Robin Hood

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Robin Hood memorial in front of the castle in Nottingham

Robin Hood [ ˌrɒbɪn hʊd ] is the central hero of several late medieval to early modern English ballad cycles, which over the centuries formed into today's legend . The actions of the ballads were constantly being rewritten and developed, and new ballads were also invented. Robin Hood is portrayed in the oldest written sources from the middle of the 15th century as a dangerous highwayman of simple origin, who prefers to rob greedy clergy and nobles. In the course of his clashes with enemies, there are also medieval cruel practices. Later he is portrayed more and more positively. The poetry makes him an expropriated Anglo-Saxon nobleman and an Anglo-Saxon patriot fighting against the Normans . In the course of the 16th and 17th centuries, the figure also became a champion of social justice who took the rich and gave to the poor. The existence of Robin Hood as a real historical figure has not been proven.

According to medieval ballads, Robin Hood does his robbery trade with Merry Men , "happy companions," including Little John , Brother (Friar) Tuck and Will Scarlet . They are outlaws and hide from the law, in the guise of the Sheriff of Nottingham, in Sherwood Forest and Barnsdale Forest . Robin's romantic love for Maid Marian and the bard Allan a Dale are added later. The adventurous material has remained popular to this day. It was taken up in dramas, novels and operas, since the 19th century in youth literature and since the 20th century in various films and television series.

Origin and early development of the legend

Early mentions of Robin Hood

Robin Hood was a common nickname or surname in England in the 13th century , which was used synonymously for "lawbreaker". In the years from 1261 to 1296, this epithet appears seven times in different sources across the country. Today's research sees this as evidence that ballads about Robin Hood's deeds had been popular among the people since the middle of the 13th century. The earliest written evidence of the existence of such ballads comes from a collection of popular poems written by William Langland around 1377 called The Vision of Piers Plowman . In one of the poems, a priest symbolizing indolence ( Sloth ) boasts that he can hardly remember the Our Father, but knows verses about Robin Hood by heart:

I kan nought parfitly my Paternoster as the preest it singeth
but I kan rhymes of Robyn hood and Randolf Earl of Chestre

The English poet Geoffrey Chaucer seems to be based on Robin Hood as a model for the figure of the devil in his Friar's Tale . In 1439 a petition was passed to parliament to arrest a robber named Piers Venables from Aston, Derbyshire , who - like Robin Hood once - had fled into the woods with many evildoers.

While no late medieval English historians mention Robin Hood, references to the ballad hero and his companion Little John are found in three Scottish histories from this period. Their sources are unknown. Andrew Wyntoun , who is strongly pro-Scottish, mentions the two outlaws in a four-line entry in his rhyme chronicle, written around 1420, under the years 1283–1285 and is the first historian to give them a chronological classification. He obviously welcomes their actions as they were directed against English officials. According to his account, the outlaws were located south of the Scottish border in Inglewood Forest near Carlisle and in Barnsdale Forest and were widely praised. There are similarities between Robin Hood and the Scottish freedom fighter William Wallace, who operated against the English in 1297/98 .

Walter Bower reports in his Scotichronicon from the 1440s and based on John Fordun's work about Robin Hood under the year 1266. The note immediately follows the account of the defeat of the insurgent Simon de Montfort , as whose supporter Robin Hood and his companion Little John are portrayed. Robin Hood is characterized by Bower as a "famous murderer" ( famosus siccarius ), who was celebrated by the "stupid people" in tragedies and comedies (ballads are probably meant). As a result, Bower tells a story of Robin Hood, which echoes early ballads, according to which, despite warnings of an attack by the sheriff, he refused the premature termination of a mass he celebrated in the forest and then won a surprising victory over his enemies. Here the outlaw appears as the defender of the church.

In his Historia majoris Britanniae (1521), the less anti-English minded John Major relocated the note about Robin Hood and Little John to the time of the captivity of the English King Richard the Lionheart with the German Emperor Henry VI. from 1192 to 1194. He portrays Robin Hood quite positively as a humane robber captain, whose heroic deeds have been celebrated throughout England, but the later portrait of the outlaw as a fighter against Prince John is still missing . According to Major's description, Robin Hood was a protector of the poor and women who only robbed the rich and gave the booty taken from the abbots to those in need. The Scottish Renaissance humanist is the first to mention the motif of the redistribution of the treasures stolen from the rich to the poor by Robin Hood, which is still missing in the oldest tangible ballads, which were written not too long before his historical work. In this way, Major expands Robin Hood's sense of justice, which was already hinted at in the early ballads, to include an economic-social dimension and lets him take care of the poor welfare, which the rich monasteries are no longer adequately caring for, without, however, making him a social revolutionary.

