Walter Scott

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Sir Walter Scott, portrait by Henry Raeburn, 1822
Sir Walter Scott Signature.svg

Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet FRSE (born August 15, 1771 in Edinburgh , † September 21, 1832 in Abbotsford ) was a Scottish poet , writer , publisher and literary critic. He was one of the most widely read authors of his time - not only in Europe - and is traditionally considered the founder of the historical novel. Many of his historical novels have become classics and have served as the basis for numerous plays, operas and films.


Family, career path, honors

Walter Scott's grave in Dryburgh Abbey

Scott was born the ninth of twelve siblings, six of whom died in childhood. He became infected with polio in the second year of life and had a paralyzed leg for the rest of his life. His father, also Walter Scott, was a lawyer and, as Writer to the Signet, a solicitor (general lawyer ) with extended competencies. His mother, Anne Rutherford, was the daughter of a medicine professor. After an apprenticeship as a lawyer with his father, he changed his professional direction, studied law at the University of Edinburgh and at the age of 21 became a trial lawyer ( advocate ; see Barrister ). Despite his later extensive literary work, he remained active as a lawyer throughout his life: 14 years as an advocate , 33 years as sheriff and 24 years as clerk of session (overlapping). In 1797 he married Charlotte Carpenter (born Charlotte Charpentier, daughter of French refugees), with whom he had five children: Charlotte Sophia (1799–1837), Walter (1801–1847), Anne (1803–1837), Charles (1805–1841 ); a child born in 1798 had only lived one day. Scott died in his home in Abbotsford near Melrose in 1832 and was buried at Dryburgh Abbey .

His literary success and his reputation earned him various honors: honorary citizen (of Edinburgh), honorary doctorate (from the University of Dublin ; honorary doctorates were offered to him by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but he was unable to come to the award ceremony) and on April 22, 1820 even the Elevation to the hereditary nobility as Baronet , of Abbotsford in the County of Roxburgh . The high point of his recognition as an important poet had already been the offer to take over the position of royal poet laureate , which had become vacant in 1813 , which he refused.

His title of nobility fell to his eldest son Walter as 2nd baronet on his death and finally expired on his death in 1847.


He began his literary career at the age of 25 with revised translations of German ballads: The Chase and William and Helen ( Gottfried August Bürgers Der wilde Jäger and Lenore ). An Erl-King (on Goethe's Erlkönig ) and translations of his Götz von Berlichingen as well as other contemporary German dramas by various authors are also produced. His great interest in the traditions of his homeland had led him to collect folk ballads from his youth; from 1802 he published as a three-volume work The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border with edited by him and also with his own ballads.

Scott achieved widespread fame for his epic verse tales, which were extremely successful from the start, "the first bestsellers in verse form" with astonishing print runs, starting with The Lay of the Last Minstrel in 1805, followed by Marmion in 1808 and others. Songs from his The Lady of the Lake 1810 in the German translation by Adam Storck has Franz Schubert set to music (song cycle Lady of the Lake ), from Ellen's third song (often after his first words, but misleadingly as "Schubert's Ave Maria is called") became world famous .


Walter Scott

The first work of Scott as a novelist was the 1814 anonymously published novel Waverley , whose action in the last uprising of the Jacobites is located, an uprising of 1745 emanated from Scotland and with the aim of a restoration of the House of Stuart to the ruling in London House of Hanover taught . The novel immediately caused a sensation; with him Scott practically founded the modern historical novel, at least for the English-speaking world. In the following 10 years he wrote in rapid succession a wealth of further historical novels and stories with Scottish themes, hardly surpassed in the annals of literary history: Guy Mannering , Old Mortality , Rob Roy and more, all of them (and later) without his name published, only with the indication "Author of Waverley" or under a pseudonym. The reason for this may initially have been Scott's fear of otherwise damaging his reputation as a solid lawyer: In contrast to the poetry with which he had come out up to then, prose was considered second-rate, if not dubious at the time. Although it was gradually to open secret who the, Wizard of the North "( The Wizard of the North was) as the unknown bestselling author was called, Scott held on to anonymity to 1827th Particularly after his elevation to the nobility in 1818, he viewed the novel writing as an inadequate livelihood for a gentleman; it was not until a public dinner in the Assembly Rooms in Edinburgh in 1827 that the secret of its authorship was officially revealed.

While the actions of his first novels were all set in Scotland in the 17th or 18th century, Scott, beginning with Ivanhoe (1820) , widened the circle of his scenes in terms of space and time: Ivanhoe plays in England in the 12th century, Quentin Durward ( 1823) in France and Anne of Geierstein (1829) in Switzerland in the 15th century. With these works in particular, Scott also reached contemporary English and continental European audiences. In between, however, he kept returning to Scottish subjects, including in his shorter prose works such as the short stories in the Chronicles of the Canongate .

Scott's great achievement lay less in the reconstruction of the historical coloring , but rather in the representation of characters in the historical milieu , with which the readers received a new, lively access to the story. Above all, the characters from the lower social classes are drawn in Scott's novels with a humanity and immediacy like hardly before in literature. In his novels, for example, there are numerous type characters that are quite relevant for the narrative, who come from the people and often also show comic traits.

As a narrative perspective , Scott chooses the representation of the events from the point of view of a mean protagonist in the sense of a neutral hero. In order to make the reproduction of the past as authentic as it is imaginatively haunting, Scott primarily relies on a scenic method of representation with a high proportion of dialogues, which help to dramatize the developmental stage of the country that is thematized in the novels. In the interaction of these various structural elements in his historical novels, Scott's fundamental literary intention is recognizable to appropriately remember the past in order to integrate it into the present consciousness of his readers.

Scott himself kept his novels at a distance and viewed them largely as commercial affairs, although he was the first author of English literature to become a figure of national standing and prestige during his lifetime. Scott always showed himself to his large and illustrious circle of guests or admirers in Abbotsford not as the prolific, hard-working author he was, but as a charming and distinguished idler ( man of leisure ).

Other fonts

Although fiction was in the foreground of Scott's work, he also published literary essays, historical stories for children, a book about belief in magic and witches and more, especially a nine-volume biography of Napoleon. Most of these fonts were also very successful; German, French, Italian and Danish editions of the Napoleon biography appeared in the year of its first publication. The comparatively insignificant role in Scott's work was played by some of the dramas he published in the decade before his death.

