Physical ability

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Stress-strain model

The physical performance (including physical performance , fitness , performance , power capacity or performance potential ) is a term used in sports science and refers to the ability of man a certain task in the highest attainable intensity level to meet. It depends on the ability and willingness to perform, is acquired through learning and improved in training . An increased performance results from adaptations of the organism .

The terms condition and stamina are often used interchangeably in everyday speech, called in sports science but different properties.


Physical performance can on the one hand be divided qualitatively according to the main forms of motor stress coordination , mobility , strength , speed and endurance , and on the other hand quantitatively according to the load normative intensity, duration and frequency. Depending on the type of sporting exercise, the forms of exercise, individually or in combination, become performance-limiting variables. Therefore a variety of different physical capabilities are possible.

Influencing factors

Components of athletic performance.gif

The current performance is determined by physical , psychological , social and external factors:

  • Condition (strength, speed, endurance, flexibility)
  • Technique (coordination skills, movement skills)
  • Psychological skills (mental fitness)
  • Predisposition, constitutional and health factors ( talent , constitution , health , age , gender , diet )
  • Tactical-cognitive skills ( intelligence , technique & tactics)
  • Social skills
  • Environmental factors , framework conditions and family factors


In endurance sports, performance is particularly dependent on the internal factors lung ventilation , diffusion capacity of the lungs, cardiac output , oxygen transport capacity of the blood , peripheral oxygen utilization and muscle fiber composition as well as the external factors of load mode, size of the muscle mass used, body position, oxygen partial pressure and climate .

Gender-specific performance targets

In certain areas such as military and police service, sports tests are adapted for women by adding a gender supplement to enable the performance results to be compared with those of men.

Measurement of physical performance

It is not possible to set up a single uniform measure of human performance. Instead, performance is individually defined for each discipline or movement in sport . In individual cases, physical performance can coincide with physical performance , but is not limited to this definition, for example isometric movements .

→ see performance diagnostics

Web links

Wiktionary: Efficiency  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. a b Jürgen Weineck: Sports biology . 10. revised and exp. Edition. Spitta, Balingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-938509-25-8 , pp. 18 .
  2. Wildor Hollmann, Theodor Hettinger: Sports medicine . 4th edition. Schattauer Verlag , Stuttgart / New York 2000, ISBN 3-7945-1672-9 , pp. 127 .
  3. Wildor Hollmann, Theodor Hettinger: Sports medicine . 4th edition. Schattauer Verlag , Stuttgart / New York 2000, ISBN 3-7945-1672-9 , pp. 177 .
  4. a b Urs Boutellier: Physiology of humans . Ed .: Robert F. Schmidt, Florian Lang, Manfred Heckmann. 31st edition. Springer Verlag , Heidelberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-642-01650-9 , Sport and Work Physiology, p. 855 .
  5. a b c Horst de Marées : Sports Physiology . 9th edition. Sportverlag Strauss, Cologne 2003, ISBN 978-3-939390-00-8 , p. 437 .
  6. ^ Kuno Hottenrott, Thomas Gronwald: Endurance training in schools and clubs . Hofmann, Schorndorf 2009, ISBN 978-3-7780-0381-7 , pp. 9 .
  7. Fritz Zintel: endurance training . 2nd Edition. BLV Verlag , Munich 1990, ISBN 3-405-14155-9 , pp. 54 .
  8. Central instruction B1-224 / 0-2. Training and maintenance of individual basic skills and physical performance (training IGF / KLF). Bundeswehr , May 21, 2015, p. 24 , archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; accessed on January 9, 2020 .
  9. Review of physical performance. (PDF; 252 kB) Heerespersonalamt , pp. 1–2 , accessed on December 4, 2015 .
  10. Assessment of the sports test. Federal Ministry of the Interior , archived from the original on December 14, 2018 ; accessed on January 9, 2020 .