Oldest Robin Hood ballads

A Gest of Robyn Hode in the National Library of Scotland

Robin Hood's folk tale is presented in detail in late medieval ballads, the oldest surviving examples of which, however, were not written down until over two centuries after the start of legends. Only these earliest ballads come into question for research as reasonably authentic sources about the oldest core of the legend. The oldest ballad Robin Hood and the Monk ("Robin Hood and the Monk") , which has only survived in fragments, dates from around 1450 . The oldest completely preserved ballad Robin Hood and the Potter ("Robin Hood and the Potter") was written down around 1500. The most important source text for today's research on late medieval tradition is the ballad collection A Gest of Robyn Hode ("The Story of Robin Hood"), first printed in Antwerp between 1500 and 1510 and later also published in England , of which three original copies have been preserved are. A Gest of Robyn Hode goes back to an older model, the dating of which is not certain; periods around the year 1390 or 1450 are assumed, whereby the later date is usually considered more probable. The knitted supplies by lining up at that time surrounding individual episodes a roughly chronological designed "Vita" of the hero.

In the work Witnesses of Ancient English Poetry ( Reliques of Ancient English Poetry ) published in 1765, Irish Bishop Thomas Percy (1729-1811 ) handed down three other ballads, possibly dated to the 15th century, with the titles Robin Hood's Death , Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne (Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne) and the ballad Robin Hood and the Curtal Friar (Robin Hood and the monk with a short robe).

The image of Robin Hood in the earliest ballads

Many characteristics that shape the popular image of Robin Hood to this day are ascribed to him in the oldest surviving ballads or are at least partially present. He lives as a robber captain with his companions Little John , Will Scarlet and Much, the miller's son as an outlaw in Sherwood Forest ( Nottinghamshire ); more often, however, his actions are initially set in Barnsdale, South Yorkshire . He opposes the repressive hunting ban in the royal forests and is an enemy of the secular and clerical upper class, described as corrupt and greedy, from which his preferred victims come. He is characterized as funny, daring, cunning as well as an excellent fighter and archer. Although he is the enemy of the clergy, he appears very pious, especially as a devotee of the Virgin Mary . His main opponents are the Sheriff of Nottingham and the Abbot of St. Mary's Benedictine Monastery in York. However, the image of the English king (typical of folk tales) is drawn positively in contrast to that of the nobility.

Robin Hood treats ordinary people, especially women, in a friendly manner, but the early ballads still lack the motif that is so well known today that he commits his robberies in order to distribute his booty to the poor rural population. Confrontations with the sheriff and his men are often extremely violent. Not only is the sheriff ultimately killed by arrow shots, but the bounty hunter Guy of Gisborne is beheaded, his head is impaled on an arrow and his facial features are disfigured.

Due to the inaccessibility of the hiding places in the woods, the skillful use of weapons, a wealth of cunning and skillful disguise, the outlaws loyal to their leader can survive the fight with the authorities. After a temporary existence in royal service, Robin Hood's adventurous life ends when a woman, the Prioress von Kirklees, betrays him, who insidiously bleeds him to death during a bloodletting . He is also said to be buried in Kirklees .

Summary of the Gest of Robin Hood

Depiction of the Sheriff of Nottingham from 1912; Book illustration

The Gest of Robin Hood is the longest and most reliable source text for the oldest transmission of the stories about Robin Hood. The Gest is divided into eight "fyttes", which can be translated as "songs"; it consists of a total of 456 four-line stanzas.

In the first song Robyn Hode (Robin Hood) and his companions Litell John (Little John), Scarlok (Will Scarlett) and Much (the miller's son) are introduced. Up to the second song, the Gest is less about the deeds of Robin Hood, but about the impoverished knight Richard of the Lee and his arguments with greedy monks. Robin Hood helps Richard by lending him money, whereupon a kind of friendship slowly develops between the two in the course of the poetry.