Participation in public life

Scott participated extensively in public life and was instrumental in certain political and social issues and projects. In 1818 he led the successful search for the Scottish crown jewels, which had been almost forgotten for decades . In 1820 he was elected President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh . In 1822 he arranged and organized the successful visit of the unpopular King George IV to Edinburgh. It was the first visit by a British monarch to Scottish soil in more than 170 years - perhaps the culmination of this king's reign. In 1826 Scott intervened directly in political affairs with his Letters of Malachi Malagrowther , when the Scottish central banking system was to be aligned with the English one, thus preventing the abolition of Scottish banknotes. (Today's Bank of Scotland notes are a reminder of this : All values ​​have a portrait of Scott on the front.)

Economic activity and financial crises

The economic success of his works enabled Scott to join the printing company of his school friend James Ballantyne in 1805, and later to found a publishing house with the Ballantyne brothers, each as a silent partner. There his works were printed and at times also published. This brought Scott additional income, but also exposed him to considerable risks as a co-partner with unlimited liability (Scottish law at the time did not yet know about limitations of liability for partnerships). A first financial crisis, exacerbated by Scott's high expenses for the acquisition of the property later known as Abbotsford, could only be overcome in 1813 by the closure of the publishing house, the sale of rights, loans from relatives and the overwhelming success of his prose work, which was in the foreground of his from 1814 Creation.

A lavish, hospitable and generous lifestyle, but above all the expansion and furnishing of Abbotsford swallowed up huge sums of money and led to Scott's constant need for more money, despite the considerable sales of his books. So he demanded and received considerable advances from his now publisher Archibald Constable and also used the printing press, of which he was co-owner, to take out loans and withdraw large profits. This gave the publishing house as well as the printer persistent liquidity problems, which were bridged by further loans, only apparently secured by mutually drawn and accepted bills of convenience. In the great British financial crisis of 1825/26, however, an important London business partner of the publisher stopped paying, and the whole system collapsed. The publisher's creditors, as well as the printer's, clung to Scott, who was ultimately personally liable for the entire debt of over £ 120,000 - a gigantic amount given its value at the time.

A publication planned by Scott in 1825 of the works of Charles R. Maturin and his biography failed due to the bankruptcy of Scott's publishers.

By means of bankruptcy proceedings with subsequent discharge of residual debt, Scott could have largely freed himself from this situation (Abbotsford already belonged to his son Walter at that time). Scott's sense of class as a gentleman (bankruptcy would have been a 'commercial' solution) and his sense of honor (debts must be paid) opposed this. So, with the consent of the creditors, he decided on a trust deed , a document based on an out-of-court settlement, according to which his remaining and future assets were subordinated to the creditors and he undertook to pay off the debts. Scott did it faithfully. If he had been a prolific writer before, he was now writing nonstop, ruining his health in the process. When he died, the debt was largely paid; a few years later it was completely redeemed through the sale of his remaining work rights.

Individual aspects


Abbotsford House

In 1811 Scott bought a small farm on the south bank of the Tweed near Melrose ; Through acquisitions, he enlarged the property over the years to an area of ​​around 4 km². There he built the buildings of the farm through renovations and substantial extensions to Abbotsford House . With its bay windows, battlements, corner towers and stepped gables, it became the forerunner of the Victorian Scottish Baronials .


Like his father, Scott was a Freemason . On March 2, 1801, St. David Lodge No. 36 in Edinburgh as an apprentice. That same evening he was promoted to journeyman and made master. In Selkirk he laid the foundation stone for the lodge house there as a Freemason on behalf of the Provincial Grand Master in 1816.


Reception in the history of literature

Scott's literary influence in the 19th century was extraordinary. Goethe valued his works and considered him the best narrator of his time. Scott's novel 'Waverley' he put "the best things at the side [...] that have ever been written in the world". Fontane called him the "Shakespeare of narrative". Historical novels based on Scott's model emerged in many countries and languages ​​and were sometimes even mistaken for Scott's works, such as the novel Walladmor (1824) by Willibald Alexis . Influenced by Scott were Wilhelm Hauff and Theodor Fontane , James Fenimore Cooper and Edward Bulwer-Lytton , Honoré de Balzac and Victor Hugo , also Alessandro Manzoni , Alexander Pushkin and numerous others. Towards the end of the 19th century, however, the popularity of Scott's work declined and what was once the 'great unknown' (in a frequently repeated phrase) (because of the anonymous publication of Waverly ) became the 'great unread'. It was not until the 20th century that interest in Scott's works rose again, based not least on Georg Lukács ' widely acclaimed book The Historical Novel (1937/1954), in which Lukács described Sir Walter Scott as the “great poet of history”. According to Lukács, Scott's Waverley novels in particular, with their realistic impact, make a significant contribution to the development of the genre of the historical novel: In contrast to the largely static image of man of the Enlightenment, Scott depicts people and society as products of historical change Novels. Despite the adventurous plot and the idealization typical of romance , the characters and milieus are drawn relatively realistically and allow the reader a vivid idea of ​​the past eras. The presentation of the historical events is not from the perspective of the great, but from the perspective of a "middle" hero, who is closer to the reader as social and character average. The big ones, on the other hand, are shown not as causers, but as exponents of historical development. The immense popularity of Scott for a long time was essentially based on the fact that through such a conception history could be dramatically experienced in a previously unknown form.

In America Scott was also celebrated as a representative of Scottish literature, which in the early days of American literary history was regarded as a model for the development of an independent national culture and literature, despite the common language and the numerous common aspects of the tradition with England. For Scott, important motives such as reconciliation (here between Scotland and England) or the connection between conservatism and future-oriented progress thinking are also decisive for the work of James Fenimore Coopers.

In contrast, Scott's novels are largely ignored in contemporary German literary studies. There is hardly any maintenance of his works by the publishers; usable expenditure is as good as no longer presented. Only a few titles from Scott's extensive work are still present or available on the German book market, mostly Ivanhoe alone in an abridged children's book version. The Scott editions that are widespread in Germany are also often edited and the text shortened. The forewords and afterwords, framework narratives, interspersed songs, mottos , footnotes, indexes and glossaries that are important for Scott are missing; mostly the German editions are reduced to the pure action frame. In the recent reception history of the late 20th century, the temporary overestimation of the importance of Scott's works is now contrasted with the other extreme of a disregard as an important author who does no justice to his person and his work, as does an excessive overestimation. In retrospect, the rank that Scott's work actually deserved in literary history needs to be clarified more precisely in further literary discussions.

Drama, opera and film

Scott's works (or motifs from them) also served as templates for numerous stage works and films.

