Physical education

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Equipment for physical education: box and soft floor

Physical education (also movement classes , the learning area movement, play and sport or, for short, sport , out of date: physical education or gymnastics ) is a professionally oriented form of training. It is used in schools by academically trained teachers and sports clubs by coaches or trainers practiced. Physical education is a compulsory school subject in most European countries and is shown in special curricula with its own goals, content and methods.

Since the 1970s, physical education has developed from a pure “movement subject” and a “lesson in sports ” to a holistic, challenging and encouraging class geared towards motor development (movement, play and sport). It wants to offer a physical balance to the primarily sitting lessons, but also make a fundamental contribution to the physical, mental, social and emotional development of children and young people.

Physical education is the mandatory part of school sports . School competitions, working groups, sports during breaks, etc. a. are counted as extracurricular school sport.


The high social importance of physical education is expressed in statements made by all parties and sports organizations. 2004 was the European Year of Education through Sport ( European Commission ), 2005 the International Year of Sport and Sport Education proclaimed by the UN .

Almost two thirds of all students in Germany consider physical education to be important or very important, with little differences between the two sexes. Only 13% consider it unimportant. However, the importance for them diminishes with increasing age. For boys and girls, physical education in school is just as important as activities in their free time and more important than sports in clubs.

School directors sometimes value school sport above all because it contributes to the school's positive image. In the case of investments, the subject is treated equally with other subjects.

More than 80% of parents in Germany emphasize the importance of physical education for the development of their children. Fathers and mothers largely agree on this. Although the parents' assessment of physical education is very positive, around 20% of parents are not informed about the specific objectives, methods and conditions on site. This is also shown carelessly issued exemption applications and certificates. Contacts with the sports teacher are rare, so reliable statements are not possible.

Educational concepts and educational goals

Promotion of development through exercise, play and sport and the opening up of exercise, play and sport culture can be seen as a central guiding principle of school sport.

In view of the steadily growing lack of exercise in children and adolescents, sport is particularly important for the health of the students. In addition, based on scientific findings, the close connections between muscular activity and movement on the one hand, and brain activity and cognitive development on the other, are becoming the focus of educational efforts.

Historical considerations of socio-political changes and didactic priorities should encourage a critical attitude e.g. B. to arouse the doping problem, the one-sided focus on performance or forms of passive sport consumption and promote knowledge about the diverse activating possibilities of sport in the leisure and performance area.

The pedagogical demands that are brought to bear on sport and other forms of exercise and play are diverse: The content, method and scope of physical education should be oriented in such a way that it reaches and motivates all students and at the same time takes into account that not all students are equally talented. It should therefore address weaknesses in a suitable manner and also arouse interest in those who are distant from sporting activity.

Educational physical education and multiple perspectives

The householder physical education following the educational guideline that physical education is to fulfill a double mission:

  • Through education in sport , the pupils should be made aware of movement as a principle of life and motivation should be created for lifelong sports. In addition, basic skills and motor skills, knowledge and attitudes are imparted.
  • Education in and through sport means an age-appropriate promotion of health awareness and fitness. Individual progress in performance and confidence in your own performance should lead to a positive body feeling and strengthen your personality. This is against the background of an environment that offers the students less and less natural motivation and opportunities to move.

Educational instruction is now accorded a high priority in the sports curriculum in Germany. It can be implemented through multi-perspective teaching and multi-dimensional learning, which includes the following pedagogical approaches:

  • Improve perception and expand movement experiences
  • express yourself physically and create movements
  • dare to take responsibility for something
  • experience and reflect on performance
  • act together, compete and communicate
  • Improve fitness and develop health awareness

Competence orientation

The trend sport parkour in school sports

A competence based physical education contains elements of the open physical education and the multi-dimensional learning . It promotes personal and social development through the involvement of the students in the teaching process (participation), practicing and presenting in groups, physical experience , experiencing adventure and risk , fitness and health. There is an opening of the specialist content with regard to the scope for action and design, so that trend sports such as. B. Parkour or inline skating can be carried out in physical education.

The lessons are based on the students' world. This means that the sports covered must be constantly re-examined for their priority. New and unknown sports as well as non-sports forms of movement are also taught. This enables general motor development.

