A coach ( English to train , train, train ') is in the sports person, the individual athlete or team strategic (tactical), technically and physically guides. Corresponding German terms are (depending on context) trainer , instructor or supervisor . In American English, a trainer is the physiotherapist of a team, while the tasks of the German trainer are performed by the coach . The top coach of a coaching staff is called a head coach - in US sports, head coach .
A coach determines the training process , the team line-up and the strategy for the game or competition. In professional sport (e.g. soccer coach ) they are subject to high pressure to succeed and are often replaced if they are not successful for a long time. The coach of a national team is known as a national coach .
If several coaches work in a team, the entirety of all coaches is called the coaching staff. His management is incumbent on a head coach (in US sports US sports ), his subordinate coaches are usually referred to as assistant coaches or co-trainers ; there may also be trainers with special tasks, e.g. B. conditioning trainers , goalkeeping trainers or sports psychologists. Sometimes other caregivers such as kit attendant or physiotherapist who are not trainers are also included in the coaching staff.
→ see main article trainer license
From 1976 to 1990 there was university training to become a “diploma trainer” at the German University for Physical Culture in the GDR ; a permanent position in sport was linked to this training. The same goes for B. still in today's EU country Lithuania. With the standardization at European level, a Bachelor's (BA) trainer is training on level 6, and the Master's trainer (MA) on level 7.
Exercising a coaching activity in the Federal Republic of Germany is usually linked to a coaching license, which is awarded by the sports associations for a specific sport after training has been completed. There are sometimes different alignments for width or competitive sports and different gradations.
In the area of the German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB) a division into different trainer license levels is common:
- Trainer for sport-specific competitive sport (license levels C, B, A, diploma level) (European levels 1–4)
- Trainer in popular sport (license level C, B, A) (sport-specific)
- Trainer assistant in popular sport / competitive sport (sport-specific)
- Specialist instructors in popular sport (specific to sport) (instructor C / B e.g .: strength / fitness)
- Instructor in cross-sport mass sport (instructor C mass sport)
- Team and group leaders in cross-sport mass sport (cross-sport basic course)
In some sports there are also trainer licenses from professional associations and other educational institutions such as
- DFAV (German Fitness & Aerobic Association) for trainers in the field of fitness and aerobics (fitness trainer A, B, C license)
- ETBF ( European Tenpin Bowling Federation ) for coaches in the field of bowling (Bowling trainer Lvl. 1, 2, 3)
- Various providers of trainers in the field of electromyostimulation (EMS trainers)
The DOSB differentiates between the sport-specific trained trainer and the cross-sport trainer , but in general usage the terms are used synonymously.
In German-speaking countries, trainers are sometimes also referred to by the American term coach . In the United States , the terms trainer and coach refer to different content. While the trainer is responsible for the fitness and condition of the team, the coach takes on the central tasks of the German trainer: responsibility for the team line-up and tactics. In some sports, e.g. B. baseball , the term manager is common for the coach . This should not be confused with the common use of the term in German professional football clubs , where the "manager" is usually responsible for the commercial and financial questions of the team, but not the sporting questions such as B. Team line-up at games, is responsible.
- Printed matter 18/3220 of the German Bundestag from December 2, 2014. It shows the current number of trainers who are (co) financed by the federal government.
- Fitness training - compact training for fitness trainer, advanced training for group fitness. Retrieved October 8, 2018 .
- ETBF Training Centers. Retrieved October 8, 2018 (American English).
- EMS trainer training | Academy of Sports. Retrieved October 8, 2018 .
- BSA Academy: Training / course to become an EMS trainer / EMS coach. Retrieved October 8, 2018 (German).
- Carmen Borggrefe, Ansgar Thiel, Klaus Cachay: Social skills of trainers in top-class sport . In: Scientific reports and materials / Federal Institute for Sport Science, Bonn . tape 2006.05 . Sportverlag Strauss, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-939390-84-4 , p. 1–294 ( bisp.de [PDF; 1.5 MB ] full text on the web).
- Arnd Krüger : The job description of the trainer in sport. International comparative study and perspectives of trainer education and training in the Federal Republic of Germany. (= Series of publications by the Federal Institute for Sport Science. Volume 30). Hofmann, Schorndorf 1980, ISBN 3-7780-7311-7 .
- Arnd Krüger: Coach Education and Training. In: R. Naul, K. Hardman (Ed.): Sport and Physical Education in Germany. Routledge, London 2002, ISBN 0-419-24540-5 , pp. 113-131.