Dramatizations of Scott's fiction works came to the British stages in considerable numbers , especially in Victorian times - dozens of such versions were made, also in other countries; in the German-speaking area, for example:

  • The Escape to Kenilworth (1826) by Johann Reinhold von Lenz, called Kühne
  • The Lion of Kurdistan (1827) by Joseph von Auffenberg (after The Talisman )
  • The Last Ravenswood (1860) by Franz Hermann von Hermannsthal (after The Bride of Lammermoor )
  • Quentin Durward (1894) by P. Brill.

Of even greater and lasting importance were the works of Scott for musical theater. After Shakespeare, Scott is likely to be the author whose works have most often been used as the basis for operatic librettos, including the following operas:

Finally, the works of Scott were used very often for the film. Beginning in the silent film era and increasingly from the 1950s, increasingly also for television, The Lady of the Lake , Ivanhoe , Rob Roy , The Talisman and Quentin Durward in particular have been re-filmed again and again, especially in the USA and Great Britain, but also in Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union and other countries. Among the numerous film adaptations, for example, are worth mentioning:

politics and society

However, Scott's importance goes far beyond his literary influence and had a strong political and social dimension. The Jacobite uprisings in the 18th century were not very long ago. The harsh reaction of the London government with draconian punitive measures, especially in the Scottish Highlands , had alienated parts of the Scottish population from the British state. Scott himself was a unionist, Protestant and supporter of the monarchs from the House of Hanover . But he did not demonize the other side, but in his popular novels also presented the positions of nationalists, Catholics and supporters of the Stuarts with understanding and showed sympathy for a romanticized old Scotland. In this way he made a significant contribution to overcoming the animosities that still existed.

Scotland image and tourism

After all, Scott has made a major contribution to a change in the public perception of the Scottish Highlands, which at the time were considered a haven for backwoods rioters and bandits, especially in England. His novels set in the highlands about noble clan chiefs and their loyal and brave followers, settled in a wildly romantic landscape, fighting for old rights and traditions, led to a completely new image of the highlands. Added to this was the spectacular historic visit of King George IV to Edinburgh, orchestrated by Scott, with all the folkloric set pieces such as kilt , tartan and bagpipes, some of which were forbidden after the Jacobite uprisings and which were actually anachronistic in 1822 . These were the starting points for a revitalization of the Scottish Highland culture and a growing and widespread interest in Scotland and especially its highlands, which is the beginning of modern tourism there.

Single points

Walter Scott hiking trail

The Sir Walter Scott Way is a 150 km hiking trail in south east Scotland that passes numerous sites connected with the life or work of Scott.

Walter Scott Awards

The Sir Walter Scott Prize for outstanding German-language historical novels has been awarded since 2006, and the highly endowed British Walter Scott Prize for historical fiction for historical fiction since 2010 .

Walter Scott as a fictional character

In the novel The Brotherhood of Runes by the German Michael Peinkofer , Scott himself became the main character in 2005.



  • The Chase, and William and Helen. Two Ballads from the German. Edinburgh 1796. Translations of Gottfried Bürger's ballads
  • An Apology for Tales of Terror. Kelso 1799. This includes: The Erl-King , translation of Goethe's Erlkönig
  • The Eve of St. John. A border ballad. Kelso 1800
  • The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border. 3 volumes. Kelso 1802 f.
German Scottish songs and ballads. Leipzig 1817 (Translation: Henriette Schubart)
  • Sir Tristrem. A Metrical Romance of the Thirteenth Century. Edinburgh 1804. Annotated edition of an English version of the Tristan and Isolde material from the medieval Auchinleck manuscript
  • The Lay of the Last Minstrel. A poem. London 1805
dt. The last minstrel. A poem in six songs. Bremen 1820 (translation: Adam Storck )
The last minstrel's song. A poem in six songs. Zwickau 1824 (translation: Willibald Alexis )
The last minstrel sang. Leipzig 1895 (translation: C. Cornelius)
  • Ballads and Lyrical Pieces. Edinburgh 1806
  • Marmion. A Tale of Flodden Field. Edinburgh 1808 (contains the poem Young Lochinvar )
German Marmion. A story from the battlefield of Flodden. Poetry in six songs. Zwickau 1827 (translation: C. Richard)
Marmion. Darmstadt 1857 (translation: Alexander Neidhardt)
German The Miss from the Lake. A poem in six songs. Essen 1819 (translation: Adam Storck )
The Virgin of the Lake. A poem in six songs. Zwickau 1822 (translation: Willibald Alexis )
The Virgin of the Lake. Romantic poems. Leipzig 1853 (translation: Friederike Friedmann)
The lady from the lake. Romantic poetry. Hildburghausen 1865 (translation: Heinrich Viehoff )
The lady from the lake. A poem in six songs. Bremen 1869 (translation: Ludwig Freytag)
The Virgin of the Lake. Epic-romantic poem in six songs. Leipzig 1877 (translation: Emma Ernst)
The Virgin of the Lake. Poetry in six songs. Halle adS 1894 (translation: Fr. Dobbert)
  • The Vision of Don Roderick. A poem. Edinburgh 1811
German Don Roderich's dream face. Zwickau 1826 (translation: C. Richard)
  • Rokeby. A poem. Edinburgh 1813
German Rokeby Castle. Romantic poem in six songs. Bremen 1822 (translation: Adam Storck )
Rokeby. Zwickau 1825 (translation: C. Richard)
  • The Bridal of Triermain, or the Vale of St. John. In three Cantos. Edinburgh 1813
dt. The bridegroom of Triermain or the valley of Saint John. A poem in three songs. Zwickau 1829 (translation: Richard Otto Bewegungs)
  • The Lord of the Isles. A poem. Edinburgh 1815
dt. The ruler of the islands. In six chants. Leipzig 1822 (prose rewritten by FPE Richter, pseudonym by Wilhelmine von Gersdorff )
The lord of the islands. A poem in six songs. Zwickau 1828 (translation: Karl Ludwig Kannegießer )
The prince of the islands. A poem in six songs. Essen 1830 (translation: Carl Wilhelm Asher )
The lord of the islands. Darmstadt 1854 (translation: Alexander Neidhart)
The lord of the islands. Bremen 1863 (translation: Wilhelm Hertzberg )
The lord of the islands. Epic-romantic poem in six songs. Leipzig 1869 (translation: Reinhold Bernhard Jachmann)
  • The Field of Waterloo. A poem. Edinburgh 1815
dt. The field of Waterloo. Münster 1825 (translation: Jakob Vinzenz Cirkel)
The Waterloo battlefield. Zwickau 1826 (translation: C. Richard)
  • Harold the Dauntless. A Poem in Six Cantos. Edinburgh 1817
German Harold the Intrepid. Poetry. Leipzig 1823 (translation: W. von Morgenstern, pseudonym of Wilhelmine von Gersdorff )
Harold the Fearless. A poem in six songs. Zwickau 1829 (translation: Richard Otto Bewegungs)