The competencies to be imparted can be divided as follows:

  • Professional competencies : skills, abilities, knowledge, transfer
  • Methodological skills : observation - analysis, organization, presentation
  • Social skills : cooperation, communication, fair play, reliability, responsibility
  • Personal skills : motivation, willingness to perform, self-perception, self-assessment, self-confidence, dare and responsibility, ability to work in a team, tolerance, creativity

When planning competence-based physical education, the teacher must try to consider the following aspects:

  • Problem-oriented : Subject-specific content is not only conveyed, but also problematized. We work systematically on movement problems and questions of meaning.
  • Clear objective: The learning objectives are always present.
  • Openness and the opportunity to participate: The students have individual scope for decision-making and can work independently.
  • Individual responsibility for their own learning success: The students are jointly responsible for their learning success and the result.
  • Process-oriented and sustainable: The lessons are planned in so-called "teaching units" over several weeks, not in the form of single and double lessons. Contents have to be practiced and deepened again and again. They have to be networked so that there is no random sequence of topics. Tactical elements are taken up in different sports, for example, movement elements are practiced in different contexts.
  • Holistic approach : Physical education should not only demand and support physically, but also mentally, emotionally and socially. In addition, sport is not only taught under the aspect of performance, but also takes into account other aspects such as play, fun, health, community, cooperation.
  • Reflection: The pupils have to think through their actions, deal with the subject matter and the learning processes and derive indications for their further activities from this.
  • Student orientation : The planning takes place according to what the students can already do, what interests them in particular, to which (also individually different) goals they want to be led and how they get the opportunity to express themselves.
  • Differentiation / individualization : The lessons give each student the opportunity to achieve something within their means. He is integrating and not selective.

Features of good physical education

Sports pedagogue Ulf Gebken names the following 10 characteristics of good physical education:

  1. Structuredness (= clear structuring of the teaching-learning process)
  2. Optimal use of the time available
  3. Long involvement of the students in motor activities (= expansion of the proportion of "real" movement time of the students)
  4. Diversity of methods (= consideration of the learning prerequisites and imparting of methodological competence)
  5. Consistency of goals, content and methods
  6. Teaching climate (= creation of a positive working atmosphere that is conducive to learning)
  7. Meaningful class discussions (= mediation between curriculum and student interests through targeted questions)
  8. Funding attitude (= orientation towards the individual level of learning, encouragement to learn and communication of learning strategies)
  9. Student feedback (= regular use of student feedback for the planning and implementation of lessons)
  10. Performance expectations and controls (= transparency of the learning expectations conveyed to the students or negotiated between teacher and students and performance feedback)


The issues of socially relevant objectives, content and organizational forms that should determine physical education are controversially discussed between educational policy makers, parents, school psychologists and sports didactics:

  • Controversial point of co-education

Above all, critics argue that the two sexes have different sporting needs, that they go through different speeds of development and that the possibilities of both sexes are impaired. Proponents answer that the refusal of co-education, contrary to the extracurricular reality and practice in the other subjects, creates an artificial separation of the sexes and the principle of differentiation enables flexible handling according to sport and interests.

  • Controversial point of study

Critics fear that less talented children and adolescents could have disadvantages in physical education in school if this is exclusively or too strongly performance-oriented, that in team sports and party games , lower- performing pupils experience exclusion by high-performing pupils who (e.g. less often get the ball ) and that, conversely, the stronger students are bored if the lessons are below their level. This is countered by the fact that there are differences in performance among students in all subjects, which is countered in modern physical education according to the principle of differentiation, but that a performance confrontation must also be endured in physical education for personal development . As in other subjects, good athletes should also be allowed to make a performance presentation in their subject.

  • Controversial issue of performance evaluation / learning control

Individual critics repeatedly call for the abolition of performance assessment in the subject of sport. The reasons given are that sport should essentially be fun and not burden you with pressure to perform, that physical education as a movement subject should only counterbalance the so-called “seating subjects” and that, given different talents and physical requirements, an objective assessment is not even possible be. Proponents counter this by saying that physical education is given an unjustified special role in the canon of subjects, that different talents are to be taught in all other subjects, that sport is not an entertainment but a learning subject with objectively and differentially ascertainable sporting achievements and personal developments and that learning control is sensible in terms of didactics and is even desired by most of the students as a motivation boost and a sign of recognition.


