Great Mosque on Rue Mamadou Konaté, financed by Saudi Arabia
|Region :||Nouakchott Nord , Nouakchott Ouest and Nouakchott Sud|
|Coordinates :||18 ° 5 ′ N , 15 ° 58 ′ W|
|Height :||7 meters above sea level|
|Area :||1,000 km²|
|Residents :||1,116,700 (2017)|
|Population density :||1,117 inhabitants per km²|
|Time zone :||GMT ( UTC ± 0 )|
|Mayor :||Maty Mint Hamady|
Nouakchott (French [ nwakˈʃɔt ], Arabic نواكشوط, DMG Nawākšūṭ , German also Nuakschott ) is the capital of Mauritania . With over a million inhabitants, it is by far the most populous city with the second largest port in the country.
The convenient location of Nouakchott on the Atlantic Ocean in the south of the country was chosen in 1958 to build a capital for the country that was becoming independent at the end of the French colonial era on the site of a village with 500 inhabitants. When independence in 1960, the population was still in the four-digit range; due to rural exodus as a result of economic crises and periods of drought in the 1970s and 1980s, it has since risen largely unplanned to over 1,116,000 in 2017. A large part of the newcomers live far from the business center planned according to the western model in spacious quarters in cheap accommodation with an inadequate infrastructure in all areas.
Nouakchott forms three of the fifteen regions of Mauritania, Nouakchott North , Nouakchott Ouest and Nouakchott Sud .
Location and climate
Nouakchott is surrounded by the southwestern Mauritanian region of Trarza , the northern part of which belongs to the desert belt of the Sahara . The city lies at the geographical latitude of 18 ° and thus slightly north of the transition area from the southern grasslands of the dry savannah to the Sahara. Larger areas are characterized by further penetrating sand dunes, which are aligned parallel to the year-round trade wind from northeast to southwest. This air current drives the warm surface water away from the coast and brings cool sea water up from the depths. As a result, the air temperature in the coastal area remains lower than in the desert-hot interior and is relatively constant with daily fluctuations between 20 and 35 ° C. The annual average rainfall is 150 millimeters. They fall as summer rain between July and September and largely evaporate. In the vicinity of the sea, a higher level of humidity and fog create a vegetation with grass and bushes, which in some outskirts limits the city. Nouakchott is in a climatically favorable location for Mauritania. Occasionally, heavy rains flood the streets and lower residential areas.
A coastal strip a few meters high with sand dunes separates the low-lying flat plain behind from the sea. The upper soil layer consists of quaternary sands mixed with shell limestone. Evaporite has deposited in some places . The highest elevation in the urban area is 31 meters, the majority of the urban area is three to ten meters high. In between there are numerous smaller depressions under three meters above sea level.
The location as the capital was mainly chosen based on two criteria: on the one hand, the location roughly halfway between the Senegalese capital Dakar , in which the administration of French West Africa was based, and the port city of Nouadhibou . The border crossing to Senegal in the south in Rosso is 203 kilometers away.
The other reason for choosing was political. The capital should become a symbol that unites people. In order not to favor any group, a “neutral” location between the settlement area of the Arab-Berber Bidhans in the north and the area of the black African Soudans on the Senegal River seemed appropriate.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Nouakchott
Until the first half of the 20th century
From several tribal groups of nomadic Bidhans, the emirate of Trarza was formed in the course of the 18th and 19th centuries as one of four political units in the area of today's Mauritania, whose rulers mostly belonged to the Banī Hassān and claimed the title of Emir , which had been naturalized since the Almoravid period .
The French colonial area extended to the Senegal River as the northern border around 1900. The French exported the goods supplied by the Mauritanian Emirates in the 19th century via Saint-Louis and other ports in Senegal. This included in particular gum arabic , which in the southwest was mainly extracted from the Verek acacia forests around Boutilimit. The two trading centers, Portendik (initially “Marsa”, 40 kilometers north of Nouakchott) and Arguin (south of Nouadhibou), established by the Europeans on the Mauritanian coast, had already been abandoned at the beginning of the 19th century.
