Project teaching

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Project teaching , also called project work , generally refers to a form of teaching and learning in which the project idea plays the decisive role. It is a renewal idea that aims to be closer to life, problem awareness and interdisciplinary thinking as well as independence and willingness to cooperate. It can be seen as an alternative to the theoretical-intellectual narrowing of school education and as a reaction to frontal teaching and has triggered a reform push in school and university didactics as well as in vocational and adult education since the 1970s.


The term project has experienced very different interpretations in its long history. When they reconstituted the project idea in the didactic teaching and learning area in the 1970s, Warwitz and Rudolf orientated themselves on the original word meaning: "The word 'project' is derived from the Latin proiectum , past participle from proicere (= throw forward , plan , plan , design ). The term thus sets in the picture that a goal is 'thrown ahead' that one wants to try to catch up ”. The two authors still refer to the fact that the Latin term proiectum , German project is the same language with the term problem that results from Greek problema (from: probállein = forward throw ) is derived. (P. 18/19) In this way, historically true to the word, they understand a project to generally mean a larger project including its justification, target planning and practical implementation or a problem that needs to be solved.

Such a project is labeled more precisely in the teaching and learning area by additional designations such as project lessons or learning projects , in the tertiary education area as project studies , in extra-curricular areas of activity, for example, as project work . This means that tasks such as adult education , extracurricular youth work and professional tasks can also be recorded. In the field of education, preliminary stages of demanding project lessons such as project- like or project-oriented lessons are also common.

That of William Heard Kilpatrick concept introduced project method and the German name project method are limited conceptually to a didactic portion, the As of the procedure and the corresponding forms of organization. Karl Frey makes explicit reference to this by giving his book the subtitle The Path to Educational Activity . The entire didactic field of activity, on the other hand, is determined according to the didactic model developed by Erich Less by who (actors), what (content), why (reasons), what for (objectives), when (timing) and how (methods) of a project.

Target program

The didactic decision for the form of project teaching is not a matter of chance or arbitrary methodology. It results from a factual aspect and a learning aspect:

The extensive use of project lessons is justified on the one hand by the intention to tackle a complex problem or an extensive task that can no longer be satisfactorily mastered with the methodological possibilities of a single subject with the help of several specialist skills. This is done by means of a concentration of subjects and interdisciplinary or interdisciplinary teaching . On the other hand, it is based on the concern to challenge the students in a more holistic, versatile, problem-conscious and effective manner by activating several learning potentials. This takes place in the form of multi-dimensional learning .


The project method dates back to the 16th century in Italy and the early 18th century in France. Architecture students created progetti and at the Académie royale d'architecture in Paris one spoke of 'projets' when the students had to independently produce plans and designs for a larger building project. From the building academies and technical universities in France, the idea of ​​project-based learning spread to Germany, Austria, Switzerland and - in the mid-19th century - also to the United States. Calvin M. Woodward of Washington University in St. Louis carried the project idea from college to school, Charles R. Richards to elementary school in the early 20th century, and Rufus W. Stimson to vocational school . With the reception and redefinition of the project idea by John Dewey and his student William Heard Kilpatrick since 1915, the teaching method now known as the project method became increasingly popular in the educational field.

The influences of the early roots on today's project method are still controversial today. What the history of project teaching reveals is "the insight that at no point in time did a uniform theory exist that can still be relied on without restriction today."

In the early 1970s, project teaching experienced a renaissance in education. The didactic renewal was triggered above all by the impression that school and university education were “cranked” and the need for more closeness to life and the active involvement of learners in the educational process. Centers were set up at various universities that increasingly worked on a modern rebirth of the project idea, such as the Karlsruhe University of Education , the University of Hamburg or the University of Zurich .

The basic intention of the project lessons was originally a socio-political one. The project idea with John Dewey and William Heard Kilpatrick, whose name is mostly associated with the project method today, was the reaction to far-reaching social changes that pushed for a reform of teaching in the direction of problem-related, realistic tasks and working methods.

