Transport policy

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Transport policy is a sectoral structural policy that also affects general services . The state pursues the goal of planning and implementing the transport infrastructure with foresight. Furthermore, the traffic law regulates how and under what conditions the traffic routes are to be used. The traffic to economically efficient ecologically friendly place, and in a socially balanced way.

Transport policy can be responsible for more or less infrastructure systems - depending on the point of view in the respective country. So can u. U. of circuit traffic (z. B. oil and gas pipelines, power lines), and other forms of transport, such as services , capital , news or tourism and the postal system to the object field of the transport policy or the economic policy belong. The area of ​​information transmission has recently often been removed from the area of ​​transport policy, but there are also counter-trends, e.g. B. in the form of the establishment of infrastructure ministries .

A transport policy with the aim of converting traffic and mobility to sustainable energy sources , gentler use of mobility and the networking of different forms of individual transport and local public transport is known as the transport turnaround.


From when the first communities began to plan, strategically and sustainably take care of the improvement of traffic conditions, cannot be clarified. The first measures are likely to have been simple bridge building (tree trunk over a stream), simple signposting for nomads (e.g. stone piles, cracks in the tree) or simple "road construction" (putting brushwood and sand in puddles).

Orient, antiquity and the Middle Ages

Roman road in Dâmbovița County (Romania)

Road construction is historically known among the Babylonians (2000 BC), the Persians, and even more so among the Romans . The Inca rulers also had a road system built to control their empire.

Road duties are already from the 7th century BC. Known when the Assyrians charged road tolls for the main roads. Such tariffs have existed in Europe since the Middle Ages ; they go back to taxes paid to the tribes whose territories were crossed by the travelers.

In addition to the extensive road network, there were also road traffic regulations early on. Caesar is reported to have banned entry into the business center of Rome at certain hours of the day in order to avoid the daily traffic jam. The first legal norms of the Middle Ages, which continued to use the old traffic routes without renewing them, were not related to the expansion of the streets, but to the regulation of traffic , such as the specification of a minimum street width in the Sachsenspiegel of 1220.

Early modern age

It was not until the beginning of the modern era that the territorial lords made renewed attempts to expand major highways in order to direct traffic flows through their own territory and into its cities and to customs posts. One example is the construction of Kesselbergstrasse 1492. Post lines served the needs of trade and diplomacy. In 1490, the first permanently operated postal line in the Holy Roman Empire was set up under Maximilian I from Italy via Innsbruck to the Netherlands (" Dutch Post Course ").

The increasing shipping traffic also required regulations, so that Hamburg's shipping law from 1301 . Are treated u. a. the legal relationship between skipper and skipper, the freight agreements, overloading of the ship, flag flying, distress at sea, collision and salvage and the shipping company . Many regulations found their way into city law and remained in force until the 19th century.

Mercantilism and industrialization

It was not until the 18th and especially in the 19th century that the road network came under state supervision and administration and achieved standards similar to those of Roman times. Road construction regulations with the regulation of responsibility for road maintenance have existed since the 17th century. The construction of art roads since the 18th century was encouraged by mercantilism and industrialization . The development in France was groundbreaking: in 1699 Jean-Baptiste Colbert created the position of the state Commissaire des ponts et chaussées under Louis XIV (for example: Commissioner for bridge and road construction). A General Road Construction Directorate was established in Kurbayern in 1751, and as early as 1766 most of the Bavarian “main, country and commercial roads” were designated as “chaußirt” (paved).

In England, Turnpike Trusts were responsible for the maintenance and also the construction of main roads, which were financed by toll revenues , since 1706 . In 1844 there were about 1,000 such local trusts. Since the 18th century, minimum street widths of initially 18 and later 9 meters were prescribed in order to reduce the formation of tracks in the streets and to secure the passage of large flocks of sheep between the increasingly fenced farms . Due to the strong increase in horse traffic, the English government was forced to issue regulations in 1773 that stipulated left-hand traffic. In 1835 this was made law by the Highway Bills .

