Under urbanization ( latin urbs , city ' ) refers to the spread of urban lifestyles. This can be expressed on the one hand in the growth of cities (physical urbanization or "urbanization" in the narrower sense), on the other hand through an infrastructural development of rural regions comparable to urban standards (functional urbanization) and through changed social behavior of the residents of rural areas (social urbanization).
While the term urbanization stands for the expansion of old cities through construction, commercial and industrial areas, “urbanization” includes processes of social change.
The process of physical urbanization has been observed for centuries. The rural exodus reached a high point in Europe, especially in the late 19th century, and has assumed previously unknown proportions in the last few decades, even in emerging and developing countries . In the industrialized countries, physical urbanization has largely been replaced by functional urbanization, i.e. by the spread of urban forms of life into neighboring, previously rural areas ( suburbanization ), but in recent years a relative increase in urban population has also been observed in industrialized countries it does so when the overall population is falling or rising.
Historically, there has been a continuous increase in the proportion of the urban population. In 2008, for the first time in human history, more people lived in cities than in rural areas. The United Nations Population Fund estimates that there will be 5 billion city dwellers in 2030. In the future, urbanization will be most pronounced in Africa and Asia.
Until the 1st millennium BC The growth of cities was strictly limited by the productivity of agriculture, which allowed only a small surplus of food to be produced to supply the cities. After this time, the first megacities emerged, especially in Asia. In the Mughal Empire of the 16th century, 15% of the people probably lived in cities. That was a higher proportion than in Europe. On the other hand, Cologne was the first German city to have around 40,000 inhabitants around 1500 , and it was not until two hundred years later, around 1700, that Vienna, the first city of the Roman-German Empire, had exceeded the limit of 100,000.
Around 1800 only around 25% of the German population lived in cities and around 75% in rural areas, but living conditions there were not always easy. A huge increase in population made it increasingly difficult to feed because there was not enough land for everyone. In the hope of better living conditions, this led u. a. to the fact that at the beginning of industrialization at the beginning of the 19th century people moved from the rural areas to the surrounding small towns, which quickly grew and led to massive poverty (“ pauperism ”). While there were only around 80,000 manufacturing workers in 1800 , this number increased 100-fold (8 million) by 1910. The population growth of the cities of the later German Empire only developed above average after 1850 - before that, the population increase in the country had been since the 1740s.
This migration-like process had many consequences. Among the people who sought their fortune in the big cities were many landless workers and impoverished small farmers. These two groups together formed the new social class of the industrial proletariat . Although they were legally free, they did not have their own means of production (machines, devices, etc.), so they had to try to feed their families as wage laborers , which, however, was almost impossible given the low wages. These poor working and living conditions soon led to the " social question ".
In large parts of southern Europe, the rural population only reached its peak in the late 19th or first half of the 20th century. There were the phylloxera crisis in the wine sector and the increasing mechanization of agriculture and the resulting loss of jobs, which the migration of people to the cities or emigrate triggered to America or to Australia.
The wave of urbanization in Europe in the 19th century required a number of technical and infrastructural innovations. First of all, at the beginning of the 19th century, the city's fortifications and ramparts fell as they became inoperable, which enabled further growth. With the compression and expansion of the amount of wastewater, the risk of infectious diseases increased, which in turn made a sewer system and a central water supply necessary. The construction of large apartment buildings required the availability of concentrated energy sources (coal, later gas). The transport of these energy sources required a railway connection from a certain size of the city . Although this pushed the growth limits of the city; However, this made it necessary to set up local transport structures in order to transport the workforce to the ever larger production facilities, which are increasingly being outsourced from the city center. These structures often consisted of a radial railway network, which was later supplemented by horse-drawn trams or trams. Further (height) growth was made possible by the development of steel frame construction after 1900.
