Elizabeth Taylor

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Elizabeth Taylor (1986)

Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor , DBE (often also: "Liz" Taylor ; born February 27, 1932 in Hampstead , London , † March 23, 2011 in Los Angeles , California ), was an American - British actress . She gained fame as a child actress and later as the leading lady of the market-leading Hollywood studio MGM , with which she was under contract from 1942 to 1958. Taylor appeared in numerous commercially successful films of the time and was awarded two Academy Awards and a Golden Globe for best actress. Her name is also closely linked to popularizing the dramatic work of Tennessee Williams through her appearances in the films Cat on a Hot Tin Roof , Suddenly Last Summer and Surf . Elizabeth Taylor has repeatedly used her celebrities to draw attention to political and social problems; Taylor achieved the greatest response with its fundraising activities for AIDS awareness. In 1999 she was raised to the nobility by the British Queen Elizabeth II .

Life and film career

Childhood in London and Beverly Hills (1932–1942)

Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor was the daughter of the art dealer Francis Lenn Taylor (1897–1968) and his wife Sara Viola Taylor, b. Warmbrodt (1895-1994), an actress who appeared on some American and London stages until 1927 under the stage name Sara Sothern . Since her parents were US citizens , Taylor was both US and UK citizens from birth. Her brother Howard Taylor (* 1929, † 2017), although he was actually an oceanographer , occasionally had small film and television roles in the 1960s.

The family belonged to the wealthy upper middle class. From early childhood, Elizabeth took riding and ballet lessons . From 1937 she attended the private Byron House School in Highgate .

After the beginning of the Second World War , the family left London, which was threatened by German air raids, and moved to California , first to Pasadena , then to Pacific Palisades and finally to Beverly Hills , where Francis Taylor hoped to find customers for his art trade in the film scene. Elizabeth Taylor attended the Hawthorne Elementary School there, took riding, ballet and additional singing lessons. However, she has never danced or sung really well; in the film it was hardly used accordingly.

The Taylors came to California at a time when people were crazy about cute child stars like Freddie Bartholomew and Shirley Temple . After unsuccessful attempts to draw the attention of influential Hollywood personalities like Hedda Hopper or Louis B. Mayer to her daughter, whom she compared to Vivien Leigh , who was also dark-haired, the mother was finally able to persuade the universal chairman John Cheever Cowdin to choose Elizabeth to use in a small role. In the late summer of 1941, the nine-year-old worked for a few days in the shooting of a short film comedy that was released in 1942 under the title There's One Born Every Minute . The film was a flop and Taylor's contract wasn't renewed.

Contract actress at MGM

Child actress (1942-1946)

In 1942, her parents won over MGM producer Samuel Marx to use her in the " Lassie " film Heimweh . After this lavishly produced film in Technicolor had paid off in the cinemas, Taylor received a seven-year studio contract , which provided that she would initially play a tiny role in the literary film The Orphan of Lowood in 1943 and a small role in the very profitable patriotic drama The in 1944 White Cliffs of Dover played. All three films were set in England, and one of the reasons she was selected for these roles was her British accent, which she had not yet dropped.

Because she could ride well and exactly what the producers had in mind, Taylor was selected in early 1944 for the title role in the lavish prestige production Little Girl, Big Heart . It was Taylor's first title role and the first film in which the now twelve-year-old appeared in almost every scene. Director Clarence Brown , who directed seven films with Greta Garbo , knew exactly how Taylor's beauty had to be filmed. As the film proved extremely profitable after it opened in theaters in December 1944, the powerful MGM advertising division began starring Taylor. The image that was created for her was that of an animal-mad " girl next door "; Taylor responded to this, among other things, by publishing a story in 1946 about her experiences with a tame squirrel (Nibbles and Me) .

Teenage roles (1946–1949)

Taylor in 1947

MGM used Taylor for the last time as a child in Lassie - Hero on Four Paws (1946). With her next films -  Our Life with Father (1947), Cynthia (1947), Whirling Around Judy (1948), The Imperfect Lady (1948) and Little Brave Jo (1949) - she switched to the young girl profession. As Brenda Maddox has pointed out, Taylor's adolescence coincided with the time when teenagers were "invented" in the western world , that is, the social concept of an age group between childhood and adulthood, the US American representative of which is the "Bobby Soxers" a striking one possessed their own culture, to which, as Maddox writes, "enchanting customs such as walking together [and] telephoning for hours" belonged. Through the two films Cynthia and Wirbel um Judy , Elizabeth Taylor achieved the rank of Teen Queen in the USA , whose stylistic role model many of her contemporaries began to emulate. After the theatrical release of Cynthia , she appeared for the first time on the cover of the influential Life magazine ; in the following decades she was pictured there more often than any other film star. In Cynthia , Taylor embodied an overprotected and unhappy young girl who rebels against the tutelage of her parents, and thus corresponded to the image that the press now had of the real Elizabeth Taylor.

Leading Lady (1949–1955)

The talent developers of the big Hollywood studios often tried to have their expensive child stars switch to the teenage subject, but were rarely as lucky as they were with Elizabeth Taylor. Shirley Temple e.g. B. lost their popularity in the early 1940s and Margaret O'Brien , who was also employed by MGM, failed in 1951 with the film Her First Romance. Vice President Benjamin Thau was particularly concerned with Taylor's career at MGM . In the late 1940s, however, he didn't quite know how to develop her image and what type of role to use her. As Brenda Maddox pointed out, by the time she was sixteen Taylor had developed a raw sex appeal that could have built her into a sex symbol in a similar way to Marilyn Monroe at 20th Century Fox . In this niche, however, MGM was already working with Ava Gardner . Taylor's career planning was also hampered by internal power struggles, which culminated in 1951 when Dore Schary replaced the powerful studio boss Louis B. Mayer . The company never regained its former efficiency and Taylor remained - alongside Grace Kelly , Debbie Reynolds and Leslie Caron  - one of the last contract actresses to be built up as star by MGM.