In addition to road transport, inland shipping and later rail transport gained importance in the phase of industrialization, since bulk goods such as coal and ore could not be transported to the processing centers by road. The development in England was groundbreaking here: The Bridgewater Canal from 1761 was the first modern man-made canal that did not only consist of developed natural waterways.

The rapidly growing capital requirement for the expansion of rail transport meant that private railways were gradually being ousted by state railways . In 1838 the Duke Braunschweigische Staatseisenbahn between Braunschweig and Wolfenbüttel , the first German state railway, was opened. The railways have been networked across Europe since the 1850s. After the founding crisis and the threatened bankruptcy of many private railways (the railroad crisis of the 1870s), most private railways in Prussia were nationalized in 1880–1888 (the southern German railways were already state-owned). During this time the idea of ​​the common economy of the railroad emerged, which shaped German rail policy until the 1980s. At the same time, however, the railway expansion in Prussia was increasingly based on strategic aspects, for example in the case of the Berlin- Metz cannon railway or the Glantal railway .

Imperial Post Flag 1892–1918

Since 1885 the German Reich subsidized numerous liner services operated by private shipping companies to overseas Reichspostdampfern v. a. to supply their own colonies and to transport urgent goods from long-distance trading companies. Before the First World War, Germany had the second largest merchant fleet in the world, a few dozen of which carried the Reichspost flag .

Weimar Republic

In 1919 the Reich Ministry of Transport was founded with a comprehensive claim to regulation. In 1920, the State Treaty establishing the Deutsche Reichseisenbahnen ( Deutsche Reichsbahn ) came into force. He placed the former regional railways under the sovereignty of the German Empire. At the same time, the Reich resisted the plans of the League of Nations Commission for Transport and Transit to place a number of European railway lines (including those connecting Germany with the successor states of Austria-Hungary ) under international control. These plans were mainly operated by France, which wanted to expand an international transit route from Paris or Bordeaux on the Atlantic to Odessa on the Black Sea along about the 45th parallel, bypassing German territory. 90 percent of this route already existed and has been used by the Simplon Orient Express from Paris since 1919 .

Emblem of the DRG until 1937 and the Deutsche Reichsbahn since 1937

In order to avoid the high Allied reparation claims under the Dawes Plan , the Reichsbahn was operated under private law between 1924 and 1937 as the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft (DRG). Although the liberalization of transport came to a standstill throughout Europe after the First World War , the establishment of the DRG initially increased competition between the rail and truck freight modes. However, the Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft (Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft) , which was initially successful and then in deficit due to the ongoing global economic crisis , gained a quasi- monopoly in freight transport through emergency decree and tied many forwarding companies to itself. The Reichsbahn was also involved in passenger bus transport, as was the Reichspost .

In contrast, the gradual motorization during the Weimar Republic - in 1925 there was one car for every 400 inhabitants - had hardly any impact on the construction of long-distance roads. It was not until the end of the 1920s that a private toll motorway from Hamburg via Frankfurt to Basel, the HaFraBa (now the A 5 and northern A 7 ) was planned. The plans were later taken over and implemented by the National Socialists.

time of the nationalsocialism

By 1935, the number of cars based on the number of residents had increased almost fivefold compared to 1925; but this was still very little in an international comparison: in the USA this ratio was about 18 times greater. By bundling technology, industrial, transport and employment policies, Hitler decided to push ahead with automobilization and to bring Germany to the forefront of technical development in the automotive sector. For him, in times of uncertainty in the auto industry due to the global economic crisis, automobilization was an important element in establishing the “national community of high consumerism”, for which even the vehicle tax for new cars was abolished. Through the touristic wandering and "experiencing" the native countries should be technically, economically and above all ideologically integrated (in which the automobile was comparable to the radio). The staging of racing and the founding of automobile clubs also served this purpose. After the economic recovery in 1933/34, the middle classes strengthened and there was a certain demand for automobiles. In 1937, the "Gesellschaft zur Preparation des Volkswagens mbH" (Gezuvor) was founded with the aim of developing a relatively cheap small car to meet this demand. Another intention of this project was to create a large private automobile reserve that could be requisitioned in the event of war. In 1938, Germany’s motor vehicle production exceeded France’s for the first time and reached second place in Europe after England.