Urbanization is a geographically more widespread process than industrialization. Cities also emerged in places where industry was not the primary growth driver. Conversely, a high degree of urbanization was not a prerequisite for successful industrialization. Even before the Industrial Revolution, London was a metropolis with more than 10 percent of the total English population. In the second half of the 19th century, cities with industrial concentrations such as Manchester , Birmingham and Liverpool grew fastest in Great Britain , but cities with a high range of services. An example of a city with no significant industrial contribution was Brighton , one of the fastest growing cities in England in the 19th century. This also included Budapest , which developed rapidly on the basis of agricultural modernization and central functions in trade and finance, as did St. Petersburg , Riga , St. Louis and Vienna .
Since around 1960, the focus of urbanization has shifted to the emerging countries. Since then, numerous other urbanizations without an industrial base have taken place, including Lagos , Bangkok and Mexico City . Urbanization is therefore "a global process, industrialization a sporadic process", according to Osterhammel .
Since 2008, more than half of the world's population has lived in cities, while in 1950 70% lived in rural areas. According to UN forecasts , the global share of the urban population will rise to over 60% by 2030 and reach around 70% in 2050. There are over 63 cities worldwide with more than three million inhabitants.
Causes of urbanization
Urbanization began around 3500 BC. With the rise of Uruk ( Mesopotamia ), whose village origins are even older. Around 3000 BC The city of Ur (city) followed . Both cities and Eridu , the oldest city according to Sumerian myth, are located on the flood-prone Euphrates . This has also been happening since around 3000 BC. Kiš, settled in BC, lies between the Euphrates and the Tigris . The historian Helen Chapin Metz attributed the process of urbanization in Mesopotamia to the constant influx of settlers into the Euphrates plain, whose fertility made it possible for the first time to achieve larger agricultural surpluses to feed an urban population, which at the same time required complex and centralized water management and flood protection . At the same time, mud bricks could easily be extracted in large quantities in the marshland. However, such a process of concentration of settlement was not repeated in the Nile Valley , where, alongside temples and palaces, only smaller housing estates emerged for a long time. Hence, the causes of early urbanization are still controversial.
The Phoenician and Greek settlements developed mostly at trading bases in natural harbors. Inland cities could only develop where roads were available. That was the case in Germania in Roman times. It was only after the Frankish road network of the Carolingians was created in the Middle Ages that markets and later also cities could develop outside the former Roman Empire. Most of these planned cities were founded between 1150 and 1250.
In the industrialized nations , one of the reasons was the reduction in labor demand due to the mechanization of agriculture . In rural areas, the infrastructure was not made available to the same extent as in urban areas due to higher costs and lower profitability .
In addition, there is a loss of urbanity and infrastructure due to municipal area reforms , which accelerate emigration. As a result, over 20,000 villages and small towns in Germany lost their economic base.
Today the urbanization process takes place mainly in countries whose rural regions hardly offer employment opportunities. Rapidly growing megacities are developing in these countries, with buildings that are often hardly manageable or even controllable. Examples of such cities are Istanbul (with over 14 million inhabitants), Lagos (10 million) or Mexico City (20 million). The conditions in the slums of the new megacities are often catastrophic in many respects, but are often more attractive to rural refugees than in their region of origin. This rural-urban migration increasingly also applies to cross-border migration, i.e. migration from the rural region of one country to the city of another. This form of migration often takes place in the form of chain migration , which means that a pioneer hiker makes first contacts in the target region via networks, migrates, looks for a job and later catches up with spouses, children or relatives.
Types of urbanization
A distinction is made between different types or indicators of urbanization:
It means an expansion of urban forms of housing and land use.
There is an interdependence between town and country (“town-country continuum”, “ suburbanization ”). Urban forms of production and services are spreading in the surrounding area and new communication and information networks are developing.
The surrounding area adopts the guidelines and values of the urban population, and consumer behavior is also adjusting. Urbanity emerges for society as a whole .
This indicates the (increasing) proportion of the population living in cities in an area, country or state. “Urbanization” can be understood to mean both the degree of urbanization (demographic condition) and the rate of urbanization (demographic process) (see below). What counts as a city in each case depends on the official administrative division of the respective country.