Prose novels and stories

German Eduard. A romantic painting. After Walter Scott's Waverley. Dresden 1821 (translation: Wilhelm Adolf Lindau )
Waverley or Scotland sixty years ago. Historical and humorous novel. Leipzig 1822 (translation: WL)
Waverley, or so it was sixty years ago. Leipzig 1823 (translation: Bernhard Johann Friedrich von Halem)
Waverley or 's is now sixty years . Zwickau 1823 (translation: M. Carl Richter)
Waverley or Scotland sixty years ago. Vienna 1825
Waverley, or so it was sixty years ago. Reutlingen 1825
It was Waverley or something sixty years ago. Grätz 1827
Waverley or So it was sixty years ago. Stuttgart 1828 (translation: Leonhard Tafel)
Waverley or So it was sixty years ago. Danzig 1829
Waverley or Sixty Years Ago. A historical novel. Mannheim 1840 (translation: C. Herrmann)
Waverley. Hamburg 1840 (translation: Carl Immer and Henry Clifford)
Waverley or So it was sixty years ago. Berlin 1876 (translation: Benno Tschischwitz)
Waverley. Stuttgart 1883 (translation: Ludwig Proescholdt)
Waverley or It's been sixty years. Leipzig 1885 (translation: Marie von Borch)
Waverley. A historical tale from the 18th century. Edited for the German youth. Münster 1893 (translation: Otto Heinrichs )
Waverley or it was sixty years ago. Berlin 1900 (translation: Erich Walter)
Waverley or 'it was sixty years ago. Weimar 1972 (translation: Gisela Reichel)
  • Guy Mannering, or the astrologer. Edinburgh 1815
German the astrologer. A Caledonian miracle legend. Leipzig 1817 (translation: Wilhelm Adolf Lindau )
Guy Mannering or the astrologer. Zwickau 1822 (translation: Wilhelmine Gerhard)
Guy Mannering or the astrologer. Leipzig 1825 (Translation: RF)
Guy Mannering or the astrologer. Stuttgart 1828 (translation: Leonhard Tafel)
Guy Mannering or the Astrologer. A novel. Stuttgart 1840 (translation: Theodor Oelckers) online (PDF file, 21.03 MB) Reprint in the Arno Schmidt reference library
Guy Mannering or the astrologer. Hamburg 1841 (translation: Carl Immer and Henry Clifford)
Guy Mannering. A novel. Berlin 1876 (translation: Bruno Tschischwitz)
Guy Mannering. Berlin-Grunewald 1924 (Translation: Erich Walter)
  • The Antiquary. Edinburgh 1816
German The Alterthümler. A romantic painting. Berlin 1821 (translation: Wilhelm Adolf Lindau )
The antiquarian. Zwickau 1823 (translation: Heinrich Döring )
The antiquarian. Reutlingen 1824
The antiquarian. A romantic painting. Vienna 1825
The antiquarian. Grätz 1827
The antiquarian. Stuttgart 1828 (translation: Leonhard Tafel)
The antiquarian. Leipzig 1828 (translation: "* r" )
The antiquarian. A novel. Stuttgart 1840 (translation: Theodor Oelckers) online (PDF file, 20.32 MB) Reprint in the Arno Schmidt reference library
The antiquarian. Hamburg 1841 (translation: Carl Immer and Henry Clifford)
The antiquarian. Berlin 1855 (translation: Gottfried Wilhelm Becker )
The antiquarian. Berlin 1876 (translation: Benno Tschischwitz)
The antiquarian. Berlin 1905 (translation: Erich Walter)
The antiquarian. Regensburg 1913 (translation: Otto von Schaching )
  • Tales of My Landlord. Vol. I: The Black Dwarf. Edinburgh 1816
dt. The black dwarf. A Scottish legend. Leipzig 1819 (translation: Wilhelm Adolf Lindau )
The black dwarf. First of my host's stories. Zwickau 1822 (translation: Ernst Berthold [= Therese von Jacob ])
Tales of my host: The black dwarf. Leipzig 1824 (translation: Karl Ludwig Methusalem Müller)
The black dwarf. A romantic painting. Vienna 1825
The black dwarf. Stuttgart 1829 (translation: Leonhard Tafel)
The black dwarf. Stuttgart 1850 (translation: Franz Kottenkamp)
  • Tales of My Landlord. Vol. II-IV: Old Mortality. Edinburgh 1816
dt. The enthusiasts. A romantic painting. Leipzig 1820 (translation: Wilhelm Adolf Lindau )
The Presbyterians. Zwickau 1823 (translation: EB [= Therese von Jacob ])
The Presbyterian or Old Mortality. Second story from my host. Grätz 1828
The Swarmers (1828)
The enthusiasts. Stuttgart 1828
The enthusiasts. Stuttgart 1845 (translation: Carl Andrä)
The Puritans. Berlin 1866 (translation: Adam Stein [= Robert Springer])
The Presbyterians. Berlin 1876 (translation: Benno Tschischwitz)
Old Mortality. Berlin 1953 (translation: Rudolf Schaller)
German Robin the Rothe. A Scottish legend. Berlin 1819 (translation: Wilhelm Adolf Lindau )
Robin the Rothe. Zwickau 1823 (Translation: Henriette Schubart)
Robin the Rothe. Leipzig 1826 (translation: Sophie May [= Friederike Mayer])
Robin the Rothe. Stuttgart 1828 (translation: Erich Walter)
Robin the Rothe. A historical novel. Mannheim 1840 (translation: C. Herrmann)
Robin the Red. A secret king among Scottish partisans and English rebels. Freiburg 1965 (free retelling by Herbert Kranz )
Rob Roy. Berlin 1957 (Translation: Christine Hoeppener)
  • Tales of My Landlord. Second row: The Heart of Midlothian. Edinburgh 1818
dt. The dungeon of Edinburgh. A novel. Berlin 1821 (translation: Maria Wilhelmine Schmidt)
The Heart of Mid-Lothian or The Dungeon of Edinburgh. Dresden 1822 (translation: Wilhelm Adolf Lindau )
The Heart of Mid-Lothian or The Prison at Edinburgh. Second of the stories of my host. Zwickau 1823 (translation: Sophie May [= Friederike Mayer])
The heart of Midlothian. Leipzig 1826 (translation: Adolph Wagner)
The heart of Mid-Lothian. Stuttgart 1828 (Translation: CW)
The Edinburgh dungeon. A novel. Mannheim 1841 (translation: Ernst Susemihl )
The Heart of Midlothian or The Dungeon at Edinburgh. Hamburg 1842 (translation: Carl Immer and Henry Clifford)
The heart of Midlothian. Berlin 1877 (translation: Benno Tschischwitz)