Although the construction of the motorway was to be promoted as early as 1933 with the "Office of General Inspector for German Roads" under Fritz Todt in competition with the Reich Ministry of Transport, which was committed to rail interests, the focus was more on the establishment of the Reich Labor Service , a compulsory organization of work and pre-military training. From a logistical point of view, motorway construction did not initially play a central role in Nazi transport policy. The approx. 3,000 kilometers of autobahns built under Hitler (until 1936 there were only 1,000) did not acquire any great logistical significance, since at the same time commercial truck freight traffic was further restricted in favor of the Reichsbahn. The military unsuccessfully demanded the development and construction of heavy trucks, which was apparently prevented by the influence of the Reichsbahn, which Hitler considered more important from a military strategic point of view. For the leading National Socialists, it was primarily a question of putting an end to the competition between modes of transport, which was viewed as ruinous and anarchic, and thus demonstrating the will to community. The Reichs autobahn company became a subsidiary of the Reichsbahn. In 1937 the Reichsbahn general director Julius Dorpmüller , who also became Minister of Transport, reintegrated the Reichsbahn into the Ministry of Transport. The manufacturing companies increasingly turned to the largely unregulated factory traffic . Since 1938 there has been increasing criticism of the policy of preferring the railway, u. a. because the shortage of trucks in the construction of fortifications on the border with France became apparent. As a result, more freight forwarding licenses were granted. Road construction was not given priority until 1939; however, rubber and gasoline were also becoming increasingly scarce as raw materials essential to the war effort. During the war, for example, private traffic on the autobahn had to be banned and the maximum speed reduced to 80 km / h. As part of the self-sufficiency policy (“four-year plan”) that had been in place since 1936, and in some cases since 1934, the use of rubber , brass , chrome , nickel and other metals for building bicycles had already been regulated. When the war broke out in 1939, numerous traffic plans were put aside. The railroad was completely subordinated to the needs of the war economy and the military. Under the slogan "Wheels must roll for victory - unnecessary journeys prolong the war", attempts were made to discourage people from private rail travel.

As early as May 1933, for strategic military reasons, the Reich Aviation Ministry was spun off from the Transport Ministry and from areas of the Reich Defense Ministry and placed under Hermann Göring's position . Attempts were made to develop types of aircraft that could be used for both civil and military use, e.g. B. the Messerschmitt Bf 108 . Deutsche Lufthansa AG, which was founded in 1926 with significant (around 80 percent) participation by the German state and subsidized over 60 percent from the start (not to mention the costs of the airports, etc.), expanded rapidly from 1937, but remained there until the outbreak of war in 1939 When it had a route network of 50,000 kilometers, it was in need of subsidies, albeit to a lesser extent than before 1933. At that time there was hardly any competition between aviation, shipping and railroading.

Federal Republic of Germany


The phase from the founding of the state in 1949 to the federal election in 1953 was characterized by the restoration of the transport network destroyed in the war in a "system of state-regulated public transport services" with fixed transport tariffs and without trade freedom in the sense of unrestricted market access.

This phase was characterized by the principles of publicly regulated transport tariffs, as they already existed in the 1920s:

  • Operating duty and obligation to transport the transport regardless of cost and revenue considerations
  • Tariff obligation, d. H. Binding to state-set tariffs
  • Equal tariffs for the same routes regardless of the cost-effective characteristics of the route
  • Graduated tariffs (staggered according to distance and quantity) to maintain decentralized location structures. B. the transport of coal to remote areas was subsidized
  • Social and special tariffs e.g. B. for coal.

In spite of the inadequate transport charges, there were no deficits in the modes of transport until the advent of truck competition (apart from the time of the global economic crisis). The separation of local and long-distance freight transport from 1931, which was intended to curb competition for trucks, was reintroduced in 1952 after the number of trucks had roughly doubled compared to 1948. It remained in force until 1990. In 1951 an allocation of capacities in long-distance traffic was introduced, i. H. the number of approvals was limited.