Compaction of the city system
The number of cities is increasing; this can be done through the establishment of new cities or the award of the city title. Typical founding phases are the age of the Mesopotamian civilizations, the Greek and Roman antiquity , the high Middle Ages (with burgher and episcopal cities), the Baroque age (with residential / fortress cities such as Karlsruhe as a planned Baroque city ) and the industrial age (e.g. . Oberhausen , Wolfsburg , Eisenhüttenstadt or Shenzhen - the fastest growing city in human history from 1980 to 2010).
Measurement of urbanization and urbanity
The degree of urbanization (or the urbanization rate) is the proportion of the urban population in relation to the total population. It indicates the extent of urbanization in an area (state variable). The rate of urbanization was 50% worldwide in 2007.
The urbanization rate indicates the increase in the proportion of the urban population in relation to the total population, in relation to a space (process variable). The average global urbanization rate in 1990 was 4.2%.
An indicator of urbanity as social behavior is the openness of social networks . It can be measured with the help of the indicator of the decrease in network density and shows that the permanent and permanent contacts, which are typical for rural regions, are weakening in favor of more frequently changing and situational contacts.
Processes related to urbanization
The following processes are closely linked to urbanization and can occur one after the other or at the same time:
- Redistribution of population and employment between the city center and the surrounding area ( suburbanization ).
- De-urbanization, i.e. a decrease in population and employment ( de- urbanization) and renewed urbanization after de-urbanization has taken place (re- urbanization ), v. a. in old industrial regions.
- Establishment of satellite cities and satellite cities (large housing estates).
In many countries of Western Europe, the construction of large housing estates in suburbs has been promoted since the end of the 1950s in order to create a lot of well-equipped living space for the rapidly growing population of cities after the war and to eliminate emergency quarters. These large housing estates interspersed with open spaces corresponded to the ideas of change and modernity at the time, based on the Bauhaus models , concepts by the architect Le Corbusier and the Athens Charter , which provided for a clear separation of the functions of living, working, leisure and transport. In terms of social policy, the large housing estates embodied the belief in a homogeneous society. In the 1970s, these settlements reached sizes of 25,000 and more homes.
Recently (since around 1990) new trends have emerged:
- Urban scaling : faster growth in prosperity in cities than in the surrounding area.
- Side by side of rapid appreciation and depreciation processes in different urban areas.
- Exchange of lower status for higher status population in attractive inner-city locations ( gentrification ).
- Turning away from large housing estates because of increasing social segregation and its consequences in suburban gettos.
- Creation of closed, guarded residential complexes ( gated community ).
- Change in lifestyles through multilocality (e.g. commuting) and transmigration .
- Slowing down of settlement in the core zones of the megacities with increasing suburbanization (the so-called “ bacon belt effect” which can be observed in some European countries). Paris has even been losing one to two percent of its population every year since 2011, while the population in the surrounding area is growing at roughly the same rate. The same applies to Madrid, Lisbon or Riga. Around Berlin, Vienna, Prague, Warsaw or Oslo, the periphery is growing at least faster than the city itself. However, the effect is not found in London, Hamburg, Munich, Brussels, Amsterdam or Milan.
Differences in urbanization in industrialized and developing countries
The process of urbanization in the industrialized countries was associated with the transformation from a traditional rural society into an urban society based on the division of labor. Here industrialization and urbanization either preceded a far-reaching agrarian reform , or both processes took place simultaneously.
Urbanization in today's developing world began in Latin America in the 1920s and has spread to all countries since World War II. However, it shows fundamental differences compared to the urbanization process in industrialized countries:
- In the industrialized countries, cities grew in the 19th century mainly through immigration as a result of industrialization and less through natural population growth, always accompanied by administrative and legal structures that were already developed and now adapting.