In Germany, curricula are issued by the education ministries of the federal states for the individual school types. Sport is not an advancement subject in all federal states , which is why the transfer could not take place. The sense or nonsense of such subject evaluation is discussed again and again within the framework of the curriculum creation and decided differently. The meaning for the average grade in the Abitur and thus for the numerus clausus of admission to a certain university course is not uniformly regulated.

Teaching project

In some curricula of the federal states, the teaching project is the central term . For example, in the new secondary school curriculum of North Rhine-Westphalia, the types of sport are no longer the starting point for structuring the content of the curricula. Rather, they are classified in the range of fields of activity. The ten content areas that are named in the new framework and curriculum are arranged on the three levels of a) cross-sports fields of movement , b) fields of movement and sports areas and area c) acquiring knowledge and understanding sport . The teaching project now summarizes the technical knowledge, the methods and forms of independent work, the educational perspectives and the fields of movement / sports areas or the basic fields of movement and thus reflects the content and the topic of the series of lessons.

More recent curricula in most of the federal states now assume that physical education must be geared more towards education than towards the models of institutionalized sport . This also means that physical education is no longer just based on sports, but increasingly on overarching fields of movement and topics:

Simple exercise structure for physical education lessons with primary school students
  • Run, jump, throw
  • Moving in the water
  • Moving on and with devices
  • Make movement gymnastic, rhythmic and dance-like
  • Driving, rolling, sliding
  • Fight with or against partners
  • Play
  • Train the body, improve fitness


At the beginning of the 1970s, physical education began to be reoriented beyond the pure movement subject: In the context of a holistic human education, cognitive components were assigned a stronger role within physical education and in cooperation with neighboring theoretical subjects:

In addition to knowledge of the fundamentals of movement technology and physiological laws of training, the focus was also on problem-oriented issues such as understanding sport as a "cultural and social phenomenon" (Warwitz, p. 201), finding a critical sense of the sport and reflecting on typical sporting phenomena such as fear , Aggression and group dynamic processes.

The congresses for physical education in Oldenburg in 1973 and Berlin in 1979 made the integration of theory into practical work in the sense of a "need for supplementation in physical education" to be key issues.

Didactic targets and specific models were developed to show how practice and theory can be combined in physical education and competitive sport and how the subject can be placed in an educational network with the theoretical subjects. Forms such as project lessons and, as an introduction, project- oriented lessons were available for this purpose.

With the factual and methodical networking of the subjects, the educational mandate of the individual subjects, such as “artistic”, “technical”, “practical” or “theoretical” subjects that were no longer in keeping with the times, had increasingly become obsolete.

The new findings were gradually reflected in the curricula of the federal states, starting with the implementation in the advanced sports course for the upper school level:

For example, the 2004 educational plan for the course level in Baden-Württemberg provides for the teaching of theoretical content from the areas of training and movement theory , sport psychology , sport sociology and the discussion of socially relevant issues in sport. The combination of practical and theoretical content should enable the students to act independently.

The following knowledge should be imparted in a two-hour sports course:

In a four-hour sports course, the following points are also part of the curriculum:

  • biomechanical principles in selected motion sequences
  • Actions and modalities of action
  • Recognize freedom of movement and correct mistakes
  • Reflect on sport in its socio-political significance


In Germany, students are usually also graded in physical education. The criteria on which the grade is based differs depending on the federal state and is sometimes handled differently in each school. For example, in the course level in Baden-Württemberg, the theory exam also forms part of the sports grade. It is also possible that, in addition to the sporting performance, specialist knowledge and methodological knowledge, special commitment (personal competence), social commitment (social competence) and good cooperation are included in the grade of a unit. This means that even a student with physical deficits can achieve a 3 or 4. The best grade (1) is not based on the best student, but on the criteria previously defined for the respective class level.

On average, students achieve significantly better grades in physical education than in other subjects. The average of the sports grades at two high schools in Baden-Württemberg was 2.3 in the 5th / 6th. Grade 2.1-2.5 (men) and 1.8-2.2 (women) in grades 7-10.

School sports misery

However, the public interest and the generally expressed appreciation of sports and exercise education stand in the way of realities: The so-called "school sports misery" has been lamented for a long time. The term was coined by Konrad Paschen , who was head of the GEW Sports Commission at the time. The term and problem were taken up not only by sports teacher associations or the GEW sports commission, but also by leading organizations in German sports and many other groups and parties. The quality of physical education leaves something to be desired, not only at elementary, special and secondary schools, although features and criteria have been discussed extensively. The inadequate class coverage, insufficient number of hours in the school's canon of subjects and lessons by non-qualified so-called "non-subject" teachers are criticized.