Nevertheless, in this phase, in particular, the company's own truck traffic expanded considerably (so-called factory traffic) and caused a traffic crisis and considerable problems in traffic safety. In 1951, the axle loads were also increased. In 1953 all speed limits for cars (including those in town!) Were lifted. Due to the increasing deficit of the Federal Railroad and the recognizable deficiencies of the transport policy, the politicians - from 1949 to 1966 under Minister Hans-Christoph Seebohm without interruption in the following legislative period 1953–1957 - made a half-hearted U-turn and planned to ban the transport of bulk goods on trucks and motor vehicles - and to protect mineral oil tax increases from competition in road haulage. These measures were rejected by the Bundestag in March 1955 under pressure from the truck lobby. Only a factory traffic tax was enforced. At the same time, car motorization was promoted as an economic engine and social stability factor, e.g. B. through the "car-friendly" reconstruction of the destroyed city centers and the introduction of the mileage allowance in 1955, and the priority of the car over truck traffic is postulated. However, the reintroduction of an inner-city speed limit could not be prevented, as the car turned out to be the most important accident factor. With almost 71,000 dead and over 1.9 million injured between 1950 and 1956, the death rate per vehicle in Germany was almost four times higher than in the USA.


Since 1957 there has been gradual liberalization of the transport markets under pressure from the motor vehicle lobby and the systematic expansion of the motorway network. Between 1957 and 1960 the number of cars increased by 70% to 4.3 million vehicles. In 1959 the number of road casualties reached a record level. After years of subsidies from the Federal Railroad, the priority of road construction was de facto established with the Road Construction Financing Act of 1960. In 1961, numerous state and municipal roads were upgraded to federal roads and business-like passenger transport was liberalized in occasional, but not regular, traffic. Since then, the importance of public transport continued to decline until the early 1980s.

Since the 1960s, European integration also had an impact on German transport policy. B. by increasing the permitted truck dimensions in two steps in 1960 and 1965.

Since 1961 the increasing follow-up costs of the mass motorization became conscious: In 1961 an expert commission was appointed to examine the traffic conditions in the municipalities and to submit reform proposals. The commission submitted its proposals in 1964 and called for priority to be given to local public transport and a limitation of inner-city car traffic through no-parking zones and the abolition of the mileage allowance. Since 1964, parliamentary initiatives against automobile-related air pollution have also increased. At that time, environmental awareness apparently reached a level that it only reached again in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Since the automotive industry had cooled off in 1967, the first emissions standards were only introduced in an ordinance of October 1968 and tightened as a result of an agreement within the EEC framework.

The attempt by the transport minister of the grand coalition Georg Leber in 1968 to curb truck traffic ("Leber Plan"), combined with a minimal, temporary additional burden on freight transport through a road freight transport tax and the attempt to license long-distance works, failed, among other things. a. because the Bundesbahn was unable to make any inexpensive alternative offers. Under the influence of the report of the Club of Rome on the limits to growth , the social-liberal coalition took immediate environmental measures, which also affected vehicle emissions (Petrol Lead Act of 1971). The record number of 19193 road deaths in 1970 led to a speed limit of 100 km / h on the roads outside of the city in 1972. Disputes also flared up about the lane width on the autobahns: the standard cross-section of 1955 was slightly reduced from 30 meters to 29 meters. Since 1972/73 the growth rates for road construction have flattened. The Advisory Council for Environmental Issues also came to the conclusion in a 1973 report that the social costs of car traffic were misperceived and that its external costs should be given greater consideration.

However, the 1973/74 oil crisis updated the contradiction between ecology and economy. Despite symbolically effective Sunday driving bans, the approaches to an environmentally conscious transport policy suffered a serious setback, which thwarted them into the 1980s. The trade unions joined the motor vehicle lobby, the citizens' initiatives and umbrella organizations of the environmental movement formed too weak a counterweight and only organized nationally in the transport and environment working group at the end of the 1970s . Attempts by the Federal Ministry of the Interior to set limit values ​​for noise have repeatedly failed. It was not until 1979 that environmental protection aspects were systematically examined in road construction, and catalytic converter technology was only implemented in 1983 after lengthy discussions . The noise protection requirements were, however, considerably tightened in 1986 and 1990.