Features of project teaching

Addressing the senses through teaching projects ...

Due to the complexity of the teaching model and its long international history, but also because of the different didactic demands on this form of teaching, it has not yet been possible to find a uniform definition. An attempt was made to determine the nature of project teaching at least through a number of criteria that distinguish working in projects from other forms of teaching. When looking through the relevant specialist literature, individual elements such as

  • Action orientation , whereby physical and mental work are required and as many senses as possible should be addressed
  • Self-organization and self-responsibility of the students
  • Cooperative learning ( teamwork )
  • Situation-related with connection to real life and practical experience resulting from it
  • Interest related
  • Targeted planning
  • Interdisciplinarity
  • Social relevance
  • Holistic approach : The project is seen as a whole. Not only the product is evaluated, but the entire work process is made a task.
  • Product orientation
  • Democratic teaching design
  • Inclusion of extracurricular learning locations

Warwitz and Rudolf characterize project teaching as distinct from other forms of teaching and methodical individual elements like outdoor work , open education , subjects connecting the classroom , Action-oriented teaching , group lessons , students-centered teaching , problem-oriented teaching , discovery learning , self-directed learning , learning by doing through seven minimum requirements:

The project- oriented lessons usually practiced in schools only meet some of the project requirements. It is regarded as a preliminary stage and learning path of the actual project teaching and usually starts from a specific subject and its concerns: project- oriented physical education , project-oriented mathematics teaching .

Teacher-student ratio

An examination of the above-mentioned constituents of the project work makes it clear that both teachers and pupils have to face completely new tasks that differ significantly from traditional teaching and have an impact on the teacher-pupil relationship . The mutual references are clearly illustrated in the structure model of the so-called didactic triangle . Project teaching is neither a teacher-centered nor a student-centered one , but a socially integrative lesson in which equal, albeit differently competent partners work together on a joint project. At the same time, significant potential and opportunities for acquiring skills grow on both sides in project teaching.

For the teacher, project teaching means giving up his organizational monopoly, but this gives him the opportunity, as a learning partner for the pupils, to bring his pedagogical and technical competence into play. With the help of modern means of communication, especially the Internet, students can access a wide range of knowledge and information. For foreign language teaching, this means that the role of teacher will develop from a language mediator to a human resource manager . Nevertheless, as a pedagogical, professional and didactic expert, he retains coordination and ultimate responsibility. He has to feel when interventions are necessary and when self-determined learning is required. Legutke summarizes this role in the term "the teacher as a participating leader".

Referring to the student's perspective, Legutke uses the term leading participant and thus makes it clear that the student is asked to give up a passive-receptive attitude and to become active himself, to acquire various skills and then to use them. The project competence to be developed for and through the project teaching is to be assessed as an umbrella term and includes the following sub-competencies:

  • Cooperation skills in connection with working in teams and groups
  • Communication skills for establishing and maintaining contacts, for mutual reflection and work in the project
  • Organizational competence as part of the methodological competence already in the planning process
  • Production competence with regard to the products to be created such as texts, videos, photos, reports, websites, etc.
  • Self-access competence, d. H. Ability for self-determination, self-reflection and independence of the students ( self-efficacy )
  • Didactic competence, which ultimately aims to ensure that learners become active as teachers themselves when they present their products in a plenary session or even in public (see also learning through teaching ).

Projects demand the whole personality of those involved. The learning effects achieved in the context of projects are described by research as particularly complex, profound and resistant to forgetting. As a result of the PISA studies , which uncovered considerable learning deficits in German students, project teaching experienced another boom. Using the Internet, other forms of communication outside of classrooms can be used and the work continuity required for projects can be promoted.

Phases of a project

After Emer / Lenzen, the process of a simple school project is divided into the following phases:

  • Initiation - The purpose of project teaching is explained and ideas for projects are found.
  • Entry - The selected project is started.
  • Planning - We negotiate who does what, when, where, with whom.
  • Implementation - The project is designed in a practical way.
  • Presentation - The project results are presented.
  • Evaluation - The project results are reflected on.
  • Continuation - follow-up projects are initiated.