In 1902, the French military leader Xavier Coppolani signed a peace treaty with the Sheikh of Boutilimit, which brought Trarza and other areas in the south into the French sphere of influence. Kindly-minded tribal leaders who submitted voluntarily were encouraged by the French - as in Senegal before. The military crackdown on uprisings in the rest of the country lasted until the 1920s. Until Mauritania's independence, the seat of the French administration was in Saint-Louis, Senegal; the military stations established by the French were only expanded into smaller regional administrative centers. There was no need for the French colonial bureaucracy to found a capital in Mauritania, as the country had little economic importance compared to the French colonial possessions in the Sudan region . Investments in infrastructure and state building were correspondingly low.
One of these small administrative centers was Nouakchott, translated "place of the winds". From an old nomad camp, a small village around a military base emerged in the colonial times. The first military post, established in 1903, was given up again in 1908 and established a second time in 1929. The fortified settlement (generally Ksar ) had about 500 (or 2000) inhabitants in 1957.
Founding of the capital
The French governor Mauragues brought a first draft for the future city on the table in early 1957. A second plan came from the director of government investment in the colonial areas, Hirsch. In the first plan, neither an experienced architect was involved, nor were the local conditions taken into account, the second was not sufficiently detailed. In May 1957 a third planning proposal followed, which was worked out by Cerutti Marri, the leading architect of the French colonial authority in Dakar. This draft went into more detail and largely summarized the two earlier plans. Another architect in Dakar administration named Lainville came up with another plan. On July 4, 1957, the French General Assembly of the Colonies decided to adopt the Lainville Plan with a few changes. In March 1959, the architects Leconte and Lafon were commissioned to revise the Lainville plan according to new standards.
On March 5, 1958, Moktar Ould Daddah , who was intended by the French at the time for the presidency of the future independent country, laid the foundation stone for the capital on the site of the current presidential seat. The land was owned by the Ehel Bouhoubeini and the Ichouganen, subgroups of the Tendgha tribe, and became public property in return for compensation. For the start of construction, 1.5 billion CFA francs were initially available , of which 700 million from the new Mauritanian authorities and 800 million from the French development fund Fonds d'Aide et de Coopération Française. In the first phase of construction, around 40 small villas, an infirmary and a school were built, which initially served as a meeting place for parliament. The construction of the first high school (Lycée Daddah) lasted from 1959 to 1964.
The planning result, inspired by the patterns of French colonial cities, envisaged two centers, administrative buildings and residential areas in the north for the better-off and a quarter for the common population with a souk in the south . The Leconte draft, accepted as valid in March 1959, was designed for a maximum of 15,000 inhabitants, as Moktar Ould Daddah was of the opinion that the population and businesses would settle elsewhere. By the time of independence on November 28, 1960, the city center was rudimentary.
The basic concept consisted of a framework of two intersecting avenues. In the center of the new medina, west of the old Ksar village, there was to be a mosque and a central quarter for trade and administration. The cost rose to 3 billion CFA francs by 1962. By this time, around 50 kilometers of roads, around 600 service apartments and a hospital with 100 beds had been built.
From the Western Sahara conflict to the present
From the mid-1970s onwards, the country's economic situation deteriorated due to its militarily hopeless participation in the Western Sahara conflict , in which Mauritania occupied a southern part of Western Sahara from 1976 to 1979 , and through periods of drought lasting several years. From 1971 to 1975 and 1978 to 1984 the precipitation sank to about 70 percent below the average value, each year the desert penetrated eight kilometers to the south, large stretches of land became uncultivable. Large parts of the livestock were lost and the nomadic population of the country, which was still in the large majority when it gained independence, had fallen to 23 percent by 1980. In 1960 only three percent of the population lived in settlements, by 1985 it was 44 percent. Most migrants moved to Nouakchott, and many initially lived in tents. For the capital, this meant an uncontrolled population surge that led to the growth of informal settlements (bidonvilles) and one of the fastest growing rates of urbanization in post-colonial Africa. The tent settlements on the outskirts were given the appropriate new words “bidotentes” and “khaimahaillons” (French for “slum tents”, Arabic-French for “tents made of rags”).