There was also a significant modernization backlog in the rail sector. This relates to delays in the introduction of container and piggyback transport , to the insufficient activities of the Federal Railroad in the rapidly growing cross-border freight transport, but also to the low speeds of D-trains in long-distance passenger transport. It was not until 1973 that construction began on the first major new line after the Hanover-Würzburg war, which brought about a significant reduction in travel times. In addition, the limits of wheel-rail technology were misjudged for a long time due to the fascination with the prestige object of magnetic levitation . It was not until 1984 - seven years after the start of the high-speed lines in France - that the construction of a German high-speed train began , which was only put into operation 10 years after the TGV in 1991.

Since the change of government in 1982, the demand for the deregulation of traffic has found fertile ground. The 1985 judgment of the European Court of Justice on the freedom to provide services led in 1987 to the establishment of a commission of experts to dismantle regulations contrary to the market , which presented its first area in 1990, in which it compared the efficiency of privatization and tenders for transport services - possibly with subsidies for the supply of remote regions stressed to the inflexible public company. This led to the release of freight tariffs and the rail reform passed at the end of 1993 with the release of the rail network for competing operators, which, however, immediately led to criticism in view of the high train path prices . At the same time, the course was set for the integration of local rail transport into regional transport associations and for increased responsibility for transport planning on the part of the regions.

Despite the judgment of the European Court of Justice and an inaction action by the European Parliament, the German government, in conjunction with France and Italy, successfully fended off a complete liberalization of freight traffic until 1988. In that year the EU Council of Ministers decided to allow free price formation in cross-border freight transport from 1990 onwards. As the share of German freight forwarders in cross-border motor vehicle transport fell as a result of this regulation, a road user fee for trucks was introduced in 1995 .


Until 1990 the road construction budget was the largest item in the federal budget. After reunification, there was initially a traffic chaos in East Germany, as the road network in the GDR had been neglected in favor of the transport of raw materials by rail and was only poorly developed. The rapidly growing east-west transit traffic brought additional burdens. New sources of finance had to be developed quickly, for which the mineral oil tax increases in the early 1990s were used. In this context, a dispute arose over an ecological reform of traffic taxation, which continues to this day. Since the mid-1990s, the external costs of truck traffic, which had grown explosively after the fall of the Wall, came into the focus of politics (due to the "mogul slope debate", bridge closures, etc.), leading to the introduction of the truck toll in January 2005, the spread of the toll rates after pollutant emissions from January 1, 2009 (but with a simultaneous reduction in the vehicle tax for heavy trucks) and the CSU's demand for a car toll. However, since mid-2005, more and more special permits for the operation of extra-long EuroCombis in Germany have been granted in various federal states on the basis of Section 70 StVZO and Section 29 StVO . For years, the increase in damage to the infrastructure has been faster than the development of new sources of finance for its renovation.

As a result of the rail reform of 1994 , the Federal Railroad and Reichsbahn were transformed into a new federal railroad company organized under private law, Deutsche Bahn AG, and the debt relief of the new company. At the same time, private rail providers were approved. Through the appointment of the supervisory board members on the capital side by the federal government, several representatives from the automotive and aviation industries also took on leading positions in the railway company.

While the railway expanded the high-speed lines and announced spectacular large-scale projects such as Stuttgart 21 , the revitalization of rail traffic was only partially successful. At most, the strengthening of local transport through the commitment of the federal states and new concepts for regional interconnected networks was successful. The network capacity was reduced by dismantling switches and passing tracks, and freight traffic withdrew from the area. The financial crisis of 2008 prevented the attempt to go public.

