lugano East ,
Lugano West ,
Lugano North
BFS no. : 5192i1 f3 f4
Postal code : 69xx
Coordinates : 717 505  /  96295 coordinates: 46 ° 0 '29 "  N , 8 ° 57' 20"  O ; CH1903:  seven hundred seventeen thousand five hundred and five  /  96295
Height : 275  m above sea level M.
Height range : 269–2114 m above sea level M.
Area : 75.85  km²
Residents: i63,185 (December 31, 2018)
Population density : 833 inhabitants per km²
Proportion of foreigners :
(residents without
citizenship )
37.3% (December 31, 2,013)
City President : Marco Borradori ( Lega )
Lugano seen from Sighignola

Lugano seen from Sighignola

Location of the municipality
Lago Maggiore Lago Delio Lago di Piano Lago di Origlio Lago di Muzzano Luganersee Comer See Italien Italien Italien Kanton Graubünden Bezirk Bellinzona Bezirk Locarno Bezirk Mendrisio Agno TI Bioggio Cademario Muzzano TI Vernate TI Alto Malcantone Aranno Miglieglia Novaggio Capriasca Capriasca Origlio Ponte Capriasca Ponte Capriasca Kommunanz Capriasca/Lugano Collina d’Oro Grancia Melide TI Morcote Paradiso TI Vico Morcote Arogno Bissone Brusino Arsizio Maroggia Melano Rovio Lugano Caslano Curio TI Curio TI Magliaso Neggio Ponte Tresa TI Pura TI Astano Bedigliora Bedigliora Croglio Monteggio Sessa TI Curio TI Bedano Gravesano Manno TI Mezzovico-Vira Mezzovico-Vira Monteceneri Torricella-Taverne Cadempino Canobbio Comano TI Cureglia Lamone Massagno Porza Savosa Sorengo VeziaMap of Lugano
About this picture

Audio file / audio sample Lugano ? / i (Lombard Lügàn [lyˈgaŋ, ​​lyˈgeɲ] , German outdatedLauis,Rhaeto-Romanic Ligiaun ? / i ) is atownandpolitical municipalityinthe Lugano district oftheSwisscanton ofTicino. It is located in theSottoceneriand is the largest in the canton. It is divided into the districts ofLugano West,Lugano Eastand, since 2013, alsoLugano North. Audio file / audio sample

The city is Switzerland 's third largest financial center after Zurich and Geneva . Since the incorporation of Pregassona (2004), then Barbengo , Carabbia and Villa Luganese in 2008 and of Bogno , Cadro , Carona , Certara , Cimadera , Sonvico and Val Colla in 2013, Lugano is the seventh largest Swiss city in terms of area, occupying ninth place in terms of population and tenth place in terms of existing jobs.

The letters LVGA in the coat of arms stand for the first letters of the place name. The city is the largest Italian-speaking political municipality outside of Italy .


The place is located in the south of the Lugano district and the canton at the mouth of the Cassarate river into Lake Lugano . As a university, congress and cultural city (especially between spring and autumn), Lugano attracts numerous visitors from Italy and from beyond the Alps.

In the statistical spatial category defined by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office , Lugano was assigned to the metropolitan region of Ticino , which was newly downgraded to a multipolar agglomeration system. This includes several agglomerations of Ticino and Lombardy with a total of over 500,000 inhabitants. It is with Como - Chiasso - Mendrisio neighboring agglomeration of the metropolitan area of Milan (Grande Milano) with around 7.5 million inhabitants. The center of Milan can be reached by car and train in around an hour.


The city center is located directly on Lake Lugano.
In the background the Monte Brè
View from Monte San Salvatore to Lugano at night
Aerial photo from 800 m by Walter Mittelholzer (1919)

Lugano is located on Lake Lugano (in Italian: Lago di Lugano, in Italy Lago Ceresio) and is surrounded by the three panoramic mountains Monte Brè ( 925  m ) in the east, Monte San Salvatore ( 912  m ) in the west and Sighignola ( 1314  m ) (on the opposite Lakeshore), the peak of which Balcone d'Italia is already on Italian soil.