Polisario fighters twice advanced into the city during the Western Sahara conflict. On the morning of June 8, 1976 , a small force of the unit (kataeb) led by al-Wali Mustafa Sayyid set off from a camp about 70 kilometers to the north with a few land rovers, bombarded the northern outskirts for half an hour and immediately returned to the camp back. On the evening of the same day they drove again to Nouakchott and fired with greater accuracy in the garden of the presidential palace and at the surrounding embassies. President Moktar Ould Daddah had obviously underestimated the danger, having flown back from a state visit to Cape Verde just the day before . The second raid (ghazzi) took place on the evening of July 3, 1977. 45 Land Rovers drove day and night from their Amgala base (north of Bir Moghrein in the far north of Mauritania) for about a week, only to hit the presidential palace with a few mortar shells . On the way back, they felt so safe that they took the asphalt road north and only turned into the desert before Akjoujt . They got back to Amgala with almost no loss.
The climax of the economic crisis caused by the war, the associated decline in iron ore exports and the oil imports, which had become more expensive since the 1973 oil crisis , was reached in 1978. In July, the president was ousted in a coup and later convicted, among other things, of "harming the nation's economic interests". Nouakchott had become dependent on international food aid.
At the time of independence Atar was the largest city in the country with 10,000 inhabitants, in 1962 Nouakchott had 5,807 inhabitants, and in 1963 the capital was ahead with 13,000 inhabitants. The subsequent extreme population growth officially resulted in 134,704 inhabitants in the 1977 census, of which 81,279 lived in makeshift accommodation and tents (Chaīmas) in the districts of Ksar and Cinquième Quartier and were mostly dependent on support from relatives. In cities across the country at that time there were only 39,700 jobs in modern industrial, administrative and commercial sectors. Unemployment is still very high today.
The number of residents may be underestimated because many newcomers do not register and there is high fluctuation, especially in the temporary accommodation in the peripheral areas. In 1974 the city administration made lots available free of charge, which changed hands several times within a short period of time, with the price multiplying.
In 1988 the population was 393,325, an official estimate in 1998 showed 667,300 residents. According to a calculation, the number of residents rose to 894,403 in 2013. In 2017 it was estimated at over a million.
The residents are almost 100 percent Sunni Muslims . The only Christian faith organization is the Roman Catholic diocese of Nouakchott , which is responsible for the entire country from its seat in the capital.
The geographic center of the city is formed by the intersection of the two multi-lane boulevards, which are surrounded by a checkerboard pattern of further broad streets. The main traffic artery is the east-west running Avenue Abdel Nasser, which ends at the harbor after six kilometers to the west and initially leads through a spacious district with government buildings in an easterly direction and connects the center with the international airport located three kilometers to the northeast. The Avenue du Général de Gaulle crosses a villa area in the far north, then the business and embassy district and leads south of the main intersection through several market districts to the Cinquième district in the south, which is mostly inhabited by black Africans .
The former village, called Ksar, is now part of the first district of Ksar , on the eastern edge of which the airport is located. A town center is no longer recognizable; Earth roads laid out in a planar square crisscross the kilometer-long sea of single-storey simple residential buildings that stretch along the side of the arterial road to Atar.
The original division included only four districts. In 1986 the city was divided into nine official districts (French arrondissements, hassania moughataa ):
- Arafat (after Yasser Arafat and the ʿArafāt plain near Mecca)
- Dar Naim (Arabic "House / Land of Naim")
- El Mina (Arabic "port"), on city maps also Cinquième Quartier (French "fifth district")
- Ksar (Arabic, al-qaṣr , "castle", "fortress")
- Riyadh ( Riyadeh , after the Saudi Arabian capital Riyadh )
- Sebkha (hassania, " loamy valley", Sabcha )
- Tavragh-Zeina ("the beautiful woman")
- Teyarett ("valley between two dunes")
- Toujounine (old Berber place name)
Two new districts that have been added beyond the nine districts are called Las Palmas and Tensouelim .