According to Warwitz / Rudolf, a promising, demanding project should go through the following six phases:

  • The exploratory phase

with an acquisition of knowledge about the difficulty of the task, the interests, the development status, the previous knowledge, the social structure of the project group as well as the funding basis

  • The motivation phase

with the joint production of ideas, the creation of a sustainable motivation and an amicable set of goals

  • The planning phase

with the definition of the sub-goals, the course participation, the time frame, the solution of final questions and concerns, the conclusion of a 'project contract'

  • The preparatory phase

With the procurement of money and materials, the grouping and assignment of work orders, the acquisition of necessary skills

  • The realization phase

with the coordinated handling as a project day or project week, in a subject network, in extracurricular cooperation

  • The recollection phase

with the documentation and presentation of the project results, the enjoyment of success and self-criticism as well as the planning of follow-up projects

The thoroughness of the individual phase processing or possible phase amalgamations depend on the difficulty and importance of the respective project.

Finding topics and documentation

Topic finding

Katz and Chard (2000, p. 220) recommend considering the following questions when choosing a topic:

  • Can the topic be observed directly in the area?
  • Have the children had any experience with it?
  • Can the children themselves examine the facts of the topic?
  • Do the local possibilities allow the project?
  • Different media can be used (role play, construction, photos, visuals, etc.).
  • Can parents help?
  • Is the theme appropriate for both “local culture” and “general cultural”?
  • It should be of interest to many children or that adults consider it very important for the child's development.
  • Does the topic correspond to the local goals of the institution or other curricula?
  • Are there enough opportunities to build in to acquire basic skills?
  • The topic must not be too restricted and not too “vague”.

Topics for extracurricular project days

Multi-day excursions or thematically related school trips are also suitable for project teaching . Suitable activities for this include

Documentation of the project

According to WE Fthenakis (2000, p. 231 f), the documentation contributes to the quality of the project because:

  • Children's learning is improved. The children's knowledge is deepened. Learning processes are consolidated. Children become “more curious, more interested, more confident” (p. 231).
  • The children's ideas and work are taken seriously.
  • The project is evaluated and planned together with the children. In between, the educator can look through the work of the children and get to know the state of the child's development in a more differentiated manner.
  • Appreciation and participation from parents. Parents can better empathize with their children's learning processes and better understand their development.
  • The educator "develops a research and process awareness". The educator can adapt her methods better to the group and improve the associated learning processes in the children.
  • The children's learning is illustrated.

Examples of project teaching

The project idea can be implemented from primary school age to university teaching. In doing so, however, didactic and methodological differences must be taken into account, which result from the age structure, the complexity of the task, the level of aspiration and the learning experience of the working group. The teaching and learning skills in the form of teaching must be acquired gradually. The way from easy to more difficult, from simple to complex projects or from the preliminary form of the project-oriented to the “actual” project teaching under its “hard” criteria. Interests and topics also vary according to the type of school , such as general education and vocational schools . In this respect, the following information can only be of an exemplary nature. In the literature , on videos and in the Internet , the possibilities of project instruction find also documented numerous.

Primary school

The pedestrian diploma , a traffic education project, is a classic example of how simple, interdisciplinary projects can be designed with school beginners.

With the aim of developing a sense of traffic and traffic experience yourself and demonstrating the appropriate skills for acquiring the pedestrian diploma, the play area is transformed from the children into a traffic area, playing partners become traffic partners, rules of the game become traffic rules, game fines become traffic fines. This is done by tinkering with your own traffic signs, inventing your own rules, exploring real traffic, trying out forms of communication, reacting to signals, etc. The end product is an independently organized intersection traffic with its own policeman and third graders as cyclists.

The way to school game is a board game that is designed and produced by the children after exploring their own way to school under the supervision of a knowledgeable teacher and enriched and made exciting through tasks they have experienced and imagined themselves.

