Coordinative skills (motor skills)
In the area of motor skills, coordinative skills are a series of dispositions that are a prerequisite for creating a coordinated movement. Their possible, but not necessarily, visible product that arises from them is movement coordination . Coordinative skills are only potentials, not yet any performance or skills (see coordinative skills (general) ). These still need to be activated and brought together in a specific movement sequence in order to be perceived and assessed at all. The quality of movement coordination depends both on the quality of the individual coordinative abilities and on their successful interaction. Coordinative skills are in turn to be distinguished from the conditional willingness to perform (strength, speed, endurance).
The various components of movement coordination are determined by factor analysis and isolated in a mathematical-statistical way. This method is suitable for recognizing the relative independence of the individual factors. The lower the correlation between the components, the greater it is . The best result is that the intercorrelations remain in the random range. The isolation of the coordinative abilities is important for the motor learning process, for the creation of special training programs and for the development of test instruments for the differentiated recording of the movement coordination.
Coordinative skills are generalized or specialized skills, the level of which depends on the natural disposition and level of training of the individual and can be presented differently in different sports and physical requirements. The type and scope of the coordinative skills required result from the structure of the respective movement. The number of components and the difficulty of merging increase with the complexity of the movement and its dynamics. A standing up / lifting movement, for example, is easier to coordinate than a three-time Rittberger in figure skating . The Movement now works among others, the following factors spectrum:
- Sense of balance
- Ability to balance
- Spatial orientation ability
- Motion coupling ability
- Movement harmonization ability
- Rhythmic ability
- Ability to adapt and adapt
- Ability to anticipate
- Ability to combine
The most important control center for the interaction of the coordinative components is the cerebellum , which, in cooperation with the basal ganglia, is responsible for programming movements and coordinating voluntary muscle work.
Movement scientists still have divergent views on the interpretation and systematisation of coordinative skills:
On the one hand, experimental psychologists such as Lienert, Ingenkamp, Warwitz assume that every skill is based on a number of abilities that can be methodically determined through factor analysis and sufficiently isolated through intercorrelations mathematically and statistically. On the other hand, sports scientists such as Roth or Göhner point out that the investigators' choice of factors is always subjective and that a clear separation of the various components cannot be satisfactorily achieved because of the overlap. Accordingly, they deny the generalizability and temporal stability of the individual skills.
It is undisputed that
- coordinative abilities are to be understood as properties that have a significant influence on athletic performance in the form of control and regulation processes,
- the identification of a range of skills for the motor learning processes (conversion of skills into skills) as is essential for the creation of complex test procedures,
- Skills not only arise from a certain skill (1: 1 implementation), but from a number of different skills, which are more numerous, the more complex the skill is,
- the individual skills in turn form complexes that can be broken down further.
The Movement believes that there is an independent individual sports basic coordination. This arises from a broad movement experience and correlates very highly with the general motor learning ability. The meaning and practice of exemplary entrance tests for suitability for a sports degree are derived from this knowledge . The different requirement profiles of different types of sports (such as the individual sport of apparatus gymnastics and the team sport of soccer) prevent an automatic transfer of skill characteristics. The learning processes benefit from the level of basic coordination skills. However, they have to be rebuilt for each type of sport. The learning processes in related sports with similar movement structures (e.g. apparatus gymnastics , trampoline jumping , water jumping ) can be shortened.
- Coordinative skills
- Coordinative skills (general)
- Movement coordination
- Vienna coordination course
- P. Hirtz: Coordinative skills in school sports . Berlin 1985
- EJ Kiphard / F. Schilling: body coordination test for children (KTK) . Göttingen 2007
- H. de Marées: Exercise Physiology . Cologne (Sportverlag) 9th edition 2003
- H. Mechling: From coordinative skills to a strategy adaptation approach . In: H. Mechling / J. Munzert (Hrsg.): Handbook movement science - movement theory . Schorndorf 2003. pp. 347-369
- K. Meinel / G. Schnabel: Movement theory - sports motor skills . Munich (Southwest) 11th edition 2007
- A. Neumaier: Coordinative requirement profile and coordination training . Cologne 3rd edition 2006
- K. Roth: structural analysis of coordinative skills . Bad Homburg 1982
- K. Roth: How do you improve coordinative skills? . In: Bielefelder Sportpädagogen (Ed.): Methods in physical education (Hofmann) 5th edition 2007
- G. Schnabel et al. a. (Ed.): Training theory - training science: performance-training-competition . Aachen (Meyer & Meyer) 2009
- SA Warwitz: The Vienna Coordination Course (WKP) . In: Ders .: The sports science experiment. Planning-implementation-evaluation-interpretation . Schorndorf (Hofmann) 1976. pp. 48-62
- J. Weineck: Optimal training . Erlangen (Balingen) 10th edition 2000
- J. Weineck: Performance physiological training with special consideration of children and youth training . Balingen (Spitta) 16th edition 2009
- ↑ a b S.A. Warwitz: The Vienna Coordination Course (WKP) . In: Ders .: The sports science experiment. Planning-implementation-evaluation-interpretation . Schorndorf (Hofmann) 1976. pp. 48-62.
- ^ P. Hirtz: Coordinative skills in school sports . Berlin 1985
- ^ A. Neumaier: Coordinative requirement profile and coordination training . Cologne, 3rd edition 2006.
- ↑ J. Weineck: Optimal Training . Erlangen (Balingen) 10th edition 2000.
- ↑ J. Weineck: Performance physiological training theory with special consideration of children and youth training . Balingen (Spitta) 16th edition 2009.
- ^ EJ Kiphard / F. Schilling: body coordination test for children (KTK) . Göttingen 2007.
- ↑ H. Mechling among others: Coordinative requirement profiles of selected sports . Vol. 2. Cologne (Strauss) 2003.
- ↑ H. de Marées: Sports Physiology . Cologne (Sportverlag) 9th edition 2003.
- ↑ GA Lienert / U. Raatz: test setup and test analysis . Weinheim 1998 6th edition.
- ↑ K. Ingenkamp / U. Lissmann: Textbook of educational diagnostics . Weinheim 2008 6th edition
- ^ SA Warwitz: The sport science experiment. Planning-implementation-evaluation-interpretation . Schorndorf 1976.
- ↑ K. Roth: How do you improve coordinative skills? In: Bielefelder Sportpädagogen (Hrsg.): Methods in physical education . Schorndorf 2007
- ↑ U. Göhner: Movement analysis in sport . Schorndorf 1987 2nd edition.