- The urban population in developing countries is growing much faster than in most European industrialized countries, and without the local political traditions of the "Occidental city" (according to Max Weber ). With the exception of a few Newly Industrializing Countries (NIC) and emerging economies, there is a lack of coordinated, interlinked forms of social change in developing countries . The megacities of the developing countries are also under double pressure: the high level of immigration (40–50% of annual growth) is accompanied by an even higher, albeit weakening, natural population growth. In addition, the infrastructure expansion keeps pace with growth less and less. The population of Nouakchott , the capital of Mauritania , increased from 1958 (500 inhabitants) to 900,000, possibly even to two million inhabitants, in 2013, i.e. by at least 160,000% (one thousand six hundred times as much), with a permanently increasing proportion of the population under plastic sheeting and in “lives” in similar quarters. The Indian economist Yayati Gosh , winner of the ILO Research Prize 2010, criticizes the collapse of urban planning under the influence of neoliberal reforms in many countries and describes it as a "tendency to create urban monstrosities of congestion, inequality and insecurity".
Consequences of urbanization
The consequences of urbanization especially in development. and emerging economies, combined with sustained strong population growth , cannot yet be fully foreseen in terms of their ecological, economic and social consequences. In addition to the obvious problems with the emergence of megacities , the specialist discussion in recent years has increasingly focused on the opportunities this development offers.
Increased resource consumption and emissions
As people move into cities, new houses, roads and utilities are built. The cities continue to expand and require more and more land and resources in the surrounding area, e.g. B. water . At the same time, land consumption in rural areas can be reduced; however, they are rarely dismantled there.
In general, energy consumption is higher in cities than in rural areas; however, it is particularly high in the peripheral zones of the agglomerations due to commuter traffic. Mobility is lower in the core zones.
The concentration of the population in megacities offers the possibility of providing goods and services at comparatively low per capita costs, for example for the recycling of drinking water or waste disposal. Cities also offer great potential for limiting individual traffic by providing public transport systems. However, insufficient use is made of this potential. In Jakarta, for example, less than three percent of the 1.3 million cubic meters of wastewater produced every day reach one of the few treatment and processing plants. Even controlled waste disposal does not work in many agglomerations. Problems with drinking water supply, waste disposal and air pollution are concentrated in the informal settlements. In poor urban households in the slums of Rio de Janeiro, for example, the mortality rate is three times higher than in households with access to water, sanitation and adequate buildings. In Cape Town , a child is five times more likely to die before the age of six than in higher-income neighborhoods.
The susceptibility of large cities to natural disasters and other disasters as well as terrorist attacks is high even with a solid building structure, while resilience is rather low. This partly depends on the high density of settlements and the dependence on vulnerable and networked large-scale systems (especially the power supply). Today almost half a billion people live in coastal cities. 62 percent of the cities with more than eight million inhabitants are on the coast. Megacities located at estuaries such as Bangkok, New York, Shanghai, Tokyo or Jakarta are considered “hotspots of vulnerability”. These cities will be increasingly affected by the consequences of climate change in the coming decades , including: from the increase in hurricanes and storm surges.
It has been proven that the average temperature in agglomerations increases faster than in rural areas. Chinese climate researchers have evaluated the monthly surface temperature in eastern China between 1981 and 2007 using data from 463 weather stations in metropolises with over one million inhabitants, large cities, medium-sized cities, small towns and in the countryside. According to this, the urban heat islands contribute 24 percent to the average warming, in metropolises and large cities it is 44 and 35 percent respectively. In the case of metropolises, the contribution made by the urban heat islands to the warming of the surface temperature would amount to 0.4 ° C in a decade. In Mexico City, the average temperature increased by 2 ° C in 10 years. The 2003 heat wave in Europe, with between 30,000 and over 70,000 fatalities and an estimated economic loss of over 15 billion US dollars, hit cities particularly hard.