Tavragh-Zeina is the central district west of Ksar . On the way from the airport to the city center, Avenue Abdel Nasser first crosses a spacious area without residential buildings, in which the presidential palace, the national assembly , ministries, the police headquarters and a huge, cubic, white-painted Friday mosque with a roof of ten domes are located. The first university in the country, the Université de Nouakchott , was opened here in 1981 for around 8,000 students. The National Museum of Mauritania with archaeological finds and Moorish folk art is housed in the same building (House of Party and Culture) financed by the People's Republic of China as the National Library. The Mauritanian Central Bank (BMCI Bank), flight offices and, directly at the intersection, the tallest building in the city, the ten-story hotel and congress center Al-Chaīma (Arabic “tent”), whose name stands out, follow the post office building towards the main intersection justifies two nomadic accommodations symbolically raised to the roof, which refer to the beginning of urban development. The mosque built by Saudi Arabia is about 200 meters to the northeast.
More hotels, some upscale shops and embassy buildings are on Avenue du Général de Gaulle to the north. After 1.5 kilometers in this direction, there is a second embassy district and with the newly named Las Palmas district, a residential area with wide streets and private kindergartens. The social differences in Mauritania are nowhere to be seen as clearly as in the capital.
The other main streets in the “elegant” business district also bear the names of the great statesmen of the time as a sign of their importance: Bourguiba , Kennedy , Gandhi or Lumumba . For the main streets of the south adjoining Medina in the El-Mina district , the names of regional celebrities from politics and history, which are hardly known today, seemed to be sufficient in the adopted colonial-era thinking. The vast majority of the Nouakchotter roads are numbered or unmarked and are not asphalted.
The large market (Marché Capitale) offers a wide range of food, fabrics, especially men's outer garments ( Derra'a ) , jewelry and household goods in two-storey concrete buildings and in the surrounding areas . Many tailors and other craft businesses have rented the rooms on the upper floor. An even bigger market, the Cinquième Marché, takes place around two kilometers south of the city every day. A predominantly black African population lives here, so the range of goods also includes a lot of clothing from Senegal. These include the brightly colored m'boubous of women. In this area there is a house of prayer built by Morocco in the style of the Koutoubia Mosque . The space in front of it is occupied by the only large tent market in the country, in which women sew the white Chaīma fabrics together.
To the east of the arterial road to Rosso are the simple residential districts with one-story houses, Arafat , and along the road to the south, Riyadh. Toujounine and even further outside of Tensouelim are also young city expansions towards Boutilimit to the east . To the north of the airport in the direction of Atar, the districts of Dar Naim and Teyarett extend about six kilometers from the center . Sebkha is a new middle-class neighborhood in the west of the city center. The modern state hospital is located here on Avenue Abdel Nasser. When it was built in the 1980s, it was the only larger hospital in the country with 500 beds. Large flat areas were parceled out towards the sea in 2010 and intended for future development with larger residential units.
Around 1985, the ecologically oriented group of architects ADAUA, active throughout West Africa, planned a model settlement of 115 residential units made of domed brick houses in a residential area. A similar project was the Hôpital de Kaédi in the city of the same name . The intended role model effect on residential buildings to be built by the local population did not materialize in any of the projects.
Social and environmental problems
The average wage for workers in the bidonvilles is one US dollar per day. In 1995 there was a three-day social unrest that spread to an estimated 40 percent of the city's population who live in underdeveloped conditions. The low number of regular jobs encouraged a pronounced informal sector. According to a study from 1981, the income generated there mostly corresponded to that of the salaried employees or even exceeded them.