In the third song, Little John becomes a servant of the sheriff , fights drunk with the cook and steals the sheriff's silver. The sheriff chases him into Sherwood Forest , where he is caught by Robin and his men and forced to eat a meal together. Robin makes the sheriff swear that he will never harm any of Robin's companions again.

In the fourth song, Robin Hood and Little John ambush monks of St. Mary's Abbey.

In the fifth song, the sheriff arranges an archery competition to lure Robin into a trap; a fight breaks out between the sheriff's men and Robin's outlaws.

In song six, the sheriff makes one final effort to capture Robin Hood by throwing Richard of the Lee in jail. Robin rushes to the rescue, kills the sheriff and frees Richard.

In the seventh and eighth songs, King Edward himself goes to Sherwood Forest in disguise to seize Robin and Richard of the Lee. During an archery competition, the king reveals himself and makes Robin a member of his court. Although three different kings (Edward I to III) could be meant, according to current research, the gest refers to Edward II , whose trip to Nottingham in 1323 is described. This part of the Gest must have been written after 1323, which is one of the few certain dates for the development of the early Robin Hood legend.

The end of the Gest depicts the betrayal of Robin Hood and his bloodletting death in Kirklees Priory (West Riding, Yorkshire).

Theories about the historicity of Robin Hood

According to Walter Bower, who wrote in the early 1440s, Robin Hood was a supporter of Simon de Montfort , Earl of Leicester, whose rebellion failed in 1265, while in 1521 John Major was the first to take the view that Robin Hood was a contemporary of the famous Richard the Lionheart, an opinion that became firmly established in the course of the 16th century. In contrast to the older ballads, John Leland believed that the famous outlaw had a noble pedigree. Richard Grafton took over the dating of the ballad hero in his Chronicle at Large (1569) Majors and specified Leland's information, allegedly based on the authority of an old leaflet, that Robin Hood was an earl. Because of his extravagance he got into great debt, was ostracized and fled into the woods, where he carried out attacks until he was bleeded to death in the monastery "Bircklies" (probably a wrong spelling of Grafton's commonly attested name Kirklees) . His grave could still be visited in Grafton's time. Grafton's sources may include a story about the outlawed gang leader Fulk FitzWarin and the Gest of Robin Hood . Around 1632, the ballad writer Martin Parker, in his True Tale of Robin Hood, allegedly compiled from information from the most reliable English chronicles, took the view that the legendary robber was identical with Robert, Earl of Huntington , who died in 1198 , and gave an epitaph that was earlier at Kirklees Monastery was to be read. In the estate of the papers of Thomas Gale , Dean of York († 1702), there was also an epitaph of very questionable authenticity, which also dubbed the ballad hero as the Earl of Huntington, but whose year of death was passed down as 1247. The English historian Ralph Thoresby described in his work Ducatus Leodiensis (1715) the alleged tombstone of Robin Hood near Kirklees with an illegible inscription. In 1743, the antiquarian William Stukeley constructed in his Palaeographia Britannica a genealogical table which today's research considers absurd, according to which Robin Hood was a grandson of Ralph Fitzooth , a Norman follower of William the Conqueror .

The French historian Augustin Thierry , in his Histoire de la Conquête de l'Angleterre par les Normands (1825), was the first to take the view that Robin Hood, at the time of King Richard the Lionheart, had been the leader of a host of the subjugated and disenfranchised Anglo-Saxons patriotically opposed the Norman conquerors. The antiquarian Thomas Wright , who based himself on Jacob Grimm's German Mythology , was one of the founders of the thesis in 1846 that Robin Hood was not a historical figure but of mythical origin. In the original myth he was a forest spirit, related to Robin Goodfellow or the Green Man . This theory, still advocated by the British anthropologist Margaret Alice Murray ( God of the Witches , 1933), is almost unanimously rejected in today's science.

Joseph Hunter came to the conclusion in a study published in 1852 that the historical Robin Hood was identical to a Robert Hood named 1316/17 in the Manor Rolls of Wakefield (Yorkshire) . Although the American scholar Francis James Child said in his critical standard edition of English and Scottish ballads in 1888 that the character Robin Hood was a pure creation of the ballad muse, Hunter's theory was supported by JW Walker ( Robin Hood identified , 1944) and P. Valentine Harris ( The truth about Robin Hood , 1952) supported by newly found documents.