Due to the rise in sea level in connection with the high level of soil compaction , groundwater extraction and the loads on top of high-rise buildings (in Shanghai there are 3000 with over 18 floors), soil sealing and increasing continuous rainfall, Asian megacities such as Bangkok , in particular , are now partly below sea level is threatened by flooding. The ground sinks fastest in Jakarta (up to 25 centimeters annually), where up to four million people already live below sea level.
Hygiene and health risks
The number of virus infections has been increasing worldwide since the 1980s, due to global warming and factory farming. In view of the high contact density in the rapidly growing cities, virus infections such as SARS , MERS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 often spread faster here than in rural areas, especially when resettled rural residents maintain traditional habits in the city (e.g. sales live animals in urban markets such as China). At the Wuhan fish market, for example, after the infection with a new coronavirus broke out, it was found that over 5 percent of the samples examined were contaminated with the virus.
From a social-medical point of view, the rapid urbanization of poor and emerging countries is sometimes even referred to as an "approaching humanitarian catastrophe". In 2009, 43% of urban residents in emerging countries such as Kenya, Brazil and India and 78% of urban residents in the least developed countries such as Bangladesh, Haiti and Ethiopia lived in slums with often inadequate water supplies and inadequate sanitary facilities, but also with high levels of air pollution. Chronic illnesses such as diabetes also accumulate in these slums , while the quality of treatment varies extremely.
Family structure and birth rate
One consequence of urbanization is the intensification of the trend towards small families and a sharp drop in birth rates . In developing countries in particular, the birth rate in cities is very low compared to that in rural areas, while in the industrialized countries there is almost no difference. According to various Demographic and Health Surveys , the fertility rate in Addis Ababa and the Vietnamese cities is 1.4, which corresponds to the rate in Germany. In the Iranian capital Tehran , women have an average of 1.32 children.
European and some North American cities are characterized by a strong tendency towards singularization . In 9 of the 13 largest German cities, the proportion of single households was between 50.6 (Cologne) and 55.4 percent (Berlin) in 2018. The national average is 41 percent.
Situation in Germany
In Germany, the degree of urbanization is significantly above the global average. The eleven agglomeration areas with more than one million inhabitants alone have around 25.6 million people. The term agglomeration , which is not used uniformly around the world, corresponds to the city in the geographical sense without considering administrative boundaries. The 82 cities with over 100,000 inhabitants in Germany in 2004, calculated according to administrative boundaries, have 25.3 million inhabitants, which is more than 30% of the total population of 82 million. The eleven metropolitan regions of Germany with 44.3 million inhabitants are spatially much broader and also include large rural areas.
When industrialization began in Germany around 1845, there were already a large number of small and medium-sized cities. The economic premium that goes to the residents of the capital in heavily centralized states because the concentration of the administration offered a multitude of income opportunities has always been spread across a number of cities in the splintered state of Germany. The various waves of industrialization were also polycentric from the start . This led to urbanization in various regions in the sense of demographic urbanization in the 19th century . As a result, there is now a very high proportion of the population in Germany who live in cities - but not a real megacity. The economist Hans-Heinrich Bass speaks of a “polycentric, area-wide densification of settlement throughout Germany”. This goes hand in hand with a relatively low priority of a first city , i.e. the most populous city. As a consequence of this development, urbanity in the sense of “social urbanization” is the dominant lifestyle in almost all parts of Germany. This resulted in numerous regional and medium-sized centers .
After a period of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century increased due to several factors - mainly because of demographic change, due to higher energy prices, due to tax procedures (abolition of housing grants and reducing the distance allowance ) and because of numerous traffic jams on German roads attract more People from the countryside to a city than vice versa - the degree of urbanization has increased again in recent years ( reurbanization ). The total population in Germany decreased slightly, especially in the rural areas of Eastern Germany since about the year 2000; it continued to increase in medium-sized cities.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the previously unusual trend was observed that families with children are increasingly moving to cities or staying in them. The cities are particularly preferred destinations for immigrants , as well as for students and other young singles. The degree of urbanization has stagnated since around 2011 and remained at around 77%. With rising rents and purchase prices for real estate, a new trend has emerged since around 2014: Families with German citizenship in particular are increasingly deciding to leave the expensive large cities with their often overloaded infrastructure and move to the surrounding area. It is currently unclear whether the COVID-19 epidemic of 2020 with its tendency to work in the home office and the liquidation of many retail branches and offices in city centers that are dependent on walk- in customers is currently unclear.
