Invertebrates , Invertebrata (Evertebrata) are the multicellular animals without a spine , i.e. all Metazoa with the exception of the vertebrates (Vertebrata). Most of the known animal species belong to this informal group ( form taxon ) of living beings, which were formerly also called lower animals in science . The term "invertebrates" was introduced in the early 19th century by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck to differentiate it from vertebrates.
The invertebrates are not a natural kinship group ( Monophylum ), the term only has a descriptive, non- systematic character. The invertebrates include two of the three major groups (sub-tribes) of the chordates (chordata) and all taxa of the "non-chordates" in the animal kingdom.
- Overview of the taxa (classical system)
- Non-woven fabric (Parazoa)
Tissue animals (Eumetazoa)
- Radially symmetrical animals ( Radiata )
Bilaterally symmetrical animals (Bilateralia)
Primordial mouths (protostomia)
- Arm pods (Brachiopoda)
- Tardigrade (Tardigrada)
- Arthropod (arthropoda)
- Hedgehog worms or star worms (Echiurida)
- Cupworms (Kamptozoa)
- Bryozoans (Bryozoa)
- Arrow worms (Chaetognata)
- Flatworms (Plathelminthes)
- Annelids (Annelida)
- Tubular worms (nemathelminthes)
- String worms (Nemertini)
- Squirtworms (Sipunculida)
- Molluscs (mollusca)
- Neumünder (Deuterostomia, with the exception of vertebrates)
- Primordial mouths (protostomia)
- Wilfried Westheide, Reinhard Rieger (Hrsg.): Special zoology. Part 1: Protozoa and invertebrates. Second edition. Spectrum Academic Publishing House, 2006, ISBN 3-8274-1575-6 .
- Kühlmann, Kilias, Moritz, Rauschert: European invertebrates. ISBN 3-7402-0087-1 .
- W. Lechthaler: Macrozoobenthos - Key to Families of Macroinvertebrates in European Freshwaters. Eutaxa self-publisher, Vienna 2009, ISBN 3-9501839-5-7 .