According to Hunter, Robert Hood, named in the Manor Rolls in 1316/17, was involved in the failed rebellion of Thomas Plantagenet, 2nd Earl of Lancaster against King Edward II in 1322 and was therefore ostracized. He is said to have fled to Barnsdale Forest while he was eight. In the following year he was pardoned by the king who had traveled to Nottingham and had become his valet; one named Robyn Hod appears in the royal treasury files in 1324 and retired from the service at the end of that year due to incapacity for work with a financial contribution. This theory fits in with the presentation of Gest , which - as mentioned - probably tells the journey of Edward II in 1323 and then the pardon of Robin Hood and his admission to Edward's court. But Hunter's "Robin Hood" seems to be too late. The English Medieval Studies professor and prominent Robin Hood researcher James Clarke Holt was also able to show that the attested valet had been working for the king six months before his arrival in Nottingham, which makes it doubtful that the two men named Robert Hood and Robyn Hod are one and the same person.

Holt sought to work out facts about the presumably "real" Robin Hood from supposed historical evidence, which are found on records of people from the 13th and early 14th centuries with the name "Robin Hood" and slightly different spelling variants. However, the information available for such people is extremely sparse. Holt relied, among other things, on the discovery of two Latin sources from the years 1261 and 1262 made by the historian David Crook in 1984. In the first source, a document from Justice in eyre , a Berkshire native , a member of a band of robbers, becomes Robert's son le Fevre, mentions that he was on the run and that the prior of Sandleford had confiscated his property without right. In the second source, the prior is granted pardon by the king and the named William is referred to as Willelmi Robehod fugitivi . Thus - apparently because Robert was part of his name and he was an outlawed bandit - the new nickname Robehod was added. From this, according to Crook, it can be concluded that names such as Robinhood or variants such as Robehod were common nicknames for fleeing robbers as early as 1262 , so that a possible historical Robin Hood must have lived before this date. For example, after the case of William, son of Robert Le Fevre, there was a noticeable accumulation of sources with the surname or surname Robinhood (or Robehod, Rabunhod etc.) written in one word, namely between 1265 and 1322 at least ten such persons appear in sources from all over England, but not all of them were identified as offenders.

Holt was of the opinion that Robert Hod , briefly mentioned in the Pipe Rolls in 1225 , who did not appear at a court hearing in York and whose property worth 32 shillings was therefore confiscated, could have been the original model for the ballad hero. In a memorandum from 1227, this fugitive outlaw appears under the name Hobbehod and, according to the same source, was the tenant of the Archdiocese of York . It may have served as the starting point for the legend, which, according to Holt, was already widespread throughout England in the second half of the 13th century and was probably designed more and more with the help of other historical figures, so that the figure appears in several "real" Robin Hoods root.

Another such person who could have provided material for the legend is Roger Godberd , who, like Robin Hood described by Walter Bower, was a follower of Simon de Montfort, after the failure of his rebellion (1265) as leader of a band of outlaws the counties Terrorized Nottinghamshire , Derbyshire and Leicestershire , could only be arrested after years of persecution and died in Newgate prison in 1276. He was accused of, among other things, theft in an abbey and the murder of a monk. According to the indictment, Godberd had been protected by a knight named Richard Foliot, who had to hand over his castle to Fenwick - a striking parallel to Richard of the Lee in the ballad story. The historical original for the brother Tuck of the ballads was probably the pastor Robert Stafford, who committed criminal acts and even murders in Surrey and Sussex with a gang from around 1417 to 1429 , using the code name Friar Tuck .

The leading Robin Hood researcher Barrie Dobson in turn concluded from the source finding of the frequent occurrence of the written surname or epithet Robinhood and its variants from the later 13th century that there may have been no historical model for the legendary Robin Hood. This name would not have been an individual name for such a model, but originally a common popular name for “thief” or “robber” and for such as an additional and placeholder name - in German comparable to “Otto normal consumer” for an average citizen. This criminal designation was then also used for the legendary Robin Hood, as it appeared to be a suitable name for an outlaw. The mythical figure then displaced the initial meaning of the term for robbers over time.

The stories about Robin Hood went into various incidents that previously circled in the legends about the leader Hereward the Wake , who was actually active in the resistance during the time of the Norman conquest of England . In the course of the popularization of Robin Hood, the memory of the real Hereward, which was much more popular and present for a long time, was almost lost.