The heart of Midlothian. Berlin 1955 (translation: Wilhelm Walter)
  • Tales of My Landlord. Third row, Vol. I – III: The Bride of Lammermoor. Edinburgh 1819
dt. The bride. A romantic painting. Dresden 1820 (translation: Wilhelm Adolf Lindau )
The bride. Fourth of the stories of my host. Zwickau 1824 (translation: Henriette von Montenglaut )
The bride from Lammermoor. Stuttgart 1828 (translation: A. Ludwig)
The bride from Lammermoor. Mannheim 1843 (translation: Wilhelm Sauerwein)
The bride from Lammermoor. Leipzig 1852 (translation: Anna Tuthen)
The bride from Lammermoor. Berlin 1876 (translation: Benno Tschischwitz)
The bride from Lammermoor. Berlin 1882 (translation: Helene Lobedan)
The bride from Lammermoor. Berlin 1905 (translation: Erich Walter)
The bride from Lammermoor. Hamburg 1928 (translation: Siever Johann Meyer-Berghaus)
  • Tales of My Landlord. Third row, Vols. III – IV: A Legend of Montrose. Edinburgh 1819
German legend of Montrose and his companions. Fifth of the stories of my host. Zwickau 1823 (translation: Henriette von Montenglaut )
Montrose. A romantic painting. Leipzig 1824 (translation: Wilhelm Adolf Lindau )
Tales of my host. Montrose. Leipzig 1827 (translation: Karl Ludwig Methusalem Müller)
Montrose. Romantic saga. Stuttgart 1828 (translation: A. Ludwig)
A legend from Montrose. Stuttgart 1850 (translation: Franz Kottenkamp)
A legend from Montrose. Berlin 1877 (translation: Benno Tschischwitz)
A legend from Montrose. Berlin 1882 (translation: Helene Lobedan)
German Ivanhoe. Leipzig 1821 (translation: Karl Ludwig Methusalem Müller)
Ivanhoe. A novel. Zwickau 1822 (translation: Elise von Hohenhausen )
Ivanhoe. Hamm 1826 (translation: Carl Leberecht Immermann )
Ivanhoe. Historical novel. Gotha 1826 (translation: Meyer)
Ivanhoe. Novel. Stuttgart 1827 (translation: Leonhard Tafel)
Ivanhoe. Hamburg 1840 (translation: Carl Immer and Henry Clifford)
Ivanhoe. A novel. Mannheim 1841 (translation: Ernst Susemihl)
Ivanhoe. Historical novel. Bielefeld 1874 (translation: Robert König)
Ivanhoe. Berlin 1876 (translation: Benno Tschischwitz)
Ivanhoe. Novel. Leipzig 1877 (translation: Otto Randolf)
Ivanhoe. Berlin 1924 (translation: Erich Walter)
Ivanhoe. Berlin 1925 (translation: Richard Zoozmann )
Ivanhoe. Novel. Berlin 1930 (translation: Kurt Merländer)
Ivanhoe. Berlin 1957 (Translation: Christine Hoeppener)
Ivanhoe. Knight of Justice. Stuttgart 1970 (translation: Rudolf Hermann)
Ivanhoe. Stuttgart 1992 (translation: Sybil Countess Schönfeldt )
Ivanhoe. Vienna 1993 (Translation: Sonja Ehrnstorfer)
  • The monastery. A romance. Edinburgh 1820
German The monastery. A novel. Berlin 1821 (translation: Karl Ludwig Methusalem Müller)
The monastery. Zwickau 1823 (translation: Friedrich Christian Diez )
The monastery. Leipzig 1825 (translation: Sophie May [= Friederike Mayer])
The monastery. A novel. Stuttgart 1828 (translation: Carl Mogg)
The monastery. A historical novel. Mannheim 1841 (translation: Friedrich Funck)
  • The Abbot. Edinburgh 1820
German The Abbot. A romantic painting. Leipzig 1821 (translation: Wilhelm Adolf Lindau )
The Dept. Zwickau 1823 (translation: Hieronymus Müller)
The Stuttgart Dept. 1828 (translation: Leonhard Tafel)
The Abbot Berlin 1835 (translation: Sophie May [= Friederike Mayer])
The Dept. Historical Novel. Mannheim 1841 (translation: Friedrich Funck)
The Berlin Dept. 1877 (translation: Robert Springer)
The abbot or Maria Stuart's happiness and end. Berlin 1906 (translation: Erich Walter)
  • Kenilworth. A romance. Edinburgh 1821
German Kenilworth. Novel. Zwickau 1823 (translation: Elise von Hohenhausen )
Kenilworth. Stuttgart 1827 (translation: Leonhard Tafel)
Kenilworth. A novel. Mannheim 1841 (translation: Ernst Susemihl)
Kenilworth. Bielefeld 1876 (translation: Robert König)
Kenilworth. Novel. Leipzig 1877 (translation: Otto Randolf)
Kenilworth. Berlin 1877 (translation: Benno Tschischwitz)
Kenilworth. Berlin 1924 (translation: Erich Walter)
  • The pirate. Edinburgh 1821
German The pirate. Zwickau 1822 (translation: Heinrich Döring )
The pirate. Leipzig 1822 (translation: Georg Lotz)
The pirate. Berlin 1822 (translation: Samuel Heinrich Spiker)
The pirate. Berlin 1822 (Translation: Henriette von Montenglaut)
The pirate. Stuttgart 1828 (translation: Carl Mogg)
The pirate. Berlin 1835 (translation: "* r" )
The pirate. A novel. Stuttgart 1840 (translation: Friedrich Richter)
  • The Fortunes of Nigel. Edinburgh 1822
German Nigel's fates. A novel. Zwickau 1824 (translation: Sophie May [= Friederike Mayer])
Nigel's fates. Stuttgart 1829 (translation: A. Ludwig)
Nigel's fates. Berlin 1836 (translation: Bernhard Johann Friedrich von Halem)
Nigel's fates. Mannheim 1841 (translation: Friedrich Funck)
  • Peveril of the Peak. Edinburgh 1822
German knight Gottfried Peveril. A romantic representation. Leipzig 1822 (translation: CF Michaelis)
Peveril. A romantic story. Zwickau 1824 (translation: Julius Körner)
Peveril from the summit. Leipzig 1824 (translation: Bernhard Johann Friedrich von Halem)
Peveril from the summit. Stuttgart 1829
Peveril from the summit. Stuttgart 1850 (translation: C. Herrmann)
German Quentin Durward. Novel. Zwickau 1824 (translation: Heinrich Döring )
Quentin Durward. Leipzig 1824 (translation: Bernhard Johann Friedrich von Halem)
Quentin Durward. Stuttgart 1826 (translation: Leonhard Tafel)
Quentin Durward. A historical novel. Mannheim 1841 (translation: Theodor Oelckers)
Quentin Durward. Historical novel. Bielefeld 1874 (translation: Robert König)
Quentin Durward. Novel. Leipzig 1878 (translation: Otto Randolf)