The neighboring municipalities are Arogno , Melide , Morcote , Vico Morcote , Grancia , Collina d'Oro , Sorengo , Muzzano , Bioggio , Massagno , Savosa , Porza , Vezia , Canobbio , Capriasca and Ponte Capriasca and on Italian territory Valsolda , Campione d'Italia , Alta Valle Intelvi and Brusimpiano .

Climate table

With an annual mean of 12.4 ° C for the period 1981-2010, Lugano, together with Locarno and Grono, is one of the warmest places in Switzerland.

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Lugano
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 6.6 8.5 13.0 15.8 20.2 24.2 26.9 26.1 21.7 16.7 11.3 7.4 O 16.6
Min. Temperature (° C) 0.8 1.6 4.9 7.9 12.1 15.4 17.8 17.4 13.9 10.0 5.1 1.7 O 9.1
Temperature (° C) 3.3 4.5 8.3 11.4 15.7 19.6 22.1 21.5 17.5 13.0 7.9 4.3 O 12.5
Precipitation ( mm ) 66 52 80 156 196 164 153 158 185 142 127 80 Σ 1,559
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 4.0 4.9 6.0 5.7 6.0 7.4 8.2 7.8 6.2 4.5 3.7 3.5 O 5.7
Rainy days ( d ) 5 5 6th 11 13 10 8th 10 8th 9 8th 6th Σ 99
Humidity ( % ) 70 65 61 66 70 68 66 69 73 78 72 70 O 69
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

City quarters

Quarters 1–9 are the old city quarters that belonged to the city even before the major incorporation in 2004. Quarters 11–18 are the areas of the municipalities that merged with Lugano in 2004. Quarters 19–21 were added through incorporation in 2008, Quartier 22–25 through incorporation in 2013.

Quarter No.  BFS code Population
December 31, 2015
Quarters of Lugano
Aldesago 1 5192001 504 1972
Besso 2 5192002 4964 -
Brè 3 5192003 351 1972
Caprino 4th 5192004 1972
Cassarate 5 5192005 3425 1972
Castagnola 6th 5192006 2044 1972
Centro 7th 5192007 5017 -
Loreto 8th 5192008 2932 -
Molino Nuovo 9 5192009 9058 -
Breganzona 11 5192011 5240 2004
Cureggia 12 5192012 170 2004
Davesco-Soragno 13 5192013 1605 2004
Gandria 14th 5192014 224 2004
Pambio-Noranco 15th 5192015 732 2004
Pazzallo 16 5192016 1552 2004
Pregassona 17th 5192017 9268 2004
Viganello 18th 5192018 6990 2004
Barbengo 19th 5192021 1970 2008
Carabbia 20th 5192022 599 2008
Villa Luganese 21st 5192023 556 2008
Cadro 22nd 5192024 2312 2013
Carona 23 5192025 865 2013
Sonvico 24 5192026 1945 2013
Val Colla 25th 5192027 682 2013


General story

Based on some archaeological finds and grave inscriptions found in the Lugano area, it can be assumed that the area around Lugano was inhabited by Leponti people. 804, 844 (copy around 1300), 854 (copy around 1300) and 875 Lugano is first mentioned in a document; the name forms were first Luanasco, then Luano . The meaning of the name is uncertain, possibly it goes back to the Latin lūcus "grove, forest".

In the Middle Ages, Lugano was affected by conflicts between Como and Milan for centuries, as these were often fought on battlefields in what is now the canton of Ticino. In the second half of the fourteenth century the city came under the rule of the Milanese Visconti . It was later occupied by French mercenaries, who in turn were driven out by the Confederates in 1513 ; since then, Lugano has been under federal rule. With the entry of French revolutionary troops into the territory of the Confederation in 1798, Ticino's status as a subject ended, and Lugano became the capital of the canton of Lugano in the Helvetic Republic for a few years . In 1803, Lugano became part of the canton of Ticino, the capital of which changed between Bellinzona , Locarno and Lugano every six years until 1878 .