The steadily growing lack of fitness of today's children and adolescents has been clearly demonstrated by various scientific comparative studies (WIAD study). In the school sport study "Physical Education in Germany" (SPRINT study) the poor general conditions for physical education are confirmed.


Physical exercises (exercitia) have been part of the training of free men since ancient times, later they were mainly part of knightly training. It was only with the French Revolution that they became part of civic education.

Beginning of physical education in Germany

Castagnetten dance in the girls' gymnasium in Düsseldorf , illustration by Wilhelm Simmler in the magazine Die Gartenlaube , 1870
The gymnasium in Basel. Drawing from the gymnastics book for schools by Adolf Spieß (1847).

The importance of movement exercises and gymnastics for the development of personality were already known to the ancient Greeks. In the German-speaking countries in the 18th and 19th In the 17th century, the philanthropists around Johann Christoph Friedrich GutsMuths (1759–1839) paved the way for physical education in schools. Physical exercise should become an integral part of a rational, holistic upbringing (education, physical improvement, happiness). At the Philanthropinum in Dessau there were therefore physical exercises such as running, jumping, throwing, climbing, wrestling, balancing, swimming, hiking, ice skating, vaulting and games, but also gardening and handicrafts.

Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778–1852), founder of the German gymnastics movement, wanted to use his “German gymnastics” to form the body and character of (male) youth and the people in order to strengthen their physical and moral strength.

Adolf Spieß (1810-1852) published The Doctrine of Gymnastics in four volumes in Switzerland from 1840-1846 , and from 1847-1851 he wrote a gymnastics book for schools . He saw gymnastics as an educational tool for obedience and discipline and for the formation of good subjects, as well as for physical and military education.

In Prussia in 1842 the “very highest cabinet order” was passed, according to which physical education, as physical education was called at the time, should be given in all public schools as a necessary and indispensable part of male education.

Gymnastics lessons in the Weimar Republic

Gymnastics and sport experienced a strong boom in the first German republic. Formalistic order, free and posture exercises have been replaced in school gymnastics by a holistic, natural "physical education" as part of the overall education.

Game afternoons, hiking days, outdoor education (e.g. rowing and skiing) as well as physical education, gymnastics and (expressive) dance (especially in girls' gymnastics) were just as much part of the gymnastics lessons as being able to compete in various sports. However, the training of the gym teachers left a lot to be desired, as it was mostly training to become a technical teacher (such as typewriter and craft lessons).

Physical education in National Socialism

The National Socialists made school physical education part of the National Socialist overall education: "Volksgemeinschaft", "Wehrhaftigkeit", "Rassebconsciousness" and "Leadership" were points of reference for a politically understood physical education. Comprehensive physical training and martial arts for the boys as well as gymnastics and dance for the girls dominated the classes.

These lessons were based on Hitler's "Mein Kampf" (see p. 451f. And p. 611) and Alfred Baeumler's concept of "political education". According to Baeumler, the body was a politicum and therefore not private property. The individual body was seen as part of the body as a whole, making physical education a matter for the state. The pedagogy was therefore adapted to the ideological requirements.

Physical education in the socialist physical culture of the GDR

A school class on the way back from physical education in Neubrandenburg (1974).

In the GDR, physical education was based on the Soviet model and socio-political goals: gymnastics, sport and physical culture served to educate the socialist personality in the "workers 'and peasants' state". In the process, however, a specialist methodology based on sports science and movement theory emerged that scientifically examined and prepared teaching / learning processes and is still important today.

The next generation of competitive athletes was trained in children's and youth sports schools. The discrepancy between the competitive sporting opportunities and those of the rest of the school sport grew towards the end of the GDR because the objective resources left a lot to be desired.

Physical education and physical education in the FRG

The Federal Youth Games, an expression of competitive sports lessons in the FRG

The curricula in West Germany and the FRG are initially based on the harmonious, holistic view of mankind from the Weimar period. Achievement, play, and competition are central terms in the educational theory / anthropologically oriented physical education of the 1950s and 1960s.