Situation in the USA
The degree of urbanization in the US increased from 79.4% to 82.4% between 2001 and 2011. However, there is still a considerable shift in population within the metropolitan areas. The USA is the classic subject of study for the processes of suburbanization that have been observed in all industrialized countries since 1945 . H. the migration of residents and jobs from the core zone of the cities to the periphery. The densification on the basis of urban planning has always been considered a problem solver for many infrastructural and social problems on the vast North American continent; Since the 1950s, however, there has been an increasing number of critical voices (such as those from Lewis Mumford , William H. Whyte and Jane Jacobs, and the Chicago School of Urban Sociology ) who consider the development of cities and especially their downside - the proliferation of the suburb - as critical symptoms the mass society , the homogeneity and conformity of urban settlement areas.
Robert Beauregard describes the process of the decline of the old industrial central cities , which is closely linked with the exodus of the white middle classes into the surrounding area, as "parasitic urbanization". Since 1945 it has replaced “distributive urbanization”, a cycle of urban development in North America in which all large cities benefited equally from the demographic and economic growth of the country and which returned briefly in the 1980s. Beauregard also describes the phase of parasitic urbanization as the short American century , a historically unique formation, shaped by the decline of the old industrial centers, the rise of the suburbs, especially in the sunbelt, and an unprecedented economic prosperity and military hegemony in the world: “Parasitic urbanization [...] produced the trauma that devastated older, industrial cities, created a crisis of national consequences, and undermined the way of life that had defined achievement in the United States for hundreds of years. The dominance of the center […] was replaced by a fragmentation of the periphery brought about by suburban development. Urbanization had jumped to the metropolitan scale. ”In his consideration, Beauregard links the process of suburbanization with the long waves of economic and technological development on the one hand and their interpretation in the context of the development of a national identity, the becoming suburban , on the other.
Situation in China
Urbanization in China was slowed for a long time by the immigration ban, which was intended to prevent uncontrolled rural exodus. However, a rapid urbanization process has taken place in the last few decades, which is to continue and, if centrally planned, accelerate. In 1980 about 20% of the Chinese lived in cities, in 2001 it was 37.7%, in 2012 it was 52.6% and in 2025 it should be 70%, i.e. more than 900 million people. In the next 12 years alone, 250 million people are expected to leave the country and settle specifically in cities - that's about twenty times the population of the greater Los Angeles area. Prime Minister Li Keqiang announced in March 2013 that planned urbanization was one of the government's primary goals to accelerate value creation and economic growth. However, the presentation of the detailed planning was postponed to autumn 2013, presumably because negative effects of inflation and the emergence of an uprooted unemployed lower class are feared. The number of people dependent on urban welfare programs is expected to double. The banks are also making less money available for large-scale infrastructure projects, so that the cities have to get hold of it by selling land or issuing bonds. Due to the impending traffic and environmental collapse in the large agglomerations, up to 1000 medium-sized relief cities are to be created in the hinterland of the coastal zone, each with a specialized industrial profile or “themed cities” based on the model of European historical urban systems.
Situation in India
In India there are six megacities with Mumbai , Delhi , Calcutta , Chennai , Bangalore and Hyderabad . In 2010, however, only 30% of Indians lived in cities (2001: 28%; 2010 worldwide for comparison: 50%). The annual growth is around 2.4% (worldwide for comparison: 4.2%). Even with this comparatively moderate rate of growth in the urban population, the expansion of the infrastructure, especially water and waste management, is in no way keeping up with this increase. Scientists describe the growth of Indian cities as fragmented, unplanned and without taking social and ecological aspects into account. Studies show a significant connection between uncontrolled urban growth in India and diseases caused by contamination of drinking and industrial water. The spread of slums continues unchecked despite the building boom.