Development of the urban area

Bay of Lugano Paradiso of view

In 1972 the former municipalities of Brè-Aldesago and Castagnola were incorporated into the city of Lugano.

In 2004 eight other municipalities merged with the city of Lugano: Breganzona , Cureggia , Davesco-Soragno , Gandria , Pambio-Noranco , Pazzallo , Pregassona and Viganello. As a result, both the area and the population of Lugano increased considerably.

On September 30, 2007, the voters of Barbengo , Carabbia and Villa Luganese as well as Lugano approved the incorporation of these three municipalities. The voters of the municipality of Cadro, however, rejected the merger, which is why Villa Luganese became an exclave of the city of Lugano. The incorporation was completed on April 20, 2008.

As of April 14, 2013, the municipalities of Bogno , Cadro , Carona , Certara , Cimadera , Sonvico and Val Colla were merged with Lugano, giving the city around 3400 additional inhabitants.

Due to the cramped conditions in the urban area due to the lake and mountains, the economic development takes place today mainly outside the municipal boundaries in the Vedeggio valley.


Population development
year 1643 1670 1769 1850 1870 1888 1900 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990 2000 2005 2010 2012 2017
Residents 3278 3402 4351 5939 6836 8185 10847 14998 17672 21448 27121 25334 26560 51608 52033 61837 63494


The official language is Italian . The Ticinese dialect ( Ticinées ), a variety of Lombard , belonging to the area type Northern Italian or Padan , is on the decline; Urbanization , internal migration and tourism are seen as causes.

In 2014, 87.6% stated Italian, 9.7% German, 6.1% English and 5.8% French as their main language (more than one main language can be mentioned).

In the schools in Ticino, French is taught as the first foreign language and German as the second.

Religions - denominations

Christmas tree in Piazza Riforma (2018)

Status 2014


legislative branch

18th 18th 
A total of 60 seats
Lugano Town Hall

The legislature is represented by the consiglio comunale ( municipal council ). It consists of 60 members from 6 parties and is elected every four years by the people. Distribution of seats 2016–2020 (results from 2013 in brackets): FDP 18 (19), Lega 18 (18), CVP 9 (9), SP 9 (9), SVP 3 (2), GPS 3 (3).


The executive branch is the city ​​council . It consists of seven members and, like the local council, is elected by the people every four years.

City Councilors (since 2016): Mayor Marco Borradori ( Lega ), Lorenzo Quadri ( Lega ), Michele Foletti ( Lega ), Michele Bertini ( FDP ), Giovanna Masoni Brenni ( FDP ), Cristina Zanini Barzaghi ( SP ), Angelo Jelmini ( CVP ) .

National Council elections

In the 2019 Swiss parliamentary elections, the share of the vote in Lugano was: Lega 20.6%, FDP 20.3%, CVP 14.0%, SP 13.9%, SVP 13.1%, Greens 11.1%, glp 1, 0%, POP / Sol 0.9%, Più Donne 0.9%, LEGA VERDE 0.9%.

Local civil parish (patriciate)

Active local citizen families of Lugano
  • Airoldi, Alleoni, Anastasi, Bariffi, Bellasi, Beretta, Beretta-Piccoli, Bernasconi (two tribes), Bianchi, Bossi, Brentani, Camuzzi, Conti (two tribes), Crivelli, De Carli, De Filippis, De Marchi, Domeniconi, Fioratti , Foppa, Gorini, Laghi, Lepori, Lurati, Luvini, Moroni-Stampa, Morosini, Peri-Morosini, Perlasca, Riva (two tribes), Salmini, Snorghi, Solari, Soldini, Torricelli, Vegezzi, Viglezio

Active local citizen families of Brè-Aldesago

  • Aprile, Caratti, Danesi, Demarchi, Gianini, Gilardi, Malacrida, Monti, Navoni, Pedrotta, Prati, Raselli, Sabbioni, Sala, Scopazzini, Taddei, Zeppi

Former local families of Brè-Aldesago

  • Gedra, Molinari, Snaghi, Talleri


The townscape is classified in the inventory of protected sites in Switzerland (ISOS) as a site of national importance in Switzerland.

