Traffic education is the educational influence on children and young people with the aim of supporting them in developing appropriate attitudes and behavior in traffic. In this respect, it goes far beyond the mere teaching of traffic rules and training in youth traffic schools . Sub-areas of traffic education are traffic-related health, social, environmental and mobility education, the latter focusing on changes of location in traffic.
Traffic education or mobility education?
In some publications, the established term traffic education is replaced by the modern term mobility education . Another argument for the exchange of terms is that traffic cannot be educated. However, numerous important reasons are given in the literature against the controversial synonymous use or renaming of traffic education:
- Just like traffic - it is countered - one cannot educate mobility. Traffic education does not mean education of traffic or the Verkehrens but (similar to the Physical Education ) Education through traffic, the traffic, the (reasonable) traffic. The traffic educator is a competent mediator in the field of traffic.
- Traffic education is the further and therefore superordinate term (traffic = dealing with each other). It is therefore better suited to characterizing the complex field of traffic education. Mobility education conceptually includes only one of several sub-areas of traffic education , that which has to do with movement and change of location ( spatial mobility not equal mobility ).
- The term traffic education is seen as more appropriate for children, easier to understand and therefore easier to convey didactically. It includes human interaction as the essence of traffic and begins accordingly, factually correct and methodically sensible, even before taking part in road traffic (traffic = meeting, exchanging ideas, dealing with one another in a compatible manner).
- Traffic education with its diverse linguistic design options as noun (traffic), as verb (traffic), as adjective (traffic-friendly) and in word combinations (traffic signs) allows a more flexible handling and assignment to traffic education as well as to the higher-level area of traffic science .
- The entire subject area and the broad range of tasks can be identified as belonging together, coherently and uniformly under the well-known term traffic education ( traffic educator , road user , traffic area , traffic rules , traffic signs , means of transport , traffic situations , traffic safety , traffic accident , traffic offender , traffic hooligan , traffic discipline , traffic structure , traffic didactics , Traffic intelligence , traffic competence etc.).
However, like the other sub-areas of personality, social, safety, environmental or health education , mobility education makes an undoubtedly significant contribution in kind to road safety education .
Structure of traffic education in Germany
Due to the federal structure of the state, the states are responsible for school traffic education. For this reason, every federal state in Germany is developing its own curricula and guidelines for traffic education at schools, which set different accents. This concerns the objectives such as the content, the number of hours and the methods.
In order to achieve a harmonization of the school traffic education, a "KMK recommendation on traffic education " was passed for the first time in 1972 by the education ministers of the federal states . This was revised in 1994 and 2012 and adapted to the status of the discussion. These recommendations include: a. The scope, topics and methods of traffic education are defined. Each federal state creates its own curricula on this basis.
The traffic didactic training of the teachers takes place at the universities . The schools are supported by specially trained police officers (e.g. in securing school routes , cycling training or activities for young drivers). Police officers are also active in extra-curricular traffic education.
Other organizations such as the Deutsche Verkehrswacht ( youth traffic schools), accident insurance companies and other interest groups, church organizations, and companies are involved in school traffic safety work.
The Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) supports extracurricular traffic education measures through the German Road Safety Council and the German Traffic Guard , such as the "Child and Traffic" program, which is aimed at parents of preschool children and the "Children in Road Traffic" program, which is addresses to pre-school educators. The federal states finance projects at schools and universities, such as the “ pedestrian diploma ” or the “ Karlsruhe 12-step program ” for securing school beginners .
Research in the areas of traffic safety and traffic education is carried out in the different areas of competence with different priorities. The Federal Highway Research Institute in Bergisch Gladbach, for example, primarily conducts research projects on current road safety issues.
In the higher education sector, for example at the Universities of Essen and Dresden or at the Universities of Education in Karlsruhe and Heidelberg, on the other hand, depending on the scientific orientation, more psychological, pedagogical, sociological and didactic issues of traffic education are in the foreground.
Universities, companies, insurance companies and interest groups provide a wide range of programs, materials and campaigns for practical on-site traffic education.
Traffic education in kindergarten
Traffic education begins at kindergarten age. However, in many kindergartens it takes a rather marginal position because educators are rarely familiarized with this topic in their training. With reference to the situation approach, the need to start traffic education at this age can be justified as follows: Even small children take part in different roles (as pedestrians, cyclists, passengers) alone or in company on the road. Traffic situations are life situations that children have to deal with. They are even existentially significant life situations, because if a child suddenly runs onto a road, for example, this misconduct can lead to serious injuries or even death.
Dealing with road traffic in kindergarten should not be viewed as an insignificant peripheral area. Rather, it is one of the essential tasks of education and upbringing. The often held view that children should be protected from the dangers of road traffic by educators and parents - for example in the form of the parents' taxi - contradicts a pedagogy of gradual imparting of autonomy and competence.