Transformations of the legend in the early modern period

Until the beginning of the 18th century, more and more were added to the original ballads mentioned above, until the total cycle had grown to around 40 ballads. Since the 16th century they have been used as a new medium in so-called broadsides , pamphlets printed on one side. It was not until the 18th century, for example, that Robin Hood shot an arrow while he was dying to mark the place where he wanted to be buried.

The modern legend contains a number of changes compared to the early sources: neither Richard the Lionheart nor his brother Prince John, actually Johann Ohneland , appear in the early ballads , as their contemporary Robin Hood in most of the arrangements since the late 16th century. Century appears. Furthermore, Robin Hood's social status is originally described as rural. According to this, he is a Yeoman ( freeman ), while later he is often portrayed as a nobleman - first by the antiquarian John Leland in the mid-16th century. Increasingly, he also appears as a noble hero. After all, the Robin Hood Games , first attested to in Exeter in 1425 , which were part of the English May Festival up until the early modern period , contributed to Robin Hood's transformation into a Social Revolutionary in the 16th and 17th centuries . As part of these games, actors disguised as Robin Hood and his companions carried out charity collections in some places, so that they - sanctioned by the church - took away the rich and gave gifts to the poor. This image was later developed. In the 16th century, however, city authorities sometimes banned the Robin Hood Games when it was feared that these festivals could get out of hand.

Part of the May Festival was also a type of folk dance theater . Robin Hood's gang added other characters, such as his lover Maid Marian, who did not appear in the early ballads. May 1st was sometimes referred to as Robin Hood's Day . Robin and Marian often played the two main characters (May King and May Queen) in the 16th century. The model here was probably the French shepherd romance Jeu de Robin et Marion , written by Adam de la Halle around 1283 . The story was popularized in England by traveling singers. Maid Marian first appeared in English literature around 1500, when she - like Robin Hood - was mentioned as a motif of happy songs in the Ship of Fools by the English poet Alexander Barclay .

In the Elizabethan era , Robin Hood was identified by Anthony Munday and Henry Chettle in their influential dramas The Downfall and Death of Robert, Earl of Huntington (1601) with the earl named in the title. In these works, Maid Marian, elevated to the rank of Norman noblewoman - who is equated with Matilda, the daughter of Robert Fitzwalter - flees from Prince John and becomes Robin Hood's lover. In 1637, the English playwright Ben Jonson wrote his unfinished play The Sad Shepherd, or a Tale of Robin Hood .

In 1670 the later frequently reissued collection of Robin Hoods Garlands ballads was published. In 1678 a popular prose version of the material appeared under the title The Noble Birth and Gallant Achievements of that Remarkable Outlaw Robin Hood .

Later reception in literature, music and film

Literary reception

Title page of Ritson's anthology (first edition 1795)

The antiquarian Joseph Ritson (1752–1803) collected all the ballads known to him at the end of the 18th century and published them in 1795 as an anthology. This uncritical edition is not considered a standard work by today's historians, but it has had a lasting impact on the popular image of Robin Hood and the formation of his legend. Ritson's book also had a significant influence on the novel Ivanhoe by Walter Scott (1771-1832) , published in 1819 . Although Robin Hood only plays a minor role in it under the name of Robin von Locksley as a partisan for Richard the Lionheart against the usurpation attempts by his brother John and as an Anglo-Saxon resistance fighter against the Normans, Scott creates the image of Robin Hood with his novel, which many believe in later authors should orientate themselves and this continues to this day. The hero is turned into a noble, chivalrous and just bandit and English patriot, but not as a nobleman, but again as a yeoman .

The short novel Maid Marian (1822) by the British satirist Thomas Love Peacock was a parody of medieval romances. In 1892 , Alfred Tennyson created a less successful drama about Robin Hood with the drama The Foresters .

A selection of Ritson's ballads served as the basis for a youth book edition in 1820. In the same genre, the prose version by Howard Pyle ( The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood ... , 1883) was a standard work and was still authoritative in the 20th century. In it, the title character is portrayed as a true philanthropist, but not as a nobleman, as is fitting for American republicanism. Nor does he appear as a national fighter for King Richard, as he does with Scott, who only appears on the sidelines. In addition, Enid Blyton ( Robin Hood and his merry men , 1930) wrote a work on the subject for young people.