Special (special) school

Successful teaching projects have also been carried out at special schools and special needs schools . One example is the “Space and Stigmatization” project. In it, after previous conflicts in the district, students deal with their experiences, their position within society, the effects on their image and their educational opportunities.

Realschule (secondary level I)

Kayaking and kayaking is a demanding double project in which the subjects chemistry, physics, technology and sport are included with their specialist skills. The motivation of the secondary school students to collaborate is high, because as a result of their project work, everyone receives a kayak they have built themselves, tested in the water and learned to use.

The integration of foreign classmates is still an elementary necessity for a successful classroom instruction for all involved. The difficult task cannot be mastered by individual subjects such as sport, but has to be a concern of a disciplinary initiative that can best be implemented in the form of project teaching, as this project example shows.

Gymnasium (upper secondary level)

The elaboration of a metaphor lexicon of sports language requires an intellectual examination of the richly pictorial language of sports in its various types of sport. Many of the linguistic images from this area of ​​life have found their way into colloquial, even high-level language, and are worth rediscovering in their vivid image value and lexically processed in a dictionary created by the author. German instruction provides this expertise to the etymology and definition of voice pictures like yourself give nakedness , physical education knowledge to differentiate between visual characteristics and differences as something by fencing , push through something or bring themselves to something .

University (tertiary education)

Knight life in a castle was the main theme of a project that a student seminar dealt intensively with for one semester . Specifically, it was about the Neuscharfeneck ruin in the Palatinate , whose eventful history since the time of a Celtic ring castle , whose structural facilities and changes were researched. The former ways of life should be reconstructed and reproduced as true to history as possible. The working groups also dealt with Old High German and Middle High German texts, obtained historical knight clothing from the Theater Karlsruhe, wrote a medieval play about the legendary Knight Einaug, explored the music, the dances and games of the time, and spent a final weekend at the castle ruins to bring it back to life under medieval catering and lifestyle. The project was visually documented in a 40-minute video film and self-critically processed in an accompanying brochure of 74 pages.

School and university (educational network)

A highly complex and accordingly difficult to organize project arises from the didactic task of bringing not only several specialist skills, but also different institutions and their specialist representatives into a cooperation community. Such a situation arises, for example, from the educational need to accompany students in the implementation of a demanding project into the reality of the school and the public. It is about the cooperation under a common project goal of university teachers, teachers, students and pupils with different training intentions: The students and teachers should learn to teach in projects, the pupils more to learn in projects. Two examples from the media series Project Lessons in School and University are mentioned:

Adventure jungle is a project in which the students are given access to this habitat, which is initially far removed from them, to discover. You should get to know the geographical jungle regions and become familiar with the climatic conditions, the flora and fauna and the people who live there. However, you should not only do this through a head-based understanding and receptive way, but through your own explorations and practical experience.

The students have the task of finding the appropriate learning opportunities, materials and locations, preparing them and making them tangible. The final scenario of the project is living and moving together in a sports hall designed entirely into a jungle landscape with climbing options, disguise, dance performances and quiz requirements.

Robin Hood is another project from this series with basically similar objectives: The children of two third grades should get to know Richard the Lionheart's time better and playfully familiarize themselves with the time. The brotherly quarrel in the English royal family and the turbulence of the crusader episode can be well illustrated using the story of Robin Hood, which is attractive for children . After the preparations in the school area, the actual project process takes place in small log cabins in the Palatinate Forest below the Lindelbrunn ruins . The forest around the castle is discovered. The ruin becomes a castle again. It is filled with life and games and adventures. Here too, of course, a play with a prize shooting with self-made bows should not be missing.