Quentin Durward. Berlin 1876 (translation: Benno Tschischwitz)
Quentin Durward. Berlin 1907 (translation: Erich Walter)
In addition, several editions of these translations, mostly edited for young people, with changed titles or additions to titles such as “In the service of the king”, “The king's squire”, “The Scottish servant” and the like.
  • Saint Ronan's Well . Edinburgh 1824
German St. Ronan's fountain. Zwickau 1825 (translation: Elise von Hohenhausen )
The St. Ronans Fountain. Vienna 1826 (translation: Sophie May [= Friederike Mayer])
St. Ronan's Fountain. Stuttgart 1829
St. Ronan's Fountain. A novel. Stuttgart 1852 (translation: C. Herrmann)
  • Redgauntlet. A Tale of the Eighteenth Century. Edinburgh 1824
German Redgauntlet. An eighteenth century story. Zwickau 1825 (translation: M. Carl Richter)
Redgauntlet. A story from the 18th century. Stuttgart 1826 (translation: Carl Weil) online (PDF file, 21.77 MB) in the Arno Schmidt reference library
  • Tales of the Crusaders. Vol. I-II: The Betrothed. Edinburgh 1825
German tales of the crusaders. Part 1: The betrothed. Leipzig 1825 (translation: Karl Ludwig Methusalem Müller)
Tales of the Crusaders. First story: The betrothed. Leipzig 1825 (translation: Sophie May [= Friederike Mayer])
Tales of the Crusaders. First story: The betrothed. Stuttgart 1826 (translation: August Schäfer)
Tales of the Crusaders. Part 1: The betrothed. Zwickau 1826 (translation: Heinrich Döring)
  • Tales of the Crusaders. Vol. III-IV: The Talisman. Edinburgh 1825
dt. The talisman. Leipzig 1825 (translation: Sophie May [= Friederike Mayer])
Tales of the Crusaders. Second story: the talisman. Leipzig 1826 (translation: August Schäfer)
Tales of the Crusaders. Part 2: The talisman. Zwickau 1826 (translation: Heinrich Döring)
The talisman. Stuttgart 1826
The talisman. Mannheim 1841 (translation: Wilhelm Sauerwein)
The talisman. A cruise story. Bielefeld 1874 (translation: Robert Koenig)
The talisman. Berlin 1876 (translation: Benno Tschischwitz)
The talisman. A story from the crusades. Berlin 1919 (translation: Oskar Ebermann)
In addition, several editions of these translations, mostly edited for young people, with changed titles or additions to titles such as "Richard the Lionheart in Palestine" or "Knight Kenneth from the sleeping leopard"
  • Woodstock; or The Cavalier. A Tale of the Year Sixteen Hundred and Fifty-one. Edinburgh 1826
dt. Woodstock or: The Knight. A story from the year sixteen hundred and fifty one. Stuttgart 1826 (translation: Carl Weil)
Woodstock or: The Knight. A story from the year one thousand six hundred and fifty-one. Zwickau 1826 (translation: Georg Nicolaus Bärmann)
Woodstock. A romantic depiction from the time of Cromwell. Leipzig 1826 (translation: CF Michaelis)
Woodstock or The Cavalier. Leipzig 1826 (translation: Karl Florentin Leidenfrost )
  • Chronicles of the Canongate. First series, with the stories The Highland Widow, The Two Drovers and The Surgeon's Daughter . Edinburgh 1827
German The Chronicle of Canongate. Zwickau 1828 (translation: Karl Ludwig Kannegießer )
The Chronicle of Canongate. Stuttgart 1828
Chronicle of the Canongate at Edinburgh. Leipzig 1828 (translation: Carl Florentin Leidenfrost)
The Chronicle of Canongate. Stuttgart 1840 (translation: Franz Kottenkamp)
  • Religious Discourses. By A Layman. London 1828
  • Chronicles of the Canongate. Second row: St. Valentine's Day; or, The Fair Maid of Perth. Edinburgh 1828
dt. The Chronicle of Canongate: The beautiful girl from Perth. Stuttgart 1828
The Chronicle of Canongate. From Scottish history. Episode 2. Zwickau 1829 (translation: Julius Körner)
The beautiful girl from Perth. Mannheim 1844 (translation: Theodor Oelckers) online (PDF file, 21.65 MB) Reprint in the Arno Schmidt reference library
The beautiful girl from Perth. Berlin 1877 (translation: Robert Springer)
  • Anne of Geierstein; or The Maiden of the Mist. Edinburgh 1829
German Anna von Geierstein or: The Mist Girl. Novel. Zwickau 1829 (translation: Georg Nicolaus Bärmann)
Charles the Bold, or: The Daughter of Fog. Historical novella. Stuttgart 1829
Anna von Geierstein, or the daughter of the fog. A novel. Mannheim 1846 (translation: Ernst Elsenhans)
  • The Keepsake Stories : three stories in the literary yearbook "The Keepsake" for the year 1829:
    • My Aunt Margaret's Mirror
dt. The magic mirror. Stuttgart 1852 (translation: Franz Kottenkamp), in: The dangerous castle
  • The Tapestried Chamber
German The papered room. Stuttgart 1852 (translation: Franz Kottenkamp), in: The dangerous castle
The room with the wall hangings. Munich 1975 (translation: Leni Sobez), in: 13 Geister Stories
The tapestry room. Hanover 2011 (Translation: Heiko Postma) ISBN 978-3-940970-67-1
  • Death of the Laird's Jock.
The squire Hans. Stuttgart 1852 (translation: Franz Kottenkamp), in: The dangerous castle
  • Tales of My Landlord. Fourth row: Count Robert of Paris. Edinburgh 1832
German Count Robert of Paris. Zwickau 1832 (translation: Georg Nicolaus Bärmann)
Count Robert of Paris. Stuttgart 1832
Count Robert of Paris. A historical novel. Mannheim 1846 (translation: Wilhelm Sauerwein)
Count Robert of Paris. A novel from the Christian Constantinople. Berlin 1910 (translation: Erich Walter)
  • Tales of My Landlord. Fourth row: Castle Dangerous. Edinburgh 1832
dt. The dangerous castle. Zwickau 1832 (translation: Georg Nicolaus Bärmann)
The dangerous castle. Stuttgart 1832
The dangerous castle. Stuttgart 1852 (translation: Friedrich Kottenkamp)