Recent editions of the novel about Robin Hood include:

  • László Dören: The Adventures of Robin Hood and His Men. Thormeyer Verlag, Schweinsberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-00-044814-0 .
  • Mac P. Lorne: The lion's paws. Dorfmeister, Tittling 2014, ISBN 978-3-927454-22-4 . (historical novel about Robin Hood's grandfather as the bodyguard of Empress Matilda and the young years of his grandson up to the wedding with Marian; prequel to the heart and blood of the lion )
  • Mac P. Lorne: The Heart of the Lion. Historical novel about the 3rd Crusade from the perspective of Robin Hood. 2011, ISBN 978-3-9810084-9-4 .
  • Mac P. Lorne: The Lion's Blood. Historical novel about Robin Hood, King John and the time of the Magna Carta. 2012, ISBN 978-3-927454-21-7 .
  • Mac P. Lorne: The Lion's Banner. Historical novel about Robin Hood and the Cathar Crusade. 2015, ISBN 978-3-927454-26-2 .
  • Geoffrey Trease : arrows against barons. Gutenberg Book Guild , 1982, ISBN 3-7632-2597-8 . Fiction; Title of the novel, published in England in 1934: Bows against the Barons
  • Howard Pyle : Robin Hood. Gondolino, Bindlach 2004, ISBN 3-8112-2438-7 .
  • Sir Walter Scott, Alexandre Dumas, Theodor Fontane and others: Robin Hood, stories and history. Norderstedt 2009, ISBN 978-3-8370-2238-4 .

There are also processing of the material in comics:

Musical reception

Robin Hood operas have been composed since the 18th century, for example by J. Watts in 1730 and by George Alexander Macfarren in 1860 with a libretto by John Oxenford . The comic opera Robin Hood by the American composer Reginald De Koven was premiered in Chicago in 1890 .

Films and TV series (selection)

In the 20th century, the image of Robin Hood was mainly shaped by film and television and helped him to become known worldwide. Well-known actors of the hero were in particular Douglas Fairbanks , Errol Flynn , Sean Connery , Kevin Costner and Russell Crowe . Numerous television series, not only in Great Britain, the USA, but also in France, have used the narrative material since the 1960s to spread a large number of different social messages.

Below is a list of selected films and TV series that center around the legendary hero:

Reception on the stage

  • The Erfurt Theater took from March 2011 the opera Robin Hood by Albert Dietrich on their game plan.
  • July / August 2011: Munich premiere and first performance of the comic singspiel Robin Hood by Hartmut Zöbeley in the Nymphenburger Schlosspark and at the Munich Music Summer in the Olympiapark.
  • The adventure opera Robin Hood by Frank Schwemmer with the libretto by Michael Frowin and directed by Andreas Homoki was premiered at the Komische Oper Berlin in 2008. It was premiered on November 14, 2014 at the Zurich Opera House, along with other productions (known: Cologne, Oslo) of this children's opera.

Computer games

Other uses of the name

Robin Hood shot
Slashed aluminum arrow after a Robin Hood shot
  • The name of the environmental protection organization Robin Wood is based on the figure of Robin Hood.
  • A hit in archery and darts that "impales" an arrow already stuck in the target is called a Robin Hood shot .
  • The Robin Hood Index is used to measure income inequality based on the Lorenz curve .
  • The Robin Hood Tax is a proposed financial transaction tax.
  • “Robin Hood” is becoming a popular term for unselfish robbers or, more generally, for actions with the aim of social redistribution.
  • Robin Hood depictions and costumes often show him wearing a hooded garment , a medieval cowl . So like modern T-shirts (especially in the English language) Hoodie called.


  • A gesture of Robyn Hode. ("Lettersnijder" edn.). Antwerp: Van Doesbroch, ca 1510. National Library of Scotland
  • Joseph Ritson, ed. Robin Hood, A Collection of All the Ancient Poems, Songs, and Ballads Now extant Relative to the Celebrated English Outlaw. 2 vols. London: Egerton and Johnson, 1795.
  • Francis James Child : The English and Scottish Popular Ballads . 5 vols, Boston 1883-1898. Rpt. New York: Dover, 1965.