State specifics


At the beginning of the 1970s, the rediscovered and didactically renewed project teaching experienced an upswing, first in the university sector and then also in schools. After an increasing head-to-head orientation of learning, it was a matter of including the whole person in the learning processes again and, from the narrowing subject orientation, to focus more on the complex reality of life. With the project teaching, interdisciplinary work increasingly took place alongside pure technical teaching , subject- integrated courses of study were designed and non-university and extra-curricular learning locations were included in the training in the interests of greater realism. The reality of university didactics preceded the fixation in the curricula. For example, the training of lifeguards in Karlsruhe was organized in project form with the participation of the subjects of sport, biology and technology, and interdisciplinary projects such as the development of a game book , a training book or a metaphor lexicon were carried out in cooperation between the subjects German and sport. The curricula gradually came closer to the state of affairs: A characteristic of pedagogical work in primary schools is teaching that ... also takes into account overarching aspects in specialist teaching and, in special cases, concentrates the aspects of various subjects in teaching projects. Since the mid-1970s, a so-called music-aesthetic subject area was prepared at the universities of education in Baden-Württemberg , which included the subjects of sport, music and art and was supposed to officially replace pure specialist studies in primary school teacher training. It was incorporated into the curriculum in 1979. In addition, a second subject area was created for the subjects of housekeeping and technical works.


Since the basic decree on project teaching ( BMBWK circular No. 44/2001), project teaching has been a special educational concern in Austria.


At Swiss grammar schools, for the final Matura thesis, a project chosen by the Matura students is defined and developed according to the basic principles of scientific work.

In preparation for the Matura thesis, the non-doctoral-relevant basic subject Learning on the Project (LaP) was put on the timetable at grammar schools and advanced training schools in Basel . Pupils choose a topic (if necessary also in groups), write the work according to certain guidelines and present it in a presentation, similar to the Matura work.

In some cantons, for example Lucerne, Obwalden and Zurich, there is the “subject” project teaching (PU) in the 9th school year. The project method is developed and practiced in group projects and individual projects. Towards the end of the school year, the learners do a thesis, which is also listed on the certificate.