Many of the films in which Taylor played her first adult roles are now considered film-historical curiosities that can occasionally be seen in art house cinemas and on television night programs. She made her debut as the Leading Lady at the age of 17 in the espionage thriller Conspirator , which was filmed in 1949 in the English MGM studios in London. The film, whose mood was born out of the spirit of the Cold War , shows Taylor as a young American who learns that her dashing husband, played by 38-year-old Robert Taylor , is a Russian spy. Neither this film nor her next one - the comedy Von Katzen und Katern  - made a big impression with audiences or critics.

Not with MGM, but with Paramount , which she "loaned" in the fall of 1949, Taylor found her first good role as leading lady. MGM received $ 35,000 in return for this loan-out . Paramount worked on the adaptation of a novel by Theodore Dreiser . In the movie A Place in the Sun , Montgomery Clift played an ambitious young worker who kills his pregnant girlfriend ( Shelley Winters ) to be with a young lady of high society (Taylor). Directed by George Stevens , who, in view of the Hays Code, had to cover up all socially critical implications of the material and bring the personal motifs of the characters to the fore, Taylor portrayed the young seductress not as a light-hearted woman, but so personable that the audience with the Killer sympathized. After extensive editing, the film was released in August 1951 and grossed $ 3.5 million. This made him one of the ten most successful of the year. Influential critic Andrew Sarris said at the time that Clift and Taylor were "the most beautiful couple in the history of cinema".

The economically standout films MGM made with Taylor around 1950 were Father of the Bride, A Gift from Heaven, and Ivanhoe - The Black Knight. Father of the Bride (1950) and the sequel A Gift from Heaven (1951) were two films, entirely tailored to the talent of Spencer Tracy, about the cheerful experiences of a father whose daughter (Taylor) marries and has their first child. After shooting the first film, Taylor, who had spent her school years at the company's MGM Studio School from 1942, received her high school diploma and married the hotel heir Nicky Hilton in May 1950 . MGM staged the wedding as a promotional event for the two Spencer Tracy films. When Taylor traveled to England in the summer of 1951 to take part in Ivanhoe - The Black Knight (1952), the marriage was already divorced. She only played a supporting role in this costume film, but Ivanhoe achieved the fourth best grossing of the year in US cinemas and MGM gave Taylor a new seven-year studio contract.

Despite her success in A Place in the Sun , MGM didn't see her in the early 1950s - such as B. Grace Kelly - considered a top asset. Had that been the case, the gossip press would have discreetly overlooked her divorce and subsequent love affairs under the pressure of the studio; but this was the first time Taylor got bad press. Although she was repeatedly in conversation for interesting leading roles - e.g. B. in The Heir apparent , A Heart and a Crown and The Barefoot Countess  - but other actresses were always preferred. Occasionally she was just unlucky with her films, such as the comedy The Sweet Trap , whose theatrical release was delayed until 1952 after her screen partner Larry Parks was blacklisted by the Committee for Un-American Activities .

One lesson MGM drew from Taylor's success in A Place in the Sun was to use her again and again as a spoiled young lady of glamorous high society , e.g. B. In A Pampered Beast (1953), Elefantenpfad (1954) and Beau Brummell (1954). Other film studios later continued this habit, for example in Giants (1956), Cleopatra (1963), Surf (1968), The Night of a Thousand Eyes (1973) and The Rival (1973). Since her marriage to the rich Nicky Hilton, Taylor presented herself to the public as a lover of extravagant luxury ; Richard Burton later acquired z. B. one of the most valuable jewelery collections in the world. Taylor made no secret of her frequently changing sexual relationships - a behavior that was still heavily shamed on the eve of the " Sexual Revolution ". As Donald Spoto has pointed out, Taylor's image and the fascination it exerted on its contemporaries were closely linked to the naive enthusiasm that accompanied the economic boom of the 1950s. According to Spoto, Taylor presented a kind of “Miss Libertine” to the public, who “carries a torch for absolute autonomy and thus points the way to enjoyment - but she was also a flesh-and-blood woman on perpetual vacation, and this one She played the role to perfection. "

In 1953, MGM loaned them to Paramount for the exotic film Elephant Path , in which Taylor replaced Vivien Leigh, who had been canceled while filming. Taylor embodied an attractive young woman who achieved fairytale luxury through a somewhat hasty marriage - her husband is the extremely wealthy heir to a Ceylonese tea plantation - but who discovered that there was actually no room for her in this paradise. The film Elefantenpfad is remarkable because Taylor not only played a glamorous luxury creature in it, but was also seen for the first time as a “poor rich girl” - as a woman who is materially lacking for nothing, but who only finds love after her has undergone lengthy and painful self-denial. Taylor played the roles of such women who were actually strong, but at the same time longing for submission, in different ways later and again, for example in her following film Symphony of the Heart (1954), but also in The Cat on the Hot Tin Roof (1958), Cleopatra ( 1963) and pointed in The Taming of the Shrew (1967).

Another variant of the luxury creature was the type of the charming but superficial, self- and pleasure-addicted young woman, which she had already embodied in Brave little Jo (1949) and A spoiled beast (1953). However, she only fully developed such a character in the F. Scott Fitzgerald adaptation Back then in Paris (1954), in which she portrays a fun-loving, young American who falls in love with a