Traffic telematics is the use of telematics in traffic . It deals with the acquisition, processing and presentation of data on vehicles with their contents to be transported, the dispatch and receipt of people or goods. Transport telematics supports coordination within or between transport systems such as road , rail , ship and air traffic .
Traffic telematics or the internationally used term ITS ( English Intelligent Transportation Systems ) describes the acquisition, transmission, processing and use of traffic-related data with the aim of organizing, informing and controlling traffic using information and communication technologies.
In terms of traffic policy, there is a very high expectation of traffic telematics. Traffic telematics should contribute to the more efficient, ecological and safe handling of traffic, to optimally use the existing infrastructure, to provide road users with comprehensive, up-to-date and easily accessible information and to control or relocate traffic in a targeted and dynamic manner. Comprehensive and up-to-date traffic information based on traffic telematics is intended to encourage the switch to ecological means of transport and thus support traffic and environmental policy goals. In the logistics area , traffic telematics is used for the efficient organization and dynamic planning of transport processes. Traffic telematics applications are also used to process monetary control measures ( tolls , city tolls ).
Extensive traffic telematics solutions already exist for individual traffic modes (e.g. motorized individual traffic). Intermodal solutions (i.e. the combination of motorized individual transport, public transport, cycling and walking) already exist in isolated cases at regional level; Numerous projects are running in this direction at national and international level. The central challenges are still different standards, interfaces, data quality and organizational responsibilities at regional, national and international level as well as between the different modes.
According to a study by the ADAC , drivers in Germany spend an average of 65 hours a year in traffic jams , and the trend is rising. Every year around 14 billion liters of fuel are consumed too much in traffic jams, which could be avoided for the benefit of nature and the environment. Furthermore, the traffic jam harms the economy in general ( except for the oil companies ), e.g. B. through lost working hours. For these reasons (cleanliness, traffic safety, efficiency), the European Commission is concerned with the topic of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS).
Through the targeted use of traffic telematics, the existing traffic routes can be better used. In this way, the driver can be informed in good time and up-to-date what awaits him on his chosen route and how he can bypass any bottlenecks and problem areas. Traffic reports on the radio are usually only able to do this to a limited extent, as they usually only report every half an hour and some of the traffic jams that they announce are no longer present or the driver no longer has the option of choosing another route.
It should be noted, however, that optimizations in the course of road traffic regularly result in reduced traffic resistance in the network. This can lead to increased traffic and urban evacuation both in the affected areas and overall . This increases overall fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, and the goal of environmental protection is called into question.
Areas of application
One of the largest areas of application for telematics is traffic telematics. This includes all electronic control systems that help to coordinate traffic . There are many hopes for traffic avoidance here, but here too it will be some time before a possible mass deployment.
The following goals are to be achieved with traffic telematics:
- Increasing the efficiency of the existing transport infrastructure
- Avoidance of traffic jams as well as empty and search trips
- Combination of the advantages of the individual modes of transport ( rail , road , water , air ) and merging into an integrated overall concept ( modal split )
- Increasing traffic safety , resulting in a reduction in accidents and the risk of traffic jams
- Reduction of environmental pollution (especially CO 2 ) by controlling traffic and driving behavior ( EcoDrive system )
- Monitoring of cargo, e.g. B. Monitoring the temperature in the hold
In addition to rail traffic, car traffic is probably the largest area of application for traffic telematics.
Variable message signs are increasingly being installed at critical points on German autobahns . With their help, traffic flows can be influenced, e.g. B. by warning notices or speed restrictions, but also diversion recommendations. However, the prerequisite is the availability of traffic data that is recorded by optical, inductive or other methods. The data is collected in a traffic control center and processed into traffic information. So z. B. calculate a maximum speed that ensures a smoother flow of traffic. Even in bad weather , these systems limit the maximum speed. Accidents have been reduced by 30% and serious accidents by 50%.
The so-called RDS / TMC has existed since autumn 1997 . Behind this abbreviation is the English expression Radio Data System / Traffic Message Channel . This is a traffic warning service, through which traffic jams and dangerous situations are reported via data transmission via VHF e.g. B. can be called up in a suitable car radio at any time, specifically and repeatedly. This increases safety and distributes traffic more evenly across different streets.
