The Exterozeption (from latin exter "externally located" and recipere "receive") describes the outer perception of living things (such as the body surface perception, that is, the surface sensitivity ). The perception from and of one's own body parts is called interoception . Exteroception is not limited to mechanoreceptors, pain or warm-cold receptors excited by environmental stimuli, but also includes sensory physiology such as B. the excitation of photoreceptors , i.e. the reception and processing of all external mechanical , thermal, optical , acoustic , olfactory and gustative stimuli . This sometimes leads to an overlap with the terms superficial sensitivity and deep sensitivity , which can just as well be counted as proprioception, since not only external stimuli, but also internal stimuli lead to their activation.
Since Charles Scott Sherrington (1857–1952), receptors have been differentiated as intero and exteroceptors. For the above reasons it seemed advisable to combine exteroceptors and proprioceptors as somatoceptors. These should be contrasted with the visceroceptors as receptors of the intestines. These classifications definitely have weaknesses.
The surface sensitivity is divided according to physiological and anatomical criteria into:
- Epicritical sensitivity : perception of fine touch, of vibration and pressure; Two point discrimination. It isfed tothe brain via the posterior cord tracts of the gracilis fasciculus and the cuneatus fasciculus .
- Protopathic perception : pain and temperature perception . This is the brain via the front side strand consisting of anterior tract spinothalamici et lateral (see spinal cord , Central pain fed).
- Sense of touch (tactile perception)
- ↑ Keywords exteroceptive and exteroception in Norbert Boss (ed.): Roche Lexicon Medicine. Hoffmann-La Roche AG and Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-541-13191-8 , p. 543.
- ^ Hermann Rein and Max Schneider : Human Physiology. 15th edition. Springer, Berlin 1964, p. 650.