During the rainy season from July to September there are regular floods, especially in the newly settled outer districts. Some of these quarters are located in shallow depressions that are unsuitable for building and have no drainage. This applies to all areas that are less than three meters above sea level and in which the salty water table reaches the surface in the rainy season. In the areas affected by flooding alone, the built-up area increased by 12.4 km 2 between 1988 and 2008 . In some years channels form in the sand dunes through which a lagoon on the southern edge of the city is filled with sea water. Then the adjacent slum areas are also threatened by flooding. The expansion of the port from the 1970s is held responsible for the penetrating sea water. The creation of the harbor basin resulted in a sand barrier being washed away along the coast and the coastline receding in this area by 340 meters between 1989 and 1999.
The number of malaria cases has increased since the turn of the millennium due to poor quality of living, inadequate sanitary facilities in the apartments, standing water areas and plots with irrigated vegetable cultivation within the urban area . According to a study published in 2009, most malaria sufferers (53 of 61 positive cases) come from the two northeastern boroughs of Dar Naim and Teyarett .
Economy and Infrastructure
The expansion of the infrastructure could in no way keep up with the increase in population and the expansion of the built-up urban area. Between 1998 and 2008 the settlement area grew by an average of 2.77 km 2 per year from 37.42 to 92.97 km 2 . This was accompanied by a population increase of 22,679 inhabitants per year.
An adequate supply of drinking water is not guaranteed in the poorer districts. The city gets its water from the Trarza aquifer near Idini, 50 kilometers east on the road to Boutilimit. The main water tower near the presidential palace is filled via a high pressure line. In 2008, 55,000 m 3 / day flowed through this line. From there, further elevated tanks are supplied with water. According to their value, the central district, certain industrial companies, the military and hotels preferably contain water. Only a few private households have a direct water connection. At intervals of one to two hundred meters there are public water taps in the residential areas, where the water is filled into plastic canisters or barrels and transported to households on donkey carts.
Since, according to a study from 2008, the drinking water requirement for 2010 was estimated at 100,000 m 3 / day, i.e. almost twice as high as can be obtained from the city's only water source so far, the Aftout Saheli project for a pipeline has been in place since 2001 in planning to pump water from Senegal over a distance of 170 kilometers. The project is funded by the World Bank and Islamic banks. By 2020 the amount of drinking water available should increase to 170,000 m 3 / day. In 2012, over 28 percent of the city's population did not have sufficient drinking water.
Only the wastewater from a small percentage of the population (four percent according to a study in 2000) flows into the sewage treatment plant via an urban sewage system. Most of the wastewater is channeled into cesspools and sewage tanks or apart from open latrines there is no sewage disposal at all. Process water contaminated by bacteria and heavy metals, which is mainly used in the Sebhka district to irrigate vegetable fields, is a health problem.
In the bidonvilles ( kebbé , "garbage dump") built without a permit, where around 40 percent of the population live, there is a lack of electricity and medical care. There is also the type of settlement called the gazra , a somewhat more solid residential area with unclear ownership titles, in which a third of the residents live. The electricity produced by diesel generators is provided nationwide by the only electricity provider, the state-owned company SOMELEC. The demand is higher than the supply. In 2004, 62.5 percent of households in Nouakchott had electricity, compared with 57.6 percent in cities across the country.
There is no regulated local transport system in the entire city. Private minibuses operate on some major routes, which are in dire condition and chronically overcrowded. Many cars act as shared taxis for this. They are unmarked and can be recognized by the horn.
Three of the most important and longest highways connect Nouakchott in all directions with the most distant parts of Mauritania. Traditionally the most important road is the N2 , which connects to the neighboring country Senegal over a distance of 203 kilometers via Rosso . The road has been extended to the north since 2005 and connects the Mauritanian capital with the port city of Nouadhibou in the north as a 525-kilometer asphalt road . Before that, there was only one bad slope between the two largest cities in the country, some of which ran on the sandy beach.
