Traffic route

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rail route as part of the transport network
The articles traffic route and transport route overlap thematically. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. Stinkerwue ( discussion ) 23:11, Apr 22, 2018 (CEST)

The traffic route is a specified and suitable route / path on which traffic takes place or can take place, including the material, structural and technical requirements. The traffic route is the fixed part of a traffic system . The transport routes essentially include land transport routes , waterways ( sea ​​routes and inland waterways ), air transport routes and pipelines . At the same time it is a collective term for different modes of transport .

A traffic route can be created artificially or naturally , such as conditions that favor or enable traffic such as mountain passes, through valleys, rivers or lakes . Artificial roads are traffic management serving structures ( transport structure )

In the case of land transport routes in particular, transport routes are usually not only fixed routes, but also artificial structures. On the one hand, they include roads and paths of all kinds, on the other hand, railways , including the accompanying structures such as bridges , tunnels or drainage systems . A change of location of people and goods takes place on you. An exception are, for example, tanks and off-road vehicles , which do not necessarily need a structurally prepared route as a traffic route.

Waterways can be sea routes and inland waterways. You also use naturally existing bodies of water (no structures), as well as specially built waterways (e.g. canals) or specially designed natural bodies of water.

In the transport geographic doctrine, control safety systems are also part of the traffic routes.


The development of the transport infrastructure is the responsibility of transport policy , its construction and planning is the responsibility of the transport industry . The responsibility for maintaining a traffic route can be of a state as well as of a private nature. The so-called construction agency is responsible for the construction, operation and maintenance of the traffic route.

A transport infrastructure is well developed when it optimally networks the various means of transport with one another so that the transfer or transfer from one means of transport to the other can take place smoothly. For ports, for example, connections to motorways and railways are important today , airports should also be connected to these traffic routes and allow people to switch to public transport . In urban areas, the urban planners' challenge is not to overload the streets. In other words, public transport must be an attractive alternative to private transport in terms of price and time.

Historical development

In Europe, the earliest long-distance routes (besides coastal shipping ) were rivers and footpaths that led across dry land. They were not yet particularly developed, but in ancient times they allowed traders to carry first trade goods such as salt, flint, honey, metals, ceramics and weapons over long distances . The Romans built highways on a large scale in historical times , primarily to enable rapid troop movements. These streets were then also used for civilian movement of people and goods as well as for the rapid forwarding of messages. Canal constructions are known from China and Egypt even before the Roman era .

Two aspects of the expansion of the transport infrastructure are important for the trade: The time saved by well-developed transport routes lowers transport costs and makes it possible to trade perishable goods in the first place. This benefits regions that previously could not market their products due to high costs or high shrinkage. A classic example of this is the Canal du Midi in southern France, which made it possible for the region to export grain for the first time. Figuratively speaking, it moved “closer” to the urban markets.

In Germany in the Middle Ages it was predominantly the edges of low mountain ranges that were suitable for highways. They had natural drainage due to the slope and accordingly mostly dry and firm roads.

From a military point of view, long straight streets in Prussia were built in the 18th century, which were lined with trees. They were used to quickly move troops, the trees were to protect the soldiers from the heat in summer. Such aspects also played a role in the construction of the first autobahns in Germany.

In the past, the construction of bridges over rivers directed the flow of goods and people towards them in a funnel shape. It is often written that a city is "conveniently located". In fact, it is usually the case that the city has developed this favorable location by expanding the transport infrastructure or has influenced the supraregional expansion in its own interest.

Even in absolutism , considerable investments were made in building canals and making rivers navigable. Waterways were the cheapest way of transport and were also suitable for transporting larger or heavier loads over long distances. England was a pioneer here, and in continental Europe the historic network of canals between the Rhine and Moselle is now a popular area for leisure captains. The development and further development of lock technology was important here .

Also, sea and inland ports belong to the transport infrastructure. They developed by leaps and bounds in Europe in the early Middle Ages ( Hanseatic League ) and worldwide in the 18th and 19th centuries. This development continues unabated ( container shipping).

Barges were before the invention of the steam engine pulled from the bank usually of horses, mules and people with linen, the so-called towpaths . These paths are often still preserved today and are then used more for local recreation. The importance of inland shipping has tended to decline for around 150 years, but new, lighter containers could bring a revival.

With the invention of the steam engine and the railroad in the 19th century, waterways were replaced as the most cost-effective means of transport. This reduced the transport costs and the transport times even further. The regional aspect described for the Canal du Midi was given a continental dimension. Cities connected to the long-distance railways improved their relative position; for excluded cities it deteriorated.

The invention of the automobile led and still leads to the massive expansion of the road network. Both individual and goods transport are still increasing worldwide.

In the cities, the infrastructure for the transport of workers and employees between home and work has been expanded since the industrial revolution. After trams (first drawn by horses, then electrified), underground trains were built in some places . Also buses were and are important means of transport of the public transport (LPT) .

The air traffic had initially takes only one meaning for passenger transport, its importance for the movement of goods but. For the tourism he has ever made many destinations only accessible, thereby contributing greatly to the economic development. Here it is not the goods that reach the consumer faster, but conversely, the consumer can get to the holiday destination faster (and cheaper).

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Verkehrsweg  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Helmut Nuhn / Markus Hesse, Traffic Geography , Schöningh, Paderborn [u. a.] 2006, ISBN 3-8252-2687-5 , p. 18