Green areas, promenades, local mountains

Parco Ciani with Cancello sul Lago di Lugano

The Parco civico with its lush southern vegetation and the Villa Ciani are worth seeing . To the west of the park is the lake promenade, which was built in stages between 1864 and 1920 and leads to Paradiso .

Other attractions of Lugano are the two local mountains, Monte San Salvatore and Monte Brè , from which a panorama over the city, Lake Lugano and the Ticino mountains is offered. Both mountains can be reached both by train and on foot. At the foot of Monte Brè are the village of Gandria and Villa Favorita .

City center

San Lorenzo Cathedral
Santa Maria degli Angeli church

The medieval and early modern old town of Lugano was largely demolished or gutted on the basis of the structure plan from 1902 between 1910 and 1942 and replaced by a new city center. Therefore, only a few churches and a few secular buildings still exist from the former building structure. Besides these, the promenade Via Nassa and the Piazza della Riforma are particularly worth a visit.


  • The Cathedral of San Lorenzo is an early medieval foundation. It was first mentioned as a parish church in 818 and as a collegiate church in 1078; It has been a cathedral since the diocese of Lugano was founded in 1888. The current building, which still incorporates Romanesque walls, essentially dates from the Gothic period, but was later rebuilt several times (most recently 1905–1910). The stage facade, a masterpiece of the Lombard Renaissance (very likely by Giovanni Antonio Amadeo ), was started in 1517 and completed towards the end of the 16th century.
  • The parish church of Santa Maria degli Angioli originally belonged to a Franciscan monastery and was built between 1499 and 1515. Inside is the most famous fresco cycle of the Renaissance in Switzerland: the depictions "Crucifixion of Christ", "The Last Supper" and "The Mother of God with Child" were painted by Bernardino Luini , a student of da Vinci .
  • The Church of San Rocco was built between 1528 and 1723. Inside, it has rich pseudo-architecture and frescoes from the Baroque era .
  • The current construction of the church of Sant'Antonio Abate dates from the 17th century and the early 20th century. The interior is rich in baroque architecture.
  • The monastery of San Giuseppe of the Capuchin Clarissins was founded in 1747 by Bishop of Como Agostino Maria Neuroni . Inside there are halls with painted wooden ceilings and mirror vaults with illusionist paintings and frescoes painted around 1774 by the brothers Giovanni Antonio and Giuseppe Antonio Torricelli.
  • The Capuchin monastery Santissima Trinità was founded in 1646, the late baroque church was consecrated in 1654. In the south of the building area is the Salita dei Frati public library planned by Mario Botta in 1976–1979 and completely buried in the ground with a skylight above the reading room.
  • Other churches in the city center are San Carlo (1640–1661), San Giuseppe (1758–1759) and Santa Maria Immacolata (consecrated in 1852, facade from 1917).

Palazzi and other buildings

Palazzo Riva (via Magatti)

Only a few civil buildings remain from the former old town. The three of them bear the name of the noble family of the Riva.

  • La Piccionaia on Corso Pestalozzi is a rare example of a civil Renaissance building. It was built at the end of the 15th century.
  • The Palazzo Riva on Via Soave received its present-day appearance around 1730.
  • The Palazzo Riva on Via Magatti is one of the most important examples of late Baroque civil architecture in Ticino.
  • The Palazzo Riva on Via Pretorio is a late Baroque building that was built between 1742 and 1752.
  • The town hall on the Piazza della Riforma is a monumental classicist rectangular building that was built in 1843–1844 as a government building.
  • The Villa Ciani in today's Parco Civico is one of the most beautiful residences of the 19th century in Ticino and shows itself in simple classicist forms. In its place originally stood a castle of the Duke of Milan, which was razed by the Confederates in 1517.