Due to their level of development, children have greater difficulty in moving appropriately and safely in road traffic than adolescents or adults. This is mainly due to the following peculiarities: the small body size and the lack of overview, the narrower viewing angle (tunnel vision), the difficulties in assessing speeds and distances, problems in coordinating perception and motor skills, the limited awareness of dangers, the concentration on Objects and people that are emotionally significant for the child, and thus the easy distraction of traffic-related issues.
One of the goals of elementary traffic education is therefore the promotion of perception, motor skills and concentration in children. It makes sense to design these exercises and games in such a way that they already relate to traffic situations.
The appearance of the Verkehrskasper , which was developed in 1956 by Edgar Perseke together with Will Hermanns , has proven to be a child-friendly method of cognitive dealing with traffic problems . He is perceived by the children as a real conversation partner and as such can initiate problem discussions and play through with the children. The children can be led to their own thinking and their own solutions. In its long history, Verkehrskasper didactics have developed from entertaining, but often drastic “frying pan solutions” when dealing with traffic violations to intelligent, realistic forms of behavior that challenge the children's imagination.
Like adults, children are also more willing to follow rules when they see their meaning. Small experiments or observations in traffic that give the children a concrete experience help here. The willingness to wear flashy clothes in the dark is easier for a four-year-old if, for example, he shines a flashlight on a child with a black coat and one with a reflective coat in a darkened room.
In addition to such exercises in the kindergarten's protected area, participation in real traffic is also part of preschool traffic education . Since this is usually only possible with several children or the entire group in kindergarten, the parents are also challenged. You can observe and exercise in traffic with your child much more thoroughly while walking and shopping with your child. They can receive instructions on how to do this from the educators or specially trained moderators at parenting events.
Traffic education in school
Traffic education is anchored in almost all German federal states as a separate subject or as an interdisciplinary area of work from class 1 on in the curricula. The current resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education of the Länder v. May 10, 2012 declares traffic education to be an “overarching task of the school” (preliminary remark). Accordingly, implementation in the form of interdisciplinary lessons or in project form is recommended (p. 4). In addition, it is suggested that the implementation should be based on the experience of the children ( traffic education from the child ) (p. 4). Within the learning units, the behavior patterns that are relevant for children in traffic are taught in a theoretical and practical combination. Often this also includes training with the participation of the local police. In some cases, special practice areas ( youth traffic school , traffic kindergarten , traffic garden ) are used on which appropriate traffic behavior away from real traffic can be practiced safely. In order to implement the additional teaching components of mobility education (use of traffic space, climate protection, choice of means of transport, etc.), cooperation with extracurricular institutions is suggested, which are listed in a separate appendix.
At the end of the various teaching units, you receive a certificate that qualifies you to go to school independently as a pedestrian ( pedestrian diploma ) or as a certified cyclist ( cycling test ) at the ADFC to take part in the public tours without being accompanied by a direct reference person.
The aim is also to counteract the number of accidents, which according to the statistics has steadily increased since 1950 (accident development: 1950 = 260,761 → 1989 = 1,997,787 → 2012 = 2,401,843 → 2014 = 2,406,685)
According to the Austrian curriculum, traffic education is a teaching principle and has to be continuously incorporated into the lessons from 1st to 4th grade (elementary level I and II). Visits by the executive take place regularly. The focus is then on running exercise programs in the immediate school environment. Correct behavior in public transport is also trained. Actions such as “Blick und Klick” and “Hallo Auto”, which are offered by the ÖAMTC, are among the special attractions, like the puppet theater “Puppomobil” by the ARBÖ. Another example is the magazine “Safe way to school” with the character Helmi . Safety-related topics are brought closer to the children in a clear, entertaining way.
Traffic training for immigrants
In the course of the refugee crisis it became clear that the new arrivals often lacked knowledge of the most elementary local traffic rules. Refugees were made familiar with German traffic regulations as pedestrians or cyclists as part of individual projects, some on a voluntary basis.
Advanced seminars for drivers (ASK)
The term advanced courses for drivers (ASK) designated by the end of 1998, a measure in the course of that regulations on points system . By voluntarily participating in an advanced seminar for drivers, a point discount of 3 to 4 points was granted.
As part of the introduction of the EU Driving License Directive in early 1999, the rules of the point system and its measures were changed. In this context, the term advanced seminars for points conspicuous (ASP) was introduced and now replaces the former term ASK.
Advanced seminars for points conspicuous (ASP) and advanced seminars for novice drivers (ASF) are assigned to the field of driver rehabilitation . The advanced seminar for points conspicuous (ASP) is a measure based on the points system in accordance with (3) of the StVG and is aimed at drivers who have seen multiple issues. You should for secondary prevention and tertiary prevention serve when it can be assumed that the rule-border traffic behavior is already permanent and accordingly become problematic.