Since 2013

A new emphasis was placed on transport policy when, in December 2013, the transport department, which had been responsible for housing construction and / or urban development for years, was renamed in the Merkel III cabinet to become the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure under Minister Alexander Dobrindt a kind of infrastructure and network ministry became. This function is reinforced by the planned establishment of the Autobahn GmbH des Bundes , which will be responsible for 13,000 km of autobahns and some four-lane federal highways from 2021. In future, the responsibilities for planning approval and planning approval procedures as well as the exemption from these procedures for federal highways are to be assumed by the federal government. This is accompanied by an increased move away from tax to user financing of highways. From July 1, 2018, the toll will apply to trucks on all federal highways.

In the 2015/16 VW emissions scandal , it became clear that the Federal Ministry of Transport had never checked the information provided by the automotive industry on emissions values, although the German Environmental Aid and the Federal Environment Agency continually made them aware of the inconsistencies in the measured values, especially for diesel vehicles.

In recent years, cycling policy has become more important. Since 2016, citizens' initiatives for cycling have been formed in around a dozen German cities in order to campaign for the expansion of the cycling infrastructure.

As early as August 2009, the federal government presented a National Electromobility Development Plan , the aim of which was to link climate protection with industrial policy. Germany should be made the lead market for electromobility by putting one million electric vehicles on the roads by 2020. But it wasn't until around 2017 - due to the discussions about inadmissible particulate matter values and climate change - that electric mobility became the dominant issue in transport policy; the goals set in 2009 were not achieved.

Problems and tools

For a long time, the so-called predict-and-provide paradigm dominated the school of thought in transport policy, according to which a predicted increasing demand for transport can be satisfied by providing a corresponding transport infrastructure . For a long time, the main problems of transport policy were:

  • influencing the shares of the competing modes of transport in the volume of traffic ( modal split ), e.g. B. Competition in freight transport between rail transport and road transport and
  • the resolution of the conflict of goals between environmental transport policy and economic policy by taking ecological and economic criteria into account. In this area, the German Transport Forum , an interest group of logistics companies, founded in 1984 as the Transport Forum Bahn , has made a name for itself with the definition of the concept of networking the modes of transport . This term is used today by business, science and politics for the economically and ecologically meaningful interaction of rail, road, waterways and air traffic.

Various instruments and measures are used to try to solve these problems:

For a long time, however, transport policy remained characterized by an increasing discrepancy between programmatic aspirations and real implementation. On the one hand, the prevailing assessment was that the growth in individual motorized traffic in industrialized and emerging countries contradicted the criteria of sustainable development. For decades, politicians reacted again and again with extensive programs to counter the negative effects of mass motorization. In contrast, the real development was in the opposite direction. Critics want to promote lower-risk and more environmentally friendly mobility for all population groups (so-called soft mobility ). This approach can be described as mobility policy, which, in contrast to transport policy, does not focus on the supply of transport routes, but on the demand for mobility or the needs of the users.

Widespread approaches of a transport policy geared towards sustainability are traffic avoidance , traffic shifting , traffic calming and an environmentally friendly handling of the remaining traffic demand. But in hardly any other policy area is the gap between the programmatic claim of environmentally friendly mobility, which all parties in government responsibility have formulated, and the real development.

EU transport policy

EU Transport Commissioner Violeta Bulc

The European Union is further expanding the European internal market . This also has an impact on transport: there are already uniform market regulations in air transport , inland waterway transport and land transport . Milestones were:

  • 1985: Milan Resolutions - Creation of a free transport market in the course of the completion of the internal market in the European Community by 1992
  • 1990: Cabotage Ordinance
  • 1990: Transport 2000 plus - Proposals of the European Commission for the further development of the EC transport policy
  • 1992: European Commission Green Paper on The Impact of Transport on the Environment: A Community Strategy for Environmentally Conscious Transport Policy ; White Paper of the European Commission on the future development of the common transport policy - Community strategy for sustainable mobility ( sustainable mobility )
  • 1993: no cabotage ; Directive on the taxation of lorries and the collection of tolls and road use fees by the Ecofin Council. In 1998 every haulier received unhindered access to the national transport markets of the member countries.