From the 1970s the sport concept (also sport model or instruction of the sport ) came to the fore according to Söll . The aim was to qualify the students in the various basic sports for extracurricular physical education (practice - improve - measure performance). This was done by focusing on basic motor skills. Alternative sports or trend sports had no place in school sports. Competitive sports lessons ( Grössing ) were carried out (e.g. Federal Youth Games ) and high-performing students were particularly encouraged by the Youth trained for the Olympics program.

In the approaches of learning goal orientation and curriculum theory , the social relevance of school sport was taken up in the 1970s. The term "physical education" was replaced by the term "physical education".

Physical education in Germany from 1990

Since 1990 the curricula have been increasingly adapted with regard to physical education . On the one hand, the pupils should be enthusiastic about the sport ( education for sport ) and on the other hand through the sport more extensive like z. B. personal and social skills are achieved ( education through sport ). It was no longer necessary to train basic motor skills, but to acquire a variety of skills. Instead of the basic sports, there were fields of movement such as moving in water, expression and design, fighting and scuffling.

The question was increasingly which experiences children and young people should gain in and through sport. Concepts such as the ability to act, body and movement experience, and social learning were increasingly placed in the center of the didactic discussions and in the curricula. In addition to traditional sports, there were other forms of movement, relaxation techniques and fun sports. The term "physical education" has also been questioned. In some cases, it was referred to as "exercise, games and sport" as a learning area.


In Austria the number of physical education lessons varies. In general, there are three to four hours of physical exercise per week in the lower grades and in secondary schools, and two to three hours in the upper grades.

Principle of physical education

The curriculum for physical education in schools in Austria focuses on the following:

  • Promotion of motor skills through "games and sport"
  • Installation of playful content of the gymnastics lesson ( dodgeball , handball ...)
  • Movement in the water
  • Promotion of team spirit ( team games , relay races ...)

Elementary school

In the elementary school, physical education lessons are separated from the usual "comprehensive lessons" (German, English, mathematics, and subject teaching). The goals in elementary school are:

Example of physical education at an AHS (lower level)

1st class (four sports lessons)

2nd class (four sports lessons)

3rd grade (three sports lessons)

4th grade (three sports lessons) In 4th grade, less emphasis is placed on games and sports than on improving motor skills, since the focus is on preparing for an apprenticeship without sports lessons .

  • Targeted focus on volleyball
  • Promote motor skills (running, jumping)



  • Wolf-Dietrich Brettschneider: DSB Sprint Study: Physical Education in Germany. A study on the situation of school sport in Germany. Meyer & Meyer, Aachen 2005, ISBN 3-89899-191-1 .
  • Eric Franklin: Liberated Bodies. The manual for imaginative movement pedagogy. 4th, unchanged. Edition. VAK Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-932098-26-9 .
  • Inga Reimann-Pöhlsen: Defeats in physical education. Coping strategies of elementary school children. transcript, Bielefeld 2017, ISBN 978-3-8376-3851-6 .
  • Siegbert Warwitz: Interdisciplinary Sports Education. Didactic perspectives and model examples of interdisciplinary teaching. Verlag Hofmann, Schorndorf 1974, DNB 740560026 , pp. 40-52.


  • James A. Mangan: Athleticism in the Victorian and Edwardian Public School. The emergence and consolidation of an educational ideology. Cambridge University Press, 1981. (Revised Edition. Routledge 2000)
  • James A. Mangan (Ed.): The Imperial Curriculum: Racial Images and Education in the British Colonial Experience. Routledge, London 1991.
  • Jacques Gleyse: Archeology de l'éducation physique au XXè siècle en France: le corps occulté. L'Harmattan, Paris 2006.
  • Michael Krüger: Introduction to the history of physical education and sport. 3 volumes. Hofmann, Schorndorf 2005, ISBN 978-3-7780-7789-4 .



