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Pacific compass jellyfish (Chrysaora fuscescens), a representative of the cnidarians (Cnidaria) Stag beetle (Lucanus cervus, ♀), a member of the arthropod (Arthropoda)
Bloodworm (Glycera sp.), A member of the annelid worms (Annelida) Spotted garden snail (Cornu aspersum), a representative of the molluscs (Mollusca)
Some invertebrates

Invertebrates , Invertebrata (Evertebrata) are the multicellular animals without a spine , i.e. all Metazoa with the exception of the vertebrates (Vertebrata). Most of the known animal species belong to this informal group ( form taxon ) of living beings, which were formerly also called lower animals in science . The term "invertebrates" was introduced in the early 19th century by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck to differentiate it from vertebrates.


The invertebrates are not a natural kinship group ( Monophylum ), the term only has a descriptive, non- systematic character. The invertebrates include two of the three major groups (sub-tribes) of the chordates (chordata) and all taxa of the "non-chordates" in the animal kingdom.

Overview of the taxa (classical system)

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Lexicon of Biology - Invertebrates


  • Wilfried Westheide, Reinhard Rieger (Hrsg.): Special zoology. Part 1: Protozoa and invertebrates. Second edition. Spectrum Academic Publishing House, 2006, ISBN 3-8274-1575-6 .
  • Kühlmann, Kilias, Moritz, Rauschert: European invertebrates. ISBN 3-7402-0087-1 .
  • W. Lechthaler: Macrozoobenthos - Key to Families of Macroinvertebrates in European Freshwaters. Eutaxa self-publisher, Vienna 2009, ISBN 3-9501839-5-7 .

Web links

Commons : Invertebrates  - Collection of images, videos and audio files