Junction (traffic)

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A rare intersection: road - tarmac ( London Heathrow Airport )
Road crossing at Stift Griffen in Carinthia, Austria

A traffic junction is a place where several traffic routes of the same type cross , for example a railway junction or motorway junction , or a traffic route joins a traffic route of the same type. Several traffic junctions are traffic routes "different" kind of close and it comes to transport exchange, is called this place transportation hub .

Most towns and market places are at such intersections of passenger or freight incurred - such. B. on Roman roads or at crossings of the Amber Road with rivers .

With the increase in public and private transport , the networking of international , national and regional transport routes has gained in importance. That is why there are so-called station offensives in many European countries , e.g. B. in Trans-European Networks (TEN).

After the opening of the long-distance train station at Frankfurt am Main Airport , it has been described as the first European trimodal transport hub, as several highways ( Frankfurter Kreuz ) as well as a train station and an airport with numerous long-distance train and flight connections meet here.

Public transport

Road junction

Same junction in Stuttgart-Vaihingen

A junction in road traffic is a structure that is used to link roads or paths. A distinction is made between access road junction, connection junction and traffic road junction.

In road construction , various forms of the nodes are defined. First, a distinction is made between plan-identical and plan-free nodes.

A plan node is an intersection or confluence of streets on the same level. This form is characterized by the fact that traffic flows cross or flow traffic flows into one another. The best known form is the street intersection . If it's a road and a railroad that cross, it's a level crossing .

A plane-free junction is an intersection or confluence on different levels such as motorway junctions and triangles .

Junctions with no partial plan have one of the streets without any elevation in free flowing traffic, the other at the same level. The best known form is the motorway junction . Junctions on the same level lead two traffic routes one above the other at different levels, but are each connected with a confluence on the same level.

Unconventional traffic hubs, which include the roundabout because it has a level and no traffic flows directly intersect, reduce the number of points of conflict between the traffic flows, mainly by relocating left-turners and saving bridges compared to conventional traffic hubs. Other unconventional transport hubs are Michigan Left and RCUT, where left-turners turn around after the intersection, and where continuous flow they are brought forward. The Seagull Intersection , also called Florida-T or Turbo-T, has one less stop line. The Jughandle places left-turners and turning traffic in other traffic flows.

Not to be confused with a junction, which mainly deals with the structural conditions of an intersection, with a traffic junction, which describes a traffic intersection with the associated environment.

Junctions of individual modes of transport

Rail transport

Every train station at which at least two railway lines meet is called a railway junction. Especially in long-distance traffic, it does not necessarily have to be the train station closest to a junction. The term long-distance traffic node is also occasionally used if long-distance traffic connections meet.

Bicycle traffic

In the national cycle network of Belgium and the Netherlands , the node -related signposting is based on numbered nodes. The principle has its origin in the Belgian province of Limburg and has also been adopted in some areas of Germany near the border.

Trunk roads

In Austria every motorway junction or motorway triangle is referred to as a node in the motorway network .

air traffic

Junctions in the route network of an airline are airports at which flight connections from the same airline meet without having to be systematic transfer connections, as is the case with an airline's aviation hub .


In the Internet , traffic hubs can also be points at which information is conveyed.

Web links

  • Ágnes Lindenbach: Road junctions. (PDF; 410 kB) Lecture 2, Roads and Railways II. BMEEOUV-N40. Budapest University of Technology and Economics, archived from the original on July 5, 2015 ; accessed on March 15, 2017 .
  • Ágnes Lindenbach: Plan-free nodes. (PDF; 410 kB) Lecture 3, Roads and Railways II. BMEEOUV-N40. Budapest University of Technology and Economics, archived from the original on July 5, 2015 ; accessed on March 15, 2017 .

Individual evidence

  1. Institute for Roads and Railways at KIT: Design and Construction of Roads - Part: Road Design (PDF; 8.44 MB), accessed on September 7, 2013.