  • European Physical Education Review.
  • Revue d'Éducation Physique et sport.
  • Sport, Education and Society.
  • Physical education. Monthly magazine on the science and practice of sport

Web links

Wiktionary: physical education  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: physical education  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Arnd Krüger (Ed.): Physical exercises in Europe 1 / The European Community. Arena Publ, London 1985, ISBN 0-902175-42-4 ; Arnd Krüger, Else Trangbæk (Eds.): The history of physical education & sport from European perspectives. University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 1999, ISBN 87-89361-69-5 .
  2. ^ A b c Deutscher Sportbund (Ed.): DSB Sprint Study - Physical Education in Germany; A study on the situation of school sport in Germany . Meyer and Meyer, Aachen 2006, ISBN 3-89899-191-1 , online full text
  3. ^ A b Siegbert Warwitz: On the cognitive component in the socialization process. In: Committee of German physical educators (ed.): Socialization in sport . VI. Congress for physical education in Oldenburg 1973. Verlag Hofmann, Schorndorf 1974, pp. 366–371.
  4. ^ A b State Institute for School Development Baden-Württemberg: Education Plan Sport Sport Orientation Level 2015. Working version for testing. Stuttgart 2013, p. 2, (full text)
  5. a b State Institute for School Development Baden-Württemberg: Bildungsstandard Sport Gymnasium 2004. S. 300, (full text)
  6. a b c d e Jörg Haas: Good teaching - a factual analysis for the subject of sport . Script of the State Seminar for Didactics and Teacher Training Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau 2012.
  7. Ulf Gebken: Quality criteria for physical education , accessed on February 20, 2014.
  8. Jörg Haas: Assessment of performance and determination of grades in sport - Do different criteria apply to the subject of sport than to the rest of the subjects? Powerpoint presentation. State seminar for didactics and teacher training Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau 2013.
  9. ^ Siegbert Warwitz: The need to supplement physical education. In: Siegbert Warwitz: Interdisciplinary sports education. Didactic perspectives and model examples of interdisciplinary teaching. Verlag Hofmann, Schorndorf 1974, pp. 40-52.
  10. Dieter Brodtmann: Teaching models for theory in physical education in the primary area. In: Committee of German physical educators (ed.): Theory in Sportpraxis. Congress for physical education in Berlin 1979. Schorndorf 1980, pp. 209–213.
  11. Horst Käsler: Training and Sports Theory. In: Committee of German physical educators (ed.): Theory in Sportpraxis. Congress for physical education in Berlin 1979. Verlag Hofmann, Schorndorf 1980, pp. 42–53.
  12. Anita Rudolf, Siegbert Warwitz: The theory-practice relationship in interdisciplinary project teaching. In: Committee of German physical educators (ed.): Theory in Sportpraxis. Congress for physical education in Berlin 1979. Schorndorf 1980, pp. 200–205.
  13. Roland Naul, among others: Connection between sports practice and sports theory in the high-level sport of the college in North Rhine-Westphalia - course planning and teaching reality. In: Committee of German physical educators (ed.): Theory in Sportpraxis. Congress for physical education in Berlin 1979. Schorndorf 1980, pp. 115–125.
  14. State Institute for School Development Baden-Württemberg: Educational Standard Sport Gymnasium 2004. P. 302, (full text)
  15. State Institute for School Development Baden-Württemberg: Bildungsstandard Sport Gymnasium 2004. P. 306, (full text)
  16. State Institute for School Development Baden-Württemberg: Bildungsstandard Sport Gymnasium 2004. P. 307, (full text)
  17. Jörg Haas: Performance assessment - grading in sport . Script of the State Seminar for Didactics and Teacher Training Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau 2013.
  18. Jörg Haas: Assessment of performance and determination of grades in sport - Do different criteria apply to the subject of sport than to the rest of the subjects? Powerpoint presentation. State seminar for didactics and teacher training Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau 2013.
  19. ^ Konrad Paschen: The school sport misery: Thoughts and plans for the "daily gymnastics lesson". Westermann, Braunschweig 1969; Arnd Krüger, Dieter Niedlich (Hrsg.): Causes of the misery in school sports in Germany: Festschrift for Professor Konrad Paschen. Arena Publ, London 1979.
  20. Quality criteria of physical education , on
  21. ^ Arnd Krüger: Gymnastics and gymnastics lessons at the time of the Weimar Republic. Basis of today's misery in school sports? In: Arnd Krüger, Dieter Niedlich (ed.): Causes of the misery of school sports in Germany. Arena Publ, London 1979, ISBN 0-902175-37-8 , pp. 13-31.
  22. Arnd Krüger, Paul Kunath: The Development of Sports Science in the Soviet Zone and the GDR. In: Wolfgang Buss, Christian Becker (Hrsg.): Sport in the SBZ and the early GDR. Genesis - structures - conditions. Hofmann, Schorndorf 2001, pp. 351-366.
  24. Question area: Lessons in exercise and sport , on