See also


  • HJ Apel, Michael Knoll: Learning from projects. Foundation and suggestions. Oldenbourg, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-486-03505-3 .
  • Johannes Bastian, Herbert Gudjons, Jochen Schnack, Martin Speth (eds.): Theory of project teaching. Bergmann + Helbig, Hamburg 1997, ISBN 3-925836-31-4 .
  • W. Emer, F. Rengstorf: Project work - an introduction for schoolchildren. In: U. Horst et al. (Ed.): Lernbox. Seelze 2008.
  • Susanna Endler, Peter Kühr, Bernd Wittmann: Project work. Learn project skills in an action-oriented way. A handbook for students. Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Haan 2010, ISBN 978-3-8085-8284-8 .
  • Karl Frey: The project method. Weinheim 1982.
  • Herbert Gudjons: Action-oriented teaching and learning, project teaching and student activity. 6th edition. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2001, ISBN 3-7815-0441-7 .
  • Herbert Gudjons: What is project teaching? In: J. Bastian (Ed.): The project book. Bergmann + Helbig, Hamburg 1994, ISBN 3-925836-04-7 .
  • Dagmar Hänsel (Ed.): Handbook project teaching. Beltz, Weinheim 1997, ISBN 3-407-83137-4 .
  • Astrid Kaiser: Project book primary school projects. Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2011.
  • Josef Keuffer, Stefan Hahn (ed.): Project teaching and project culture in schools. (= TriOS - Forum for school-related research, school development and evaluation. Volume 6). 2010, ISBN 978-3-643-99913-9 .
  • Michael Knoll: Dewey, Kilpatrick and “progressive” upbringing. Critical studies on project pedagogy. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2011, ISBN 978-3-7815-1789-9 .
  • Dieter Lenzen, Wolfgang Emer: Shaping project lessons - changing schools. Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2002, ISBN 3-89676-936-7 .
  • Jean-Pol Martin: Proposal of an anthropologically based curriculum for foreign language teaching. Narr, Tübingen 1994, ISBN 3-8233-4373-4 .
  • Christian Minuth: Learning foreign languages ​​in projects. Discover, communicate, understand, design. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2012, ISBN 978-3-7815-1870-4 .
  • John Dewey, William Heard Kilpatrick: The Project Plan. Foundation and practice . Böhlau, Weimar 1935, DNB 362076413 .
  • Willy Potthoff: Pedagogical and social project variations. Reformedagogischer Verlag, Freiburg 2006, ISBN 3-925416-28-5 .
  • Volker Reinhardt (Ed.): Projects make school. Schwalbach 2005, ISBN 3-89974-178-1 .
  • Erich Lipp et al: Accompanying projects (group projects and individual work). Handbook for teachers, practical help (folder) and guidelines for pupils . Schulverlag plus, Bern 2011, DNB 1018775250 .
  • Anita Rudolf, Siegbert Warwitz: Experience-design-understand sport in projects. In: Rainer Pawelke (ed.): New sport culture. AOL-Verlag, Lichtenau 1995, ISBN 3-89111-053-7 , pp. 358-369.
  • Bertold Rudolf: Traffic education as project teaching. In: Contributions to educational work. 3, 1974, pp. 9-12.
  • Peter Struck: Project teaching . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-17-005773-1 .
  • Rudolf Tippelt: Project study . Kösel, Munich 1979, ISBN 3-466-30200-5 .
  • Herbert Wagner: Special school students (Lb) - their conditions of origin, their environmental conflicts and their communal image. A teaching project. (= Space and Stigma I; Bad Bentheimer work reports and studies on socio-spatial educational research. Volume 3). Bad Bentheim 1982, ISBN 3-88683-002-0 .
  • Siegbert Warwitz: Interdisciplinary Sports Education. Didactic perspectives and model examples of interdisciplinary teaching. Verlag Hofmann, Schorndorf 1974, DNB 740560026 .
  • Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: Project teaching. Didactic principles and models . Verlag Hofmann, Schorndorf 1977, ISBN 3-7780-9161-1 .
  • Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf (Ed.): Project teaching in schools and universities . Media series for interdisciplinary teaching. Karlsruhe 1980 ff.
  • Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: Projects . Basic item. In: Sports Education. 6, 1982, pp. 16-23.
  • Silke Traub: Design project work successfully. Via individualized, cooperative learning to self-directed small group projects . UTB, Bad Heilbrunn 2012, ISBN 978-3-8252-3657-1 .
  • Anne Zapf: Progressive project work. Evaluation of a model for the implementation of self-directed project work . Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2015, ISBN 978-3-7815-2025-7 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Project lessons  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Project work  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: Project teaching. Didactic principles and models . Schorndorf 1977, p. 18.
  2. ^ Karl Frey: The project method. The way to creative activity. Weinheim 1982.
  3. Michael Knoll: Dewey, Kilpatrick and "progressive" education. Critical studies on project pedagogy. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2011, pp. 21–82.
  4. Peter Petersen (ed.): John Dewey / William Heard Kilpatrick - The project plan. Foundation and practice . Weimar 1935.
  5. Schart 2003, 69
  6. ^ Siegbert Warwitz: Interdisciplinary sports education. Didactic perspectives and model examples of interdisciplinary teaching . Schorndorf 1974.