Navigation systems in road vehicles are relatively well known and are becoming increasingly widespread . Instead of looking for a route with the road atlas or the home computer, the driver is guided to the destination via satellite navigation . In this way, the traffic resulting from “processes” and part of the search traffic are reduced. B. Parking garages also recorded. A combination of the latest traffic news, real-time movement data and satellite navigation can already find the optimal route today. Such systems help, especially when drivers often drive unknown routes. This is e.g. This is the case, for example, with goods and taxis as well as breakdown services and emergency calls.
Traffic flow analyzes are based on data from various sensors for traffic flow and density. From this, travel times can be calculated (and this information can be passed on to the drivers on site in real time by traffic control systems), or evaluable data is available for the traffic planning of a room.
In the future, data will also be exchanged via "cooperative systems" from I2V ( Infrastructure to Vehicle ) and C2C / V2V ( Car to Car or Vehicle to Vehicle ). On the road, cooperation means that vehicles communicate with each other and with the infrastructure. The data in the vehicle is recorded and sent to a central computer, which evaluates it. With this data z. B. can be determined whether it is raining or a traffic jam (windshield wiper switched on = rain, frequent braking = traffic jam). The cooperative systems should better support the driver in their tasks. The system is to be implemented using a radio network that sends and evaluates the data from the vehicle to a central computer. The central computer determines a driving recommendation that is specifically transmitted to the individual driver. The goal of cooperative systems is that the infrastructure is better used or planned and thus the safety in road traffic is increased. The official definition of cooperative systems in road transport by the European Commission is: “Road operators, infrastructure, vehicles, their drivers and other road users cooperate to enable the most efficient, safe and pleasant journey possible. Systems that cooperate between vehicles and infrastructure will contribute to achieving this goal beyond the possibilities of isolated systems. "
Traffic-dependent light signal systems (LSA) have already been introduced in many cities . In this way, the signal phases should be regulated as required. This relieves the environment through fewer exhaust gases. In this context, the connection of several traffic lights in series to create the “ green wave ” must also be mentioned.
Traffic management systems operated by municipalities reduce traffic looking for parking spaces . With parking guidance systems and P + R information systems, the inner city is somewhat relieved of motorized individual traffic.
Mobile communities also represent a new form of appearance. You share your telemetry data in the network with all other participants. This makes it possible to create new maps based on GPS data and keep them up to date. Speed and traffic jam information is also shared and alternative routes are suggested. Accidents and extraordinary incidents can also be recorded manually and shared with the network.
Local public transport (ÖPNV)
Public transport vehicles can be given priority through priority switching at traffic lights. If the vehicles only stop at the stops, an increase in travel speed is achieved, which can reduce the number of vehicles required. Often one also comes across bus lanes with their own signal systems.
Electronic information, booking and reservation systems are becoming more and more popular both in local traffic operated by the transport associations and in long-distance rail traffic . The aim is to encourage the customer to switch to public transport and thereby achieve a sustainable reduction in traffic. From 2018, the integrated information system DELFI will provide information about public passenger transport beyond the boundaries of the network and railways.
Also, the entire area is technically produced train protection counts for traffic telematics and thus represents the oldest and probably most extensive range of applications. So also include the technical safety of a level crossing with signal systems and warning systems to do so.
In the case of goods traffic, the smooth, timely process that is striven for is above all a functioning goods turnover between the modes of transport and at customer-specific interfaces. Here, too, an operations control system is used that takes over the coordination. The aim is to reduce the number of journeys and make it easier to switch to rail and inland shipping .
Another big difference is the pronounced use of telematic logistics systems . Radio and satellite-based fleet management systems, also known as "telematics systems", make it easier to find freight (this is already possible for every customer via the Internet at UPS in the USA ), ensures better use of transport space and reduces empty trips and detours.
