Sense of balance
The sense of balance serves to determine the posture and orientation in space. The sense of balance is made up of several individual senses : the vestibular perception , which determines the direction of gravity and acceleration ; the visual perception , which determines the orientation in space; the sense of touch and depth sensitivity .
The perception of gravity has its center in the equilibrium organ of the inner ear and cerebellum . The eyes, the optic nerve and all neurons of the visual system are also essential; they perceive the spatial position, consisting of the sensation for above and below ( perpendicular direction ), for angles or inclinations (position orientation). The information from the various systems is linked with one another and passed on to the arm and leg muscles.
The following also contribute to the sense of balance:
- the muscles of the skeleton - when the body rotates and sometimes when accelerating
- the buttocks (in aviator language the “seat meat”) - when accelerating, especially in a vertical direction
- the hearing - to estimate velocities by means of air noise, and
- the sense of skin - for self and air movements. Birds feel the air forces on their feathers .
A distinction is made between the requirements for the
- static balance (e.g. when standing on one leg, handstand )
- two forms of dynamic equilibrium