The only paved road that crosses the country in a west-east direction is the 1100 kilometer long N3 known as the Route de l'Espoir ("Road of Hope") . It leads from Nouakchott after 262 kilometers through the first larger town Boutilimit and ends in Néma , the last settlement before the border to Mali . Another trunk road is the N1 ; it leaves the capital in a north-easterly direction via Akjoujt (256 kilometers) and after a total of 440 kilometers reaches Atar , the largest city in the northern highlands.
In 2005, China approved a $ 136 million loan to build an international airport in Nouakchott , which was operational in 2008.
The town has a stretch of beach where fishing boats land, a port for smaller ships with a draft of up to five meters and an industrial port. Six kilometers west of the city center is the fishing port of Port de Pêche or Plage des Pêcheurs ; so called because the fishing boats are pulled side by side on the sandy beach in a one kilometer long row. There is no pier on the unprotected straight coast. The fishermen are mostly Wolof from Senegal, others come from neighboring countries such as Gambia or Guinea . The catches are brought ashore during the day, mainly in the late afternoon, and auctioned in a fish hall.
The industrial port is located south of the fishing port. In 1966 the first port facility went into operation seven kilometers southwest of the city center. It was designed for a trading volume of 50,000 tons per year. At the beginning of the 1970s, the capacity was expanded to 200,000 tons in order to be able to ship the copper ore from the mining area near Akjoujt . With a further expansion in 1977 a capacity of 320,000 tons was achieved. Some industrial companies began to settle around the port.
Initially, the city did not have a sheltered port, so it was dependent on overland supplies via Senegalese ports. Economic relations with the People's Republic of China began in 1967 when Moktar Ould Daddah received an initial loan of five million US dollars and an offer for 200 tons of agricultural equipment during his state visit to China. These could be unloaded via the first pier , which had been put into operation a year earlier . In 1974 the Mauritanian President agreed with China to build a deep-water port near the city for 37 million US dollars, which when completed in 1986 had become the largest Chinese construction project in Africa after the rail link between Tanzania and Zambia ( TAZARA ).
The foundation stone for the construction of the new deep-water port, financed by China, took place in April 1979; When it was inaugurated on September 17, 1986, the Porte Autonome de Nouakchott (PANPA) was nicknamed Port de l'Amitié ("Port of Friendship"). The Porte Autonome de Nouakchott has a 585 meter long quay with five piers up to a length of 180 meters. The main import products of the industrial port are cement, wheat, sugar, maize, milk and all kinds of finished products. Many goods are destined for inland Mali and are transported by truck on the Route de l'Espoir . The main exports are gypsum (50,000 tons in 2008) by Société Arabe des Industries Métallurgiques (SAMIA) from a mining area between Nouakchott and Akjoujt. In addition, animal skins are traditionally traded goods.
Music performances mainly take place at private gatherings and celebrations of the black African population groups and the Arab-Berber Bidhan . Larger concerts are held in the Stade Olympique , a football stadium for 40,000 spectators in the embassy district to the north of the center (on the Route des Ambassades). The most famous Mauritanian singers Dimi Mint Abba and Malouma can be heard there. The music sung in Hassania belongs to the traditional Bidhan culture, which is performed by a special caste of musicians, the iggāwen with the main instruments ardin (angle harp for women) and tidinit (spit lute for men), alternatively electric guitar.
The ASC Tevragh Zeïna football club plays in Nouakchott . In addition to the Stade Olympique, there is a second football stadium, the Stade de la Capitale on Rue Mohamed Lemine Sakho in the southeast of the center.
sons and daughters of the town
- Ely Ould Mohamed Vall (1953-2017), politician
- Naha Mint Mouknass (* 1969), politician
- Seydou M'Bodji (* 1979), football player
- Karamogho Moussa Traoré (* 1982), football player
- Jidou El Moctar (* 1985), athlete
- Mamoudou Athie (* 1988), actor
- Oumar N'Diaye (* 1988), football player
- Ely Cheikh Voulany (* 1988), football player
- Bocar Coulibaly (* 1989), football player
- Ismaël Diakité (* 1991), football player
- Armelle Choplin: Nouakchott. Au carrefour de la Mauritanie et du monde. Editions Karthala et Prodig, Paris 2009, ISBN 978-2-8111-0239-5 .