  • Andrew James Johnston: Robin Hood. Story of a legend. CH Beck, Munich 2013 [p. 122–126 sections “Further Reading” with 28 references and “Filmography” with 77 films and 18 TV series up to 2012], ISBN 978-3-406-64541-9 .
  • Ulrike Gerold, Wofram Hänel: Who was Robin Hood? Publishing house Jacoby & Stuart, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-941087-28-6 .
  • James C. Holt: Hood, Robin (supp. Fl. Late 12th-13th cent.). In: Henry Colin Gray Matthew, Brian Harrison (Eds.): Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , from the earliest times to the year 2000 (ODNB). Volume 27: Hickeringill – Hooper. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2004, ISBN 0-19-861377-6 , pp. 926-929, ( license required ), as of January 2007
  • Judith Klinger: Robin Hood. Looking for a legend. Lambert Schneider, Darmstadt 2015. ISBN 978-3-650-40054-3 .
  • Stephanie L. Barczewski: Myth and national identity in nineteenth-century Britain: the legends of King Arthur and Robin Hood. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2000, ISBN 0-19-820728-X .
  • Kevin Carpenter: Robin Hood: The Many Faces of that Celebrated English Outlaw . Library and information system of the University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg 1995.
  • James C. Holt: Robin Hood. The legend of Sherwood Forest. Non-fiction book about the historical truth behind the myth. Düsseldorf 1991, ISBN 3-430-14771-9 .
  • JB Bessenger Jr .: The Gest of Robin Hood Revisited. In: The Learned and the Lewed: Studies in Chaucer and Medieval Literature. Harvard University Press, 1974.
  • Sidney LeeHood, Robin . In: Sidney Lee (Ed.): Dictionary of National Biography . Volume 27:  Hindmarsh - Hovenden. MacMillan & Co, Smith, Elder & Co., New York City / London, 1891, pp 266 - 269 (English, (page allocation error, S. 258-261 on paper)).
  • Michael Wood: Merrie Englande: the Legend of Robin Hood. In: In Search of England. Penguin Books, London 2000, ISBN 0-14-024733-5 .

Web links

Commons : Robin Hood  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Wood: Merrie Englande: the Legend of Robin Hood. In In Search of England . P. 74.
  2. Andrew James Johnston: Robin Hood , 2013, p. 76 f .; Wyntoun's Robin Hood passage with commentary on the TEAMS Middle English Texts website
  3. Bower's Robin Hood passage with commentary on the TEAMS Middle English Texts website
  4. Andrew James Johnston: Robin Hood. 2013, p. 77ff .; Major's Robin Hood passage with commentary on the TEAMS Middle English Texts website
  5. James C. Holt: Hood, Robin (supp. Fl. Late 12th – 13th cent.). In: Henry Colin Gray Matthew, Brian Harrison (Eds.): Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , from the earliest times to the year 2000 (ODNB). Volume 27: Hickeringill – Hooper. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2004, ISBN 0-19-861377-6 , p. 927, ( license required ), as of January 2007
  6. ^ Dieter Petzold : Robin Hood. In: Kindlers Literature Lexicon . Archived from the original on January 25 ; accessed on February 13, 2020 .
  7. Grafton's Robin Hood passage with commentary on the TEAMS Middle English Texts website
  8. Sidney Lee : Dictionary of National Biography (DNB). Volume 27, 1891, pp. 260f.
  9. Wood: Merrie Englande: the Legend of Robin Hood. In: In Search of England. P. 75.
  10. James C. Holt: ODNB Volume 27 (2004), p. 928; Sidney Lee, DNB, Volume 27 (1891), p. 261.
  11. James C. Holt: ODNB Volume 27 (2004), pp. 926f .; Andrew James Johnston, Robin Hood (2013, p. 15).
  12. James C. Holt: ODNB Volume 27 (2004), pp. 926f.
  13. James C. Holt: ODNB Volume 27 (2004), p. 928.
  14. Andrew James Johnston: Robin Hood. 2013, p. 16f.
  15. Robin Hood: where to see Britain's greatest myths and legends. In: The Telegraph May 12, 2010, accessed February 13, 2020 .
  16. ^ Richard Utz: Robin Hood, Frenched. In: Gail Ashton, Daniel T. Kline (Eds.): Medieval Afterlives in Popular Culture. Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2012, pp. 145-158.
  17. Robin Hood - The Avenger of the Disinherited , short film by Otto Waalkes on youtube, 3:24 min.
  18. ^ Robin Hood Index. In: Retrieved February 13, 2020 .