Other works (dramas, essays, biographies, etc.)

Title page for Tales of a Grandfather ; Being Stories Taken from Scottish History
  • Goetz of Berlichingen, with the Iron Hand. London 1799. Translation by Goethe's Götz von Berlichingen
  • The Border Antiquities of England and Scotland. Comprising Specimens of Architecture and Sculpture, and other Vestiges of Former Ages, Accompanied by Descriptions. London 1814-1817
  • Paul's Letters to His Kinsfolk. Edinburgh 1816
German Paul's letters to his relatives. Leipzig 1822 (translation: Karl Ludwig Methusalem Müller)
Paul's letters to his relatives. Zwickau 1825 (translation: Sophie May [= Friederike Mayer])
  • Halidon Hill. A Dramatic Sketch, from Scottish History. In Two Acts, and in Verse. Edinburgh 1822
German Walter Scott's Halidon height. Frankfurt am Main 1823 (Translation: Adrian)
  • Provincial Antiquities and Picturesque Scenery of Scotland. London 1826 (previously published in ten editions 1819–1826)
  • Lives of the Novelists. Paris 1825 (Preface to entries in Ballantyne's Novelists' Library. London 1821–24)
  • Letters of Malachi Malagrowther. Edinburgh 1826
  • The Life of Napoleon Buonaparte, Emperor of the French. With a Preliminary View of the French Revolution. Edinburgh 1827
German life of Napoleon Buonaparte, Emperor of the French. Along with an introductory overview of the French Revolution. Zwickau 1827–28 (translation: Georg Nicolaus Bärmann)
Life of Napoleon Buonaparte, Emperor of France. With an overview of the French Revolution. Stuttgart 1827–28 (translation: Joseph von Theobald )
Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the French. With an introductory overview of the French Revolution. Gotha 1827–1834 (translation: Meyer / Schneider)
  • Tales of a Grandfather; Being Stories Taken from Scottish History. 3 rows, Edinburgh 1828-1830
German stories from a grandfather from Scottish history. Stuttgart 1828
Tales of Scottish history by a grandfather. Zwickau 1828–31 (translation: Karl Ludwig Kannegießer / Georg Nicolaus Bärmann)
  • The House of Aspen; a Tragedy. London 1829
  • The History of Scotland. 2 volumes, London 1830
dt. The history of Scotland. Zwickau 1830–31 (translation: Georg Nicolaus Bärmann)
Walter Scott's History of Scotland. Leipzig 1830–31 (translation: Friedrich Vogel)
  • Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft, Addressed to JG Lockhart, Esq. London 1830
German letters on demonology and witchcraft. Zwickau 1833 (translation: Georg Nicolaus Bärmann)
  • Essays on Ballad Poetry, and Introductions. Edinburgh 1830
  • The Doom of Devorgoil, a melodrama.-Auchindrane; or, The Ayrshire Tragedy. Edinburgh 1830 (includes the poem Bonnie Dundee )
  • Tales of a Grandfather; Being Stories Taken from the History of France. Edinburgh 1831
German grandfather's stories from the history of France. Zwickau 1831 (translation: Georg Nicolaus Bärmann)
  • The Journal of Sir Walter Scott from the Original Manuscript at Abbotsford. Edinburgh 1890
  • The Letters of Sir Walter Scott. 12 volumes, London 1932–1937


in alphabetical order by authors / editors


  • Richard Ford: Dramatisations of Scott's Novels. A catalog. Oxford Bibliographical Society, Oxford 1979 (= Oxford Bibliographical Society; 12), ISBN 0-901420-33-6
  • Jill Rubenstein (arr.): Sir Walter Scott. An Annotated Bibliography of Scholarship and Criticism, 1975-1990. Aberdeen 1994 (Occasional paper / Association for Scottish Literary Studies; 11), ISBN 0-948877-25-1
  • William B. Todd, Ann Bowden: Sir Walter Scott. A Bibliographical History, 1796-1832. Oak Knoll Press, New Castle (Delaware / USA) 1998, ISBN 1-884718-64-7

To Scott in general

  • Thomas Crawford: Scott. Edinburgh, Scottish Acad. Pr. 1982. (= Scottish writers series; 1), ISBN 0-7073-0305-2
  • Frank Druffner: Walter Scott's romance in stone: Abbotsfort as a picturesque poet's residence (= manuscripts for art history in the Werner publishing company 4). Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms 1987, ISBN 978-3-88462-505-7
  • Felix Eberty : Walter Scott. A picture of life. 2 volumes. Wroclaw 1860
  • Kurt Gamerschlag: Sir Walter Scott and the Waverley novels. An overview of the course of Scott research from the beginning until today. Darmstadt, Wiss. Buchges. 1978. (= income from research; 94), ISBN 3-534-07367-3
  • John Lauber: Sir Walter Scott. Boston, Twayne. 1989. (= Twayne's English authors series; 39), ISBN 0-8057-6964-1
  • Robert Ignatius Letellier: Sir Walter Scott and the Gothic novel. Salzburg, Univ. of Salzburg. 1995. (Salzburg studies in English literature; Romantic reassessment; 113), ISBN 0-7734-1276-X
  • Graham MacMaster: Scott and Society. Cambridge et al. a., Univ. Pr. 1981, ISBN 0-521-23769-6
  • Jane Millgate: Walter Scott. The making of the novelist. Toronto et al. a., Univ. Pr. 1984, ISBN 0-8020-2527-7
  • Heinz-Joachim Müllenbrock: The historical novel. Essays. Heidelberg, winter. 2003. (= English Research; 317), ISBN 3-8253-1503-7
  • James Reed: Sir Walter Scott. Landscape and locality. London, Athlone Pr. 1980, ISBN 0-485-11197-7
  • Ingrid Schwarz: Narratives and history with Sir Walter Scott. A structural analysis of the Waverley Novels using the example of "Old Mortality". Frankfurt am Main u. a., long. 1986. (= Aspects of English intellectual and cultural history; 8), ISBN 3-8204-9804-4
  • David Stechern: The Right in the Novels of Sir Walter Scott. Münster u. a., Lit. 2003. (= Münsteraner Studies for Comparative Law; 101), ISBN 3-8258-6673-4
  • Horst Tippkötter: Walter Scott. Story as entertainment. A reception analysis of the Waverley novels. Frankfurt am Main, Klostermann. 1971. (Studies in Philosophy and Literature of the Nineteenth Century; 13)
  • Graham Tulloch: The language of Walter Scott. A study of his Scottish and period language. London: German. 1980, ISBN 0-233-97223-4
  • Edward Wagenknecht: Sir Walter Scott. New York, NY: Continuum. 1991, ISBN 0-8264-0491-X
  • Helmut Weber: Sir Walter Scott - poet, sheriff, Scot (PDF; 112 kB)