- Tony Hodges: Western Sahara. The Roots of a Desert War. Lawrence Hill Company, Westport CT 1983, ISBN 0-88208-151-9 .
- Anthony G. Pazzanita, Tony Hodges: Historical Dictionary of Mauritania ( Historical Dictionaries of Africa. Vol. 110). 3. Edition. The Scarecrow Press, Lanham MD et al. 2008, ISBN 978-0-8108-5596-0 .
- Nicola Pratt: Nouakchott. In: Michael RT Dumper, Bruce E. Stanley (Ed.): Cities of the Middle East and North Africa. A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-Clio, Santa Barbara CA 2007, ISBN 978-1-57607-919-5 , pp. 284-288.
- Catherine Taine-Cheikh: The (R) Urbanization of Mauritania. In: Catherine Miller (Ed.): Arabic in the City. Issues in Dialect Contact and Language Variation ( Routledge Arabic linguistics Series. Vol. 5). Routledge Chapman & Hall, London et al. 2008, ISBN 978-0-415-77311-9 , pp. 35f, 42-46.
- ↑ Pratt: Nouakchott . In: Michael RT Dumper, Bruce E. Stanley (Ed.): Cities of the Middle East and North Africa. A Historical Encyclopedia , 2007, p. 286
- ↑ a b Hodges: Western Sahara. The Roots of a Desert War, 1983, p. 261
- ^ Advisory Committee on the Sahel: Environmental Change in the West African Sahel. (PDF; 5.2 MB) National Academy Press, Washington 1983, p. 41
- ↑ Ambe J. Njoh: Planning Power. Town Planning and Social Control in Colonial Africa. UCL Press, University College, London et al. 2007, ISBN 978-1-84472-160-3 , pp. 93-95.
- ↑ Choplin: Nouakchott. Au carrefour de la Mauritanie et du monde, 2009, p. 65
- ↑ Choplin: Nouakchott. Au carrefour de la Mauritanie et du monde, 2009, p. 66
- ^ Walter Reichhold: Islamic Republic of Mauritania. Kurt Schroeder, Bonn 1964, p. 85
- ↑ Pazzanita, Hodges: Historical Dictionary of Mauritania , 2008, p 369
- ↑ Choplin: Nouakchott. Au carrefour de la Mauritanie et du monde, 2009, p. 67f
- ↑ Pazzanita, Hodges: Historical Dictionary of Mauritania , 2008, p 370
- ↑ Choplin: Nouakchott. Au carrefour de la Mauritanie et du monde, 2009, p. 79
- ^ Hodges: Western Sahara. The Roots of a Desert War, 1983, pp. 244-246
- ^ Rainer Oßwald: The trading cities of the Western Sahara. The development of the Arab-Moorish culture of Šinqīt, Wādān, Tišīt and Walāta (= Marburg studies on Africa and Asia. Series A: Africa. Vol. 39). Dietrich Reimer, Berlin 1986, ISBN 3-496-00853-9 , p. 477.
- ^ Taine-Cheikh: The (R) Urbanization of Mauritania . In: Catherine Miller (Ed.): Arabic in the City. Issues in Dialect Contact and Language Variation , 2008, p. 44
- ^ Walter Reichhold: Islamic Republic of Mauritania . Kurt Schroeder, Bonn 1964, p. 19
- ↑ Page no longer available , search in web archives: World Gazetteer
- ↑ Mauritania: Regions, Cities & Urban Places - Population Statistics in Maps and Tables. Retrieved May 15, 2018 .