- List of countries by urbanization
- Mountain escape
- Urban sociology
- Urban geography
- Settlement geography
- Urban mining
- Dieter Schott : European urbanization (1000–2000). An introduction to environmental history. UTB, Cologne 2014.
- Heinz Heineberg : urban geography. UTB u. a., Stuttgart a. a. 2000, ISBN 3-8252-2166-0 ( ground plan general geography - UTB 2166).
- Jürgen Bähr : Introduction to Urbanization. Kiel 2001 (electronic source, status 2008:  ).
- Wolf Gaebe: Urban spaces. Ulmer, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-8252-2511-9 ( UTB - Geography 2511).
- Elisabeth Blum, Peter Neitzke (ed.): FavelaMetropolis. Reports and projects from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Birkhäuser u. a., Basel u. a. 2004, ISBN 3-7643-7063-7 ( Bauwelt-Fundamente - Architektur- und Städtebauppolitik 130).
- Johannes Fiedler: Urbanization, global. Böhlau, Vienna a. a. 2004, ISBN 3-205-77247-4 .
- Johannes Fiedler: Urbanization, unlimited. Springer 2014, ISBN 978-3-319-03586-4 .
- Jane Jacobs : The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House, New York 1961.
- Nicole Huber, Ralph Stern: Urbanizing the Mojave Desert. Las Vegas = The urbanization of the Mojave Desert. Las Vegas. Jovis, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-939633-50-1 (exhibition catalog, Frankfurt am Main, Deutsches Architekturmuseum, November 24, 2007 - January 25, 2008).
- Matthew Gandy, Ed .: Urban Constellations. JOVIS Verlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-86859-118-7 .
- Doug Saunders : Arrival City. Karl-Blessing-Verlag, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-89667-392-3 .
- Jan Gehl: Cities for people. JOVIS Verlag, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-86859-356-3 .
- Jürgen Bähr: Introduction to Urbanization Article in the online manual of the Berlin Institute for Population and Development
- German Foundation for World Population: Migration and Urbanization ( Memento from February 12, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- Graphic: Worldwide urbanization , from: Figures and facts: Globalization , Federal Agency for Civic Education / bpb
- Horst-Günter Wagner : The urban development of Würzburg 1814-2000. In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. Volume 2, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , p. 1299, note 21.
- Linking Population, Poverty and Development. UNFPA, May 2007
- Tertius Chandler: Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth. An Historical Census. Lewingston (NY) 1987.
- Abraham Eraly: The Mughal World: Life in India's Last Golden Age , Penguin Books 2007, p. 5
- Helmut Rankl: Country folk and early modern state in Bavaria 1400-1800 . Commission for Bavarian State History, 1999, ISBN 3-7696-9692-1 , p. 8 .
- H. Häussermann, W. Siebel: Stadtsoziologie . Commission for Bavarian State History, 2004, ISBN 3-593-37497-8 , pp. 19 .
- The term “factory worker”, which is often used in this context, is wrong, as there were no factories in Germany at that time .
- Hartmut Hirsch-Kreinsen: Economic and Industrial Sociology . Juventa Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-7799-1481-6 , p. 12 .
- Jürgen Osterhammel: The transformation of the world. A story of the 19th century. 2nd edition of the special edition 2016. CH Beck, ISBN 978-3-406-61481-1 , p. 366.
- Jürgen Osterhammel: The transformation of the world. A story of the 19th century. 2nd edition of the special edition 2016. CH Beck, ISBN 978-3-406-61481-1 , p. 367f.
- Helen Chapin Metz: Iraq: A Country Study. US Government Printing Office 1988.
- Nine Reasons to Save the Villages. Interview with the geographer Gerhard Henkel. In: deutschland.de , August 7, 2018.