  7. ^ Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf (ed.): Project teaching in schools and universities. Media series for interdisciplinary teaching. Karlsruhe 1980 ff.
  8. ^ Peter Struck: Project teaching . Stuttgart 1980.
  9. a b Herbert Gudjons: What is project teaching? In: J. Bastian (Ed.): The project book . Hamburg 1994.
  10. ^ Karl Frey: The project method . Weinheim 1980.
  11. ^ Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: Project teaching. Didactic principles and models . Schorndorf 1977, p. 19.
  12. Herbert Gudjons: What is project teaching? In: J. Bastian (Ed.): The project book . Hamburg 1994, p. 14.
  13. ^ Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: Project teaching. Didactic principles and models . Schorndorf 1977.
  14. ^ Karl Frey: The project method . Weinheim 1980.
  15. ^ Rudolf Tippelt: Project study . Munich 1979.
  16. ^ Peter Struck: Project teaching . Stuttgart 1980.
  17. Joseph Keuffer, Stephan Hahn (ed.): Project work and project culture in school . (= TriOS - Forum for school-related research, school development and evaluation. Volume 6). 2010.
  18. ^ Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: Features of a project. In: Dies .: Project teaching. Didactic principles and models. Schorndorf 1977, pp. 18-22.
  19. ^ Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: The didactic thought picture. In: Dies .: Project teaching. Didactic principles and models . Schorndorf 1977, pp. 20-22.
  20. ^ Dieter Lenzen, Wolfgang Emer: Shaping project lessons - changing schools. Baltmannsweiler 2005.
  21. ^ Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: Projects . Basic item. In: Sports Education. 6, 1982, pp. 19/20.
  22. ^ Siegbert Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: Experience-design-comprehend sport in projects. In: Rainer Pawelke (ed.): New sport culture. Lichtenau 1995, pp. 360-362.
  23. P. Wegener: The 'pedestrian diploma' method as a didactic concept for improving the roadworthiness of school beginners . Knowledge State examination thesis GHS Karlsruhe 2001.
  24. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz: We create a game for ourselves on the way to school. First grader in an interdisciplinary project. In: thing-word-number. 30, 47, 2002, pp. 23-27.
  25. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz: The school way game. In: Ders .: Traffic education from the child. Perceive-play-think-act. 6th edition. Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2009, pp. 216-221.
  26. ^ Herbert Wagner: Sonderschüler (Lb) - their conditions of origin, their environmental conflicts and their communal image. A teaching project. Space and stigma I ; Bad Bentheim work reports and studies on socio-spatial educational research, Volume 3. Bad Bentheim 1982.
  27. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz, Gernot Schlager: Wild water rafting as an interdisciplinary task - a model proposal for the interdisciplinary opening of the subject curricula. In: Physical Education. 6, 1976, pp. 187-191.
  28. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: Kayaking and kayaking as a common task for the subjects of chemistry, physics, technology and sport. In: Dies .: Project teaching - Didactic principles and models. Schorndorf 1977, pp. 61-73.
  29. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: Possibilities of integrating foreign children in the class. In: The German School. 12, 1980, pp. 719-730.
  30. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz: Sport in the mirror of language - a metaphor analysis . Tübingen 1967.
  31. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz: Das Metaphernlexikon. In: Ders .: Interdisciplinary sports education. Didactic perspectives and model examples of interdisciplinary teaching. Schorndorf 1976, pp. 69-81.
  32. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: Castle adventure. Medieval knight life on a castle ruin . (= Project teaching in schools and universities . PU 6). Karlsruhe 1993.
  33. Nadine Kutzli, S. White: Jungle experience . (= Project teaching in schools and universities . PU 7). Karlsruhe 1994.
  34. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz: Dschungelleben - We create a play landscape. In: thing-word-number. 93, 2008, pp. 7-14 and p. 64.
  35. ^ Siegbert A. Warwitz, Anita Rudolf: Robin Hood - experience and design . (= Project teaching in schools and universities . PU 8). Karlsruhe 1995.
  36. ^ Bertold Rudolf: Traffic education as project instruction. In: Contributions to educational work. 3, 1974, pp. 9-12.
  37. ^ Siegbert Warwitz: Interdisciplinary sports education. Didactic perspectives and model examples of interdisciplinary teaching. Schorndorf 1974, pp. 53-82.
  38. ^ Ministry of Culture Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart: Work instructions for primary schools in Baden-Württemberg . Announcements of July 4, 1975 / B3, p. 2.
  39. Project teaching: overview. In: Schulinfo: Education and Schools »Classes and Schools» Education Issues. Federal Ministry for Education, Art and Culture (bmukk), March 18, 2008, accessed on July 25, 2009 . ; Basic decree on project teaching 10.077 / 5-I / 4a / 2001.