Since 1996, the railway markets have been gradually opened. After the network was fully opened for freight traffic on January 1, 2007, the European rail network was also opened for cross-border passenger traffic on January 1, 2010 for all railway companies authorized in the EU, including the right to pick up or drop off passengers at intermediate stops. How traffic will develop further depends crucially on the EU directives . These have to be implemented in national law so that European transport policy gains in importance compared to national policy.

The need for transport has always increased with economic growth. One of the goals of the European Union is to decouple these growth processes from each other so that the economy continues to grow as traffic decreases. So far, however, this key objective has not been achieved.

Another goal of the EU is to stabilize the proportions of the individual means of transport at the level from 1998 to 2010. However, road and air traffic in particular is growing (doubling by 2020), shipping, trains and buses are losing shares.

In March 2011 the EU Commission published a white paper in which it presents the roadmap for a future European transport policy up to the year 2050. The core objectives of European transport policy are:

  • Shifting traffic from road to rail and water, reducing CO 2 emissions and increasing mobility;
  • Shifting passenger transport to rail for distances of 300 kilometers or more by 50% by 2050;
  • Freight traffic should increasingly switch to rail or ship traffic by 2050 .
  • Reduction of traffic-related CO 2 emissions by 60 percent by 2050, also in order to drastically reduce Europe's dependence on oil imports.

See also


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Helmut Nuhn, Markus Hesse: Verkehrsgeographie . Schöningh, Paderborn u. a. 2006, ISBN 3-8252-2687-5 , p. 21.
  2. ^ Streets (Middle Ages / Early Modern Times). In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria.
  4. Oliver Kühschelm: Automobile in Austrian. Two attempts to nationalize small cars. In: Oliver Kühschelm, Franz X. Eder, Hannes Siegrist (Eds.): Consumption and Nation: On the History of Nationalizing Staging in Product Communication. Transcript, 2014, p. 169.
  5. Hans-Adolf Jacobsen: The case of yellow. Wiesbaden 1957, p. 195 and Chapter 22.
  6. ^ Annette Schlimm: Orders of the traffic: work on the modern - German and British traffic expertise in the 20th century. Transcript, 2014, p. 196 ff. Ff.
  7. Richard Vahrenkamp : The logistical revolution: The rise of logistics in the mass consumer society. Campus Verlag, 2011, p. 108 ff.
  8. Klenke, p. 4.
  9. Klenke, p. 8 f.
  10. Klenke, pp. 5, 16 ff.
  11. Klenke, p. 50 ff.
  12. Klenke, p. 66 ff.
  13. Klenke, p. 79 ff.
  14. Klenke, p. 88 ff.
  15. Klenke, p. 94 ff.
  16. Klenke, p. 100 ff.
  17. Klenke, pp. 139 ff., 152
  18. Klenke, p. 144 f.
  19. Klenke, p. 116 ff.
  20. Press release of the Federal Government of December 9, 2016
  21. a b Arne Jungjohann: To govern ecologically. An analysis of the government practice of Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen in the field of ecological modernization. Heinrich Böll Foundation, February 15, 2019, accessed on February 4, 2019 .
  22. National Electromobility Development Plan. ( Memento from September 2, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  23. Oliver Schöller: Transport Policy: A Problem-Oriented Overview. In: Oliver Schöller, Weert Canzler, Andreas Knie: Handbook of transport policy. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2007, p. 17. , ISBN 978-3-531-90337-8 .
  24. Dieter Apel, Michael Lehmbrock, Tim Pharoah, Jörg Thiemann-Linden: Compact, mobile, urban: urban development concepts for avoiding traffic in an international comparison. Berlin 1997.
  25. ^ Transport in a fast changing Europe. Group Transport 2000 Plus. EU Commission - Working Document, December 1990. (
  26. ^ Helmut Nuhn, Markus Hesse: Verkehrsgeographie . Schöningh, Paderborn u. a. 2006, ISBN 3-8252-2687-5 , p. 32.
  27. a b European Environment Agency (ed.): EEA Briefing 3/2004 - Transport and Environment in Europe ( Memento of July 17, 2006 in the Internet Archive ). Copenhagen 2004.