- Sonja Haug: Social capital and chain migration. Networks. (= Series of publications by the Federal Institute for Population Research, Vol. 37.) Springer, 2000.
- Paul Blickle et al. a .: Europe's bacon belt effect. In: zeit.de , July 18, 2019.
- http://www.irinnews.org/report/83724/mauritania-city-versus-slum, accessed June 24, 2013
- World Economics Association Newsletter (PDF; 908 kB), June 2013, p. 12
- Dustin Garrick, Lucia De Stefano et al. a .: Rural water for thirsty cities: a systematic review of water reallocation from rural to urban regions. In: Environmental Research Letters. 14, 2019, p. 043003, doi: 10.1088 / 1748-9326 / ab0db7 .
- For Zurich : Energy consumption in the city is lower than in the agglomeration. In: Der Bund , February 28, 2016.
- Bernd Hansjürgens: Mega-Urbanization: Opportunities and Risks , in: www.bpb.de, January 8, 2007.
- Coasts: Living in the risk zone on boell.de, May 10, 2017.
- Linda Maduz, Florian Roth: The urbanization of disaster risk management . In: CSS Analyzes in Security Policy No. 204, ETH Zurich, March 2017, p. 2 (PDF).
- Florian Rötzer: Urbanization intensifies global warming. In: Telepolis , August 11, 2011.
- Bernd Hansjürgens: Mega-Urbanization: Opportunities and Risks , in: www.bpb.de, January 8, 2007.
- Linda Maduz, Florian Roth: The urbanization of disaster risk management . In: CSS Analyzes in Security Policy No. 204, ETH Zurich, March 2017, p. 3 (PDF).
- Ulrike Putz: A metropolis sinks into the sea , in: spiegel.de, October 20, 2018.
- China detects large quantity of novel coronavirus at Wuhan seafood market. Xinhuanet.com, engl. Edition, January 27, 2020.
- Ronak B. Patel, Thomas F. Burke: Urbanization - An Emerging Humanitarian Disaster , in: New England Journal of Medecine August 20, 2009.
- Infographic on de.statista.com
- Hans-Heinrich Bass: Urban passenger transport systems in Germany . In: Hans-Heinrich Bass, Christine Biehler, Ly Huy Tuan (eds.): On the way to sustainable urban transport systems. Rainer-Hampp-Verlag, Munich and Mering 2011, pp. 62–93, here p. 68
- Forecast of the regional population development 2007–2025 , on www.focus.de, accessed June 22, 2013.
- More and more families in the city , Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , December 11, 2014.
- Statistics: The proportion of migrants in major German cities is growing , Federal Agency for Civic Education , November 13, 2012
- Michael Fabricius: The families leave the cities. In: welt.de, March 13, 2019.
- Arno Bunzel, Carsten Kühl: Urban Development in Corona Times. German Institute for Urban Studies, 2020. Online (PDF).
- http://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/165800/umfrage/urbanisierung-in-den-usa/ Accessed July 23, 2013
- Robert A. Beauregard: When America Became Suburban. Minneapolis, London 2006.
- Beauregard 2006, p. 40 ff.
- See also RE Lang, J. Le Furgy: Boomburbs. The Rise of America's Accidental Cities. Brookings Institution Press, Washington DC 2007.
- Beauregard 2006, p. 4.
- http://de.statista.com/statistik/daten/studie/166163/umfrage/urbanisierung-in-china/ Accessed July 23, 2013
- Ian Johnson: China Plans Vast Urbanization , The New York Times International Weekly (in cooperation with Süddeutscher Zeitung), June 21, 2013
- Dieter Hassenpflug: European city fictions. In: [www.espacetemps.net/articles], November 10, 2008.
- Country data (source: World Bank) Accessed June 24, 2013
- Archived copy ( memento from September 27, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Chair of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology at RWTH Aachen University, accessed June 24, 2013
- Axel Prokof: Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata - megacities of India: Selected aspects of urbanization in India with special consideration of the slums. VDM Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-639-26162-2 .