In freight traffic centers, long-distance freight transport is coupled with city logistics systems. In this way, routes can be optimized, especially in the city, and a city-specific vehicle selection can be simplified.
Telematics is also used in fleet traffic to determine valuable parameters. The basis for this is the linking and recording of various sensor data from the towing vehicle and the semi-trailer . Nowadays, the data used for this is either information that is sent directly to the fleet management system via the vehicle CANBUS, or data from external sensors that are subsequently sent, e.g. B. by radio, have been connected to the telematics system. These data can be evaluated and provide information as to whether, for example, the temperature in the cargo hold has remained within a permitted range (e.g. +1 ° C to +10 ° C).
In this context, the FMS standard , which is represented throughout the industry, should be mentioned. This standard defines a number of parameters that can be read in and processed via a telematics system. These include e.g. B. the position of the brake pedal and the engine speeds.
Rail freight transport
Traffic telematics are also used in European rail freight transport . Up until the turn of the millennium, there was no functioning tracking system at wagon level in European rail traffic. This led to the apparent disappearance of sometimes entire trains, as individual freight wagons could not be located. Based on test drives in the late 1990s, DB Cargo has been equipping freight wagons and transport containers with a self-sufficient telematics system for the localization of freight wagons since 2003. This telematics system combines the properties of the GPS satellite positioning system with the capabilities of the GSM cellular network . The telematics system monitors the transport unit including the connected sensors and reports all data via the GSM networks to a central communication server of Deutsche Bahn.
Shipping and Aviation
In both transport systems, security through telematics applications plays a special role. Radar systems monitor both the air and the sea. Shipping in the area of coastal and inland waterway traffic is increasingly controlled and monitored via the Automatic Identification System (AIS). At the same time, the ships exchange navigation and travel data with one another via AIS. The airspace surveillance coordinated by the European Organization for the Safety of Aviation in Brussels is intended to coordinate the planned air traffic volume and the capacities. According to information from Munich Airport, however, the airspace is still monitored by a relatively large number of small-scale control centers. So there is definitely still a need for action here. Productivity and capacity utilization should also be improved with the help of information and communication technologies .
Norms and standards
The following standardization committees deal with traffic telematics:
The following standards have been developed in the field of traffic telematics:
- ACP ( Motorola )
- GATS (ATX Group / Vodafone )
- GTP (Telematics Forum)
- NGTP ( BMW , Connexis, Wireless Car)
- Traffic situation service
- Transportation Science
- Floating Car Data (FCD)
- COOPERS - Cooperative Systems for Intelligent Road Safety
- Günter Halbritter, Torsten Fleischer, Christel Kupsch: Strategies for traffic innovations. Implementation conditions - traffic telematics - international experience. Edition Sigma , Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-89404-584-5 .
- Hannes Hartenstein, Peter Vortisch (Eds.) Et al .: Traffic Telematics . Focus issue of the magazine it - Information Technology . Vol. 50 (2008) issue 4
- Martin Krugmeister: Analysis of the application potential and benefits of traffic telematics for economical traffic solutions in passenger traffic , 2004, ISBN 3-89825-712-6 , ISBN 978-3-89825-712-1
- Ralf Laufer: Quality model and analysis in traffic telematics . In: zfv , issue 1/2011, pp. 18-29,
- Lecture Telematics III: Traffic Telematics (SS 2006) of the Chair for Applied Telematics / e-Business at the University of Leipzig on the subject of traffic telematics
- Topic service eLogistics solutions from Deutsche Bahn
- Andreas Moerke, Anja Walke: Intelligent Transport Systems . In: Japan's future industries , Springer-Verlag 2007.
- ITS Vienna Region
- http://www.antts.at/index.php?id=14 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Robert Gassner, Andreas Keilinghaus, Roland Nolte: Telematics and Transport. Electronic ways out of a traffic jam? Beltz, 1998, ISBN 3-407-85315-7 , pp. 61f .
- Hahn / Kretschmer-Bäimel, p. 488
- Wüst, Christian: Railway odyssey into the black hole . In: “Der Spiegel” edition 8/2001
- Archived copy ( memento of the original from July 20, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.