Comparative research

  • Andreas Bestek: History as a novel. Narrative techniques of epochs in the English historical novel of the 19th century. Walter Scott, Edward Bulwer-Lytton and George Eliot. Trier, WVT. 1992. (= Horizonte; 11), ISBN 3-88476-042-4
  • Barbara Buchenau: The early American historical novel in a transatlantic comparison. Frankfurt am Main u. a .: Long. 2002. (Interamericana; 2), ISBN 3-631-38938-8 ; also dissertation University of Göttingen .
  • Wido Hempel: Manzoni and the portrayal of the crowd as a narrative problem in the “Promessi Sposi”, by Scott and in the historical novels of the French Romanticism. Krefeld, Scherpe. 1974. (Writings and lectures of the Petrarca Institute Cologne; 26), ISBN 3-7948-0158-X
  • Fabian Lampart: Time and History. The multiple beginnings of the historical novel with Scott, Arnim, Vigny and Manzoni. Würzburg, Königshausen & Neumann. 2002. (Epistemata; Series Literaturwissenschaft; 401), ISBN 3-8260-2267-X
  • Michael Niehaus: Authors among themselves. Walter Scott, Willibald Alexis, Wilhelm Hauff and others in a literary affair. Heidelberg, dubbing. 2002, ISBN 3-935025-36-X
  • Frauke Reitemeier: German-English literary relations . Sir Walter Scott's historical novel and its German predecessors . Paderborn u. a., Schöningh. 2001. (= contributions to English and American literature; 18), ISBN 3-506-70829-5
  • Peter-Jürgen Rekowski: The narrative attitude in the historical novels by Walter Scott and Charles Dickens. Bern: H. Lang; Frankfurt am Main: Long. 1975. (European University publications; Series 14; 30) ISBN 3-261-01849-6 .

Web links

Commons : Walter Scott  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files
Wikisource: Walter Scott  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. JG Lockhart, Memoirs of the Life of Sir Walter Scott, Paris 1837, Vol. 1, Chapter IX a. XVII.
  2. ^ The Edinburgh Gazette : 2792, 95 , March 31, 1820.
  3. a b Baronetage: SCOTT of Abbotsford, Roxburgh at Leigh Rayment's Peerage.
  4. there p. 8.
  6. '
  8. u. a. Iffland and Schiller:
  9. Kindlers Literatur Lexikon, Vol. 6, Zurich 1970 (1972), p. 5455
  10. Jebediah Cleisbotham, Captain Clutterbuck, Crystal Croftangry, Malachi Malagrowther, Lawrence Templeton
  11. See Bernhard Fabian : The English literature. Volume 2: Authors . Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 3rd edition, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-423-04495-0 , p. 338 f. and Hans-Joachim Müllenbrock: Scott, Sir Walter . In: Metzler Lexicon of English-Speaking Authors . 631 portraits - from the beginning to the present. Edited by Eberhard Kreutzer and Ansgar Nünning , Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2002, ISBN 3-476-01746-X , (special edition Stuttgart / Weimar 2006, ISBN 978-3-476-02125-0 ), pp. 507-510, here p. 507f.
  12. This option was only introduced by the Limited Partnerships Act 1907, c.24
  13. ^ Michael Krüger: Charles Robert Maturin. In: Melmoth the Wanderer. Paperback edition shortened by Michael Krüger. License edition, Wilhelm Heyne, Munich 1971, p. 346-350, here: p. 348 f.
  14. On the economic and legal details: Archived copy ( memento of the original of March 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , there p. 9 ff; @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  15. See Goethe in his letter to Zelter of December 4, 1827 (Weimar edition, IV. Abt., Vol. 43, Weimar 1908, p. 194).
  16. See Goethe zu Eckermann on October 9, 1928 (Artemis commemorative edition, vol. 24, 3rd edition, Zurich 1976, p. 290). See also Ludwig Karl Roesel: Sir Walter Scott's literary and personal relationships with Goethe, Leipzig 1901; GH Needler: Goethe and Scott , Toronto 1950; Paul M. Ochojski: Waverley Ueber Alles . in: Bell (and note 15), pp. 260-270.
  17. Cf. Theodor Fontane: Walter Scott (1871 ), quoted in. According to the edition: Writings and glosses on European literature, Vol. 1, Zurich 1965, p. 132. See also the references on: Archived copy ( Memento of the original of March 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , there p. 2 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  18. Cf. Georg Lukács: The historical novel (1937); quoted from the German edition: Werke, Vol. 6, Neuwied 1965, p. 70.
  19. See Helmbrecht Breinig and Susanne Sacrificemann: The literature of the early republic - historical novel and social novel . In: Hubert Zapf (ed.): American literary history . JB Metzler, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-476-01203-4 , pp. 77-84, here p. 77.
  20. See Helmut Weber: Sir Walter Scott - poet, sheriff, Schotte . In: Hermann Weber ([Ed.): Approaches to the subject of "Law and Literature" - Law, Literature and Art . Neue Juristische Wochenschrift (1), Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft Baden-Baden 2002, ISBN 3-7890-7809-3 , pp. 91-108. Available online as a PDF file at [1]
  21. Ford, Dramatisations of Scott's Novels (see Bibliography); Henry Adelbert White, Sir Walter Scott's Novels on the Stage, New Haven 1927
  22. Archived copy ( memento of the original from March 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , there p. 15 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  23. ^ John Prebble, The King's Jaunt: George IV in Scotland, August 1822, 'one and twenty daft days'. Collins, London 1988