Traffic sciences is a collective term for all scientific disciplines that deal with the research of the natural sciences, technical, technological, economic, sociological, legal, geographical, historical, educational and psychological laws of traffic in connection with the relocation of goods, people and messages.
Transport science can be understood as a framework science of sub-areas of other sciences. These sub-areas consist of relatively independent, but closely intertwined disciplines and fields of work, e.g. B .:
- Transport engineering
- Traffic didactics
- Traffic education
- Traffic geography
- Traffic history
- Traffic engineering
- Traffic cybernetics
- Transport logistics
- Traffic medicine
- Traffic meteorology
- Traffic ecology
- Traffic education
- Traffic physics
- Traffic planning
- Transport policy
- Traffic psychology
- Traffic law
- Traffic sociology
- Traffic statistics
- Traffic engineering
- Traffic telematics
- Transport economics
The prerequisite for the development of traffic sciences was the development of traffic and the corresponding profiling of the sciences. This was fulfilled in the middle of the 20th century. Until then, the scientific treatment of the research topic “ traffic ” took place in the disciplines of economics or engineering, which was not yet further differentiated. In addition, there was a carrier-specific scientific development.
- Middle of the 15th century: Allegedly the establishment of a naval academy in Sagres (Portugal) by Henry the Navigator ,
- 1747 Foundation of the Academy for Road and Bridge Construction, Paris ( Ecole nationale des Ponts et Chaussées ),
- 1806 Foundation of an engineering corps for water and land transport in St. Petersburg, Russia (later the Transport University),
- 1896 Foundation of the later Moscow Railway University .
With the development of today's well-known transport system with its political, economic and technical importance, there was an overarching scientific consideration of the various aspects of mobility and traffic and thus the development of transport science (s). Important traffic scientists in this development were in Germany a. a. Friedrich List (1789–1846), Emil Sax (1845–1927), Richard van der Borght (1861–1926), Wilhelm Launhardt (1832–1918), Kurt Wiedenfeld (1871–1955), Richard Hennig (1874–1951), Ernst Esch (1881–1945), Anton Felix Napp-Zinn (1899–1965), Carl Pirath (1884–1955), Gerhart Potthoff (1908–1989), Fritz Voigt (1910–1993).
This cross-sectional area was / is scientifically treated at various institutions, B. at universities and other research institutions ( Fraunhofer Society , German Aerospace Center ) and scientific institutions ( German Transport Science Society ).
A specialty in the German-speaking area was the "Friedrich List" University of Transport in Dresden, where between 1952 and 1992 all modes of transport were scientifically treated. The former traffic college was integrated into the Technical University of Dresden on October 1st, 1992 as the faculty of traffic sciences "Friedrich List" . Further university transport science subjects have been established at the TU Berlin and the TU Braunschweig . In the field of transport economics, the Heilbronn University of Applied Sciences has the faculty “Business 1 - Business and Transport”. In addition, there are other individual chairs and institutes at universities and colleges in Germany that are active in traffic sciences.
German universities with transport science courses
- TU Berlin (Faculty V Traffic and Machine Systems)
- TU Dresden ( Faculty of Transport Sciences "Friedrich List" )
- Heilbronn University (Faculty of Economics and Transport)
- RWTH Aachen (Institute for Urban Planning and Urban Transport; Transport Science Institute)
- TU Braunschweig (Institute for Transport and Road Engineering)
- TU Darmstadt (Institute for Transport)
- TU Dortmund (Department of Transport and Transport Planning)
- University of Duisburg-Essen (Center for Logistics and Transport)
- FH Erfurt (Department of Traffic and Transport)
- University of Freiburg (Institute for Transport Science and Regional Policy)
- TU Hamburg (Institute for Transport Planning and Logistics)
- University of Hanover (Institute for Transportation, Railway Construction and Operation)
- TU Kaiserslautern (Institute for Transport and Mobility )
- Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Institute for Transportation)
- University of Kassel (Institute for Transportation)
- University of Cologne (Institute and Seminar for Transport Science; meanwhile abandoned)
- TU Munich (Institute for Transport)
- University of Münster (Institute for Transport Science)
- University of Rostock (Baltic Sea Institute for Marketing, Transport and Tourism)
- University of Stuttgart (Institute for Railways and Transportation)
- FH Wolfenbüttel (Traffic Department)
- FH Worms (Department of Tourism / Transportation)
- Bergische Universität Wuppertal (Transport Center)
- Ruhr University Bochum (Chair for Transportation)
- TU Cottbus (Chair for Railways and Roads)
- University of Applied Sciences Cologne
- University of the Federal Armed Forces Munich (Chair for Transportation and Track-Bound Systems)
- Recklinghausen University of Applied Sciences
- Bauhaus University Weimar (Professorship for Transport Planning and Transport Technology)
- University of Duisburg-Essen (Chair for Transport Systems and Logistics)
Degree programs for transport systems
Transportation Science or Science?
There is no agreement in the professional world whether there is a separate traffic science at all, because the above. For their part, disciplines are part of large areas of science. In addition, it is unclear whether it is a single traffic science or several traffic sciences. In particular, the economics / economics traditionally considered a single Transport Economics (meaning thereby the Transport Economics ). In addition, the view is that the transport fluid dynamics ( traffic science . See Transport Physics ) own transport science forms - regardless of sociological, economic, technological or technical constraints.
- German Transport Science Society V.
- German Academy for Transport Science
- Overview of traffic science courses
- Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation and Infrastructure Systems Dresden
- German Aerospace Center (DLR)
- Faculty of Transport Science "Friedrich List", TU Dresden
- Specializing in traffic and transport, FH Erfurt
- IfV, University of Cologne (Herbert Baum)