Buildings that were erected as part of urban renewal include the Palazzo Primavesi (1911–1913, decorative eclectic architectural elements ), the Palazzi Gargantini (1912–1930, Neo-Baroque to Art Deco ), the Palazzina Alhambra (1926, neo-Renaissance ), the Palazzo degli Studi (1903–1904, historicism ) and the cantonal library (1937–1941, a milestone in modern architecture in Ticino) should be mentioned. One of the most important examples of cinema architecture from the 1950s is the Corso , built according to plans by Rino Tami .

North of the city center, in the Molino Nuovo district , is the monumental city cemetery, laid out between 1897 and 1899, with numerous grave monuments of outstanding artistic quality.


Eros Bendato, sculpture by Igor Mitoraj



Tourism , finance and trade are the main pillars of Lugano's economy and secure a total of 27,000 jobs. Lugano is one of seven Swiss cities that has a casino with an A license.

Lugano is the third largest financial center in Switzerland. In addition to Banca della Svizzera Italiana BSI SA , the oldest bank in the Canton of Ticino, founded in 1873, Banca Arner , Banca Commerciale Lugano , Banca del Ceresio , Banca del Sempione and Cornèr Bank have their headquarters in Lugano. What was once the largest bank in the Canton of Ticino, the Banca del Gottardo , was also based in Lugano . In addition to the two major Swiss banks UBS and Credit Suisse , numerous other Swiss and international private banking institutions are also represented with branches in Lugano , such as Banque Cramer & Cie SA.

The raw materials trading companies Duferco , Filofibra and Interbulk Trading are also based in Lugano .


The municipality houses the studio of the Swiss radio of the Italian language RSI in Lugano-Besso and the Orchestra della Svizzera italiana (OSI), which emerged from the RSI Orchestra founded in 1935. Lugano is the seat of various independent theater groups that are active in Lugano and Ticino as well as in Switzerland and around the world. a. Teatro Pan, Markus Zohner Theater Compagnie , Teatro Sunil , Teatro delle Radici.

Internationally known is the Estival Jazz , the largest jazz event in Europe , which has been held since 1979 .

In 1956, the first edition of the Eurovision Song Contest took place in Lugano under the title Gran Premio Eurovisione della Canzone Europea . The Progetto Martha Argerich , directed by the world-famous pianist, is also famous.

The Swiss National Sound Archives (Fonoteca Nazionale Svizzera), founded in 1987, is also located in Lugano.


Lugano SBB train station
Passenger ship Ceresio on Lake Lugano

The Lugano railway station lies on the railway line Zurich / Basel-Milan ( Gotthard Bahn ). EuroCity trains, Intercity , RegioExpress and the S-Bahn stop here . After a two-year construction period, the renovated station was inaugurated on December 11, 2016.

The city lies on the A2 motorway (Basel-Gotthard-Lugano-Chiasso) with two exits (No. 49 Lugano North and No. 50 Lugano South).

Four meter-gauge trams were operated in and around Lugano until the second half of the 20th century, namely the Lugano tram , the Lugano-Cadro-Dino-Bahn (LCD), the Lugano-Tesserete-Bahn (LT) and the Lugano-Ponte -Tresa-Bahn (FLP). The first three were later converted to bus operation, while the FLP was gradually expanded into a high-performance suburban railway. For the future, an underground introduction to the city center (abandoning the current end point at the SBB train station) is up for debate.

Within the city, the old, mostly single-lane tram routes were replaced by the Lugano trolleybus between 1954 and 1959 . In the 1990s, the maintenance of the trolleybuses and their infrastructure were increasingly reduced. After the Federal Office of Transport only granted temporary operating permits for parts of the vehicle fleet and linked various other conditions to the continued operation of the network, trolleybus operation was switched to diesel buses on June 30, 2001 and the electrical systems dismantled. In connection with the FLP conversion plans, the reintroduction of tram operation is also being discussed.