Safety training always begins with pedestrian training, because in this way the children come into contact with road traffic on their own and are not overwhelmed. Well-engineered teaching and learning aids such as the Karlsruhe 12-step program or the pedestrian diploma help parents and educators to develop their children a first perspective on safe road users.
The main source of danger in road traffic is the way to school for children . Therefore, at the latest at the beginning of school, special educational measures, such as the method of playing on the way to school , emphasize the independence of school beginners.
To do this, the adults must first recognize that the transport in their parents' car - statistically proven - not only does not provide real safety for the children (in 2015 children between the ages of six and nine were still the most likely to have accidents in a car, at 41.5% , 40.5% of them fatal). He also cuts them off from learning and practicing how to deal with road traffic and in this way lets them become so-called "children at risk" (= children who are particularly at risk).
The next steps in safety training concern the correct handling of play mobiles, bicycles and motor vehicles. During road safety training with vehicles, correct braking and evasive action are practiced on dry and wet / slippery roads. This is an addition to driving experience. For this, driving safety systems available. Here, too, the purpose of the measure is to reduce the number of accidents (prevention).
- Recommendation for traffic education in school. Resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education of July 7, 1972 as amended on June 17, 1994 . Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Culture of the Federal States in the Federal Republic of Germany. Bonn 1994.
- Roland Gorges: Life situation "road traffic". In: A. Krenz (Hrsg.): Method competence in kindergarten . Olzog Verlag, Munich 2006, pp. 1–23.
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- Maria Limbourg: Children in road traffic (ed.): Community accident insurance association Westphalia-Lippe, Münster 1996.
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- Siegbert A. Warwitz: Are traffic accidents 'tragic' coincidences? In: thing-word-number. 102, 2009, pp. 42-50 and p. 64.
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- see for example: “We cannot“ educate / educate ”traffic, but people can.” In: Maria Limbourg: From traffic education to mobility education , In: Institut Wohnen und Umwelt. With the bike through the network concepts and basics of a contemporary mobility education, Darmstadt 2004, p. 6
- S. Warwitz: Traffic education from the child. Baltmannsweiler 2009.
- S. Willmeroth among others: Traffic and mobility education. Mülheim an der Ruhr 2007, ISBN 978-3-8346-0350-0 .
- Ph. Spitta: practical book on mobility education. Baltmannsweiler 2005.
- S. Warwitz: Traffic education from the child. 2009, p. 3, p. 22 ff, p. 55.
- HC Heinrich, A. Seliger (1993).
- H. Weishaupt et al. a. (2004).
- Recommendation on traffic education in schools in 1994 and 2012.
- Annual report 2007/2008.
- K. Heidemann, V. Hufgard, E.-M. Sindern, S. Riek, G. Rudinger (2009).
- Nicola Neumann-Opitz, Rita Bartz (2011).
- Hardy Holte: Profiles in road traffic of children and adolescents who have had an accident. 2010.
- M. Limbourg, A. Flade, J. Schönharting: Mobility in children and adolescents . Opladen 2000.
- SA Warwitz: Traffic education from the child. Perceive-play-think-act. 6th edition. Baltmannsweiler 2009.
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- SA Warwitz: Children in the problem area of school rush hour. In: thing-word-number. 86, 2007, pp. 52-60.
- R. Gorges: Life situation "road traffic". In: A. Krenz (Hrsg.): Method competence in kindergarten . Olzog Verlag, Munich 2006, pp. 1–23.
- SA Warwitz: Traffic education from the child. 2009, p. 56.
- M. Limburg: Children in road traffic . Ed .: Community accident insurance association Westphalen-Lippe, Münster 1996.
- K. Wagner: Traffic education then and now. 50 years of Verkehrskasper . Knowledge State examination work GHS. Karlsruhe 2002.
- SA Warwitz: The traffic jasper is coming or what the puppet game can do. In: SA Warwitz: Traffic education from the child. 2009, pp. 252-272.
- R. Bourauel et al. a .: Children in traffic . Max Schmidt-Römhild publishing house, Lübeck 2003/2.
- Decision of the KMK of July 7, 1972 as amended on May 10, 2012: Recommendation on mobility and traffic education in schools
- Safe way to school and the well-known warning signs for children
- Trafficfor new citizens. In: verkehrs-erendung.de/. September 11, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2018 .
- Lautrer driving schools give young migrants voluntary traffic lessons. In: Website "Kaiserslautern is colorful". February 15, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2018 .
- S. Warwitz: Children in the problem area of school rush hour. In: thing-word-number. 86, 2007, pp. 52-60.
- Federal Statistical Office (Ed.): Statistisches Jahrbuch 2016. Child accidents in road traffic 2015 , Wiesbaden 2016, p. 8.
- S. Warwitz: Are traffic accidents 'tragic' coincidences? In: thing-word-number. 102, 2009, pp. 42-50 and 64.