- ^ Catherine Taine-Cheikh: Toponymie et urbanization. (PDF; 1.8 MB) In: Espaces et sociétés en Mauritanie actes du colloque de Tours, 19 et 20 October 1995. Tours 1998, pp. 77-86, here pp. 84f
- ↑ Thomas Krings: Sahel. Senegal, Mauritania, Mali, Niger. Islamic and traditional black African culture between the Atlantic and Lake Chad. DuMont, Cologne 1982, ISBN 3-7701-1202-4 , pp. 191f.
- ^ Taine-Cheikh: The (R) Urbanization of Mauritania . In: Catherine Miller (Ed.): Arabic in the City. Issues in Dialect Contact and Language Variation , pp. 43f
- ^ Nouakchott Hospital . ( Memento from June 12, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) ArchNet
- ↑ Pratt: Nouakchott . In: Michael RT Dumper, Bruce E. Stanley (Ed.): Cities of the Middle East and North Africa. A Historical Encyclopedia , 2007, p. 287
- ↑ Francis Cherunilam: The Urban Informal Sector. In: Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 17, No. 1, July 1981, pp. 99-109, here p. 105
- ↑ Adama Ouattara: Mauritania and Senegal coastal area urbanization, ground water flood risk in Nouakchott and Land use / land cover change in Mbour area. (Master thesis) Department of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University (Sweden) 2011, pp. 17, 22, 40
- ^ Weicheng Wu, Marie-Françoise Courel, Jeannine Le Rhun: Application of Remote Sensing to the Urban Expansion Analysis for Nouakchott, Mauritania. (PDF; 124 kB) Geocarto International, Vol. 18, No. 1, Hong Kong, March 2003, p. 21
- ↑ Khadijetou Mint Lekweiry, Mohamed Ould Abdallahi, Hâmpaté Ba, Céline Arnathau, Patrick Durand, Jean-François Trape, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem: Preliminary study of malaria incidence in Nouakchott, Mauritania. (PDF; 380 kB) In: Malaria Journal , May 5, 2009, p. 4
- ↑ Adama Ouattara: Mauritania and Senegal coastal area urbanization, ground water flood risk in Nouakchott and Land use / land cover change in Mbour area. (Master thesis) Department of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University (Sweden) 2011, p. 29
- ↑ Philippe Rekacewicz: quenching thirst in the urban sprawl. ( Memento of December 27, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) UNEP GRID Arenda, 2010
- ↑ Nouakchott City “Aftout Es Saheli” Drinking Water Supply Project ( Memento from April 6, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 465 kB) Water and Sanitation Department. North, East, and South Regions. Islamic Republic of Mauritania, May 2008
- ↑ Mohamed Yahya Lafdal, Seydi Malang: Removal, Species Dynamics and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Motile Aeromonads and Faecal Bacteria during Municipal Wastewater Purification by Activated Sludges under Aride Climate. (PDF; 770 kB) Science Journal of Microbiology, November 19, 2012, p. 1
- ↑ Abdoulaye Demba N'diaye, Khalid Ibno Namr, Mohamed Ould Sid 'Ahmed Ould Kankou: Assessment of the turbidity from the effluent of WWTP in the vegetable farming area of Sebkha (Nouakchott, Mauritania). ( Memento of May 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 77 kB) Basic Research Journal of Soil and Environmental Science Vol. 1 (1) March 2013, p. 9
- ^ Pierre Robert Baduel: La nouvelle scène urbaine (Maghreb, France, Etats-Unis). Paris, Tunis 2011, p. 131.
- ↑ Mohamed Elhacen Ould Khouna: Country Chapter: Mauritania. German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ), 2009, p. 170
- ^ David H. Shinn, Joshua Eisenman: China and Africa: A Century of Engagement. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 2012, pp. 242f
- ↑ 2008 Minerals Yearbook. Mauritania (Abvance Release). (PDF; 289 kB) US Geological Survey, July 2010, p. 29.4
- ↑ Mauritania. OT Africa Line
- ^ John Shoup: The Griot Tradition in Ḥassāniyya Music. The Īggāwen. In: Quaderni di Studi Arabi, Nuova Serie, Vol. 2, 2007, pp. 95-102