The Lugano – Bahnhof SBB funicular , which opened in 1886 and has been known as Sassellina since 2016 , is important for inner-city traffic and is therefore heavily frequented . It connects Piazza Cioccaro in the old town with the SBB train station . After a two-year renovation, the funicular reopened on December 11, 2016. The train overcomes a difference in altitude of 50 meters and is the most popular funicular in Switzerland.

To the west of the city is the Lugano-Agno airport , from which scheduled flights to Geneva and Zurich are operated. It is connected to the city center by train by the Lugano-Ponte-Tresa-Bahn (line S60 of the Ticino S-Bahn ), by car you can reach it in the direction of Ponte Tresa and over the hill of Sorengo (junction to Collina d ' Oro).

The Società Navigazione del Lago di Lugano (Shipping Company of Lake Lugano ) connects several landing stages located within the city and the places on Lake Lugano.


Schools, colleges

The Università della Svizzera italiana, founded in 1996, is located in Lugano with the faculties of communication science , economics and computer science . The architecture academy in Mendrisio belongs to the same university .

In the center of Lugano at the Università della Svizzera italiana is the Scuola Europea di Studi Avanzati in Oftalmologia (ESASO), a further training facility for ophthalmologists .

Franklin College, a private university recognized by Switzerland and the USA, is based in Lugano. His focus is on the subjects of international relations, economics and history.

In Lugano-Cornaredo, the ETH maintains the national Centro svizzero di calcolo scientifico CSCS.

In Manno there is the Università professionale della Svizzera italiana (SUPSI) and the Scuola superiore di teatro di movimento.

With the Lugano Theological Faculty founded in 1992, there is also a Philosophical-Theological College in Lugano; it mainly serves to train priests.


The regional hospital of Lugano (Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, ORLugano) emerged from the two hospitals Ospedale Civico and Ospedale Italiano .

The following clinics are also located in the city of Lugano:

  • Cardiocentro Ticino (clinic specializing in heart diseases)
  • Neurocentro della Svizzera italiana
  • Clinica luganese Moncucco e San Rocco (private clinic for acute pathology including intensive care)
  • Clinica Viarnetto (private psychiatric clinic) in the Pregassona district

The health system in the greater Lugano area is also supplemented by the following institutions:

  • Ars Medica Clinic (private clinic in Gravesano )
  • Clinica Sant'Anna (private maternity clinic in Sorengo )
  • Federal Rehabilitation Clinic (Clinic for rehabilitation of the musculoskeletal system and the back in Novaggio )
  • Ospedale Malcantonese (semi-private clinic for general medicine and psychiatry in Castelrotto )


The HC Lugano ice hockey club plays in Switzerland's highest ice hockey league, the NLA, in the La Resega stadium. He is a seven-time Swiss champion (1986, '87, '88, '90, '99, 2003, '06) and thus the most successful national ice hockey team since the play-offs were introduced in 1985.

The football club FC Lugano has been playing in the top football league in Switzerland in the Stadio di Cornaredo since 2015 . He was three times Swiss champion (1938, '41 and '49) and three times Swiss cup winner (1931, '68 and '93). Ottmar Hitzfeld played for FC Lugano from 1978 to 1980.

There is also Football Club Rapid Lugano, Football Club Femminile Rapid Lugano, Football Club Trevano and F. C. Os Lusiadas.

Lugano was one of six venues for the 1954 Football World Cup , the 1953 UCI Road World Championships and the 1996 .

Between 1999 and 2010 the Lido Lugano tennis club hosted the ATP Challenger tournament , which Swiss Stan Wawrinka won twice.

The Ticino section of the Swiss Alpine Club (SAC), founded on April 11, 1886 , is based in Lugano.


Personalities who worked in Lugano

Personalities born in Lugano


Panorama of Lugano, seen from Lugano Paradiso



Art history

Web links

Further content in the
sister projects of Wikipedia:

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Individual evidence

  1. Permanent and non-permanent resident population by year, canton, district, municipality, population type and gender (permanent resident population). In: bfs. . Federal Statistical Office (FSO), August 31, 2019, accessed on December 22, 2019 .
  2. Permanent and non-permanent resident population by institutional structure, gender, nationality and age. City of Lugano. Status: April 1, 2012, accessed on July 11, 2014
  3. a b Lexicon of Swiss municipality names . Edited by the Center de Dialectologie at the University of Neuchâtel under the direction of Andres Kristol. Frauenfeld / Lausanne 2005, p. 548.
  4. Lugano. Origine del toponimo (Italian) on (accessed on January 18, 2017).
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  6. Bernhard Maier: The Celts: their history from the beginnings to the present, p. 98.
  7. ^ Giuseppe Negro: Lugano (Pieve, Vogtei, district). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . May 30, 2017 .
  8. The authenticity of a deed of gift from 724, in which Lugano is mentioned, is doubted; see Giuseppe Negro: Lugano (municipality). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . July 12, 2017 .
  9. ^ Giuseppe Chiesi: Visconti (dukes). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . 4th November 2014 .
  10. ^ Giuseppe Negro: Lugano (municipality). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . July 12, 2017 .
  11. Permanent resident population aged 15 and over by main language, by canton and city at (accessed on April 1, 2017).
  12. Permanent resident population aged 15 and over according to religious affiliation at (accessed on April 1, 2017).
  13. ↑ Allocation of seats for the city council from 2016
  14. ↑ Allocation of seats for the City Council 2013–2016
  15. ^ Municipio
  16. Federal elections 2019 | Retrieved December 5, 2019 .
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  19. ^ Family name book of Switzerland
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  22. Lugano on the ETHorama platform
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  34. Villa Ciani on
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  39. the MASILugano site
  40. ^ Website of the LAC Lugano Arte e Cultura
  41. ^ Collezione Giancarlo e Danna Olgiati
  42. a b c d e Simona Martinoli u. a .: Guida d'arte della Svizzera italiana. Edited by the Society for Swiss Art History GSK, Edizioni Casagrande, Bellinzona 2007, ISBN 978-88-7713-482-0 , pp. 295-318.
  43. Cantonal Natural History Museum (Museo cantonale di storia naturale)
  44. Cantonal Natural History Museum
  45. ^ Villa Ciani and Park
  46. Villa Favorita and Park (PDF; 12 kB)
  47. ^ Studio Radio Svizzera Italiana on
  48. Progetto Martha Argerich (Italian) on (accessed on March 3, 2017).
  49. a b Aargauer Zeitung: Completely renovated train station and new funicular in Lugano inaugurated
  50. ^ Funicolare Lugano-Stazione FFS. In: Retrieved December 24, 2019 (Italian).
  51. ^ TPL Trasporti Pubblici Luganesi SA La funicolare
  52. 6900.01 Lugano Piazza Cioccaro - Lugano Stazione FFS. In: Markus Seitz, 2019 .;
  53. ^ Società Navigazione del Lago di Lugano
  54. Marco Marcacci: University of Italian Switzerland. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . February 7, 2013 .
  55. ^ Scuola Europea di Studi Avanzati in Oftalmologia
  56. Franklin College (Italian) on
  57. Centro svizzero di calcolo scientifico (Italian) on
  58. high-performance data center (photo)
  59. ^ SUPSI
  60. ^ Scuola superiore di teatro di movimento
  61. Ospedale Regionale di Lugano (Italian) on
  62. Lugano regional hospital at
  63. ^ Cardiocentro Ticino
  64. Neurocentro della Svizzera italiana (Italian) on
  65. Clinica luganese Moncucco (Italian) on
  66. Clinica Viarnetto on
  67. ^ Football Club Rapid Lugano .
  68. ^ Football Club Femminile Rapid Lugano
  69. Football Club Trevano on
  70. F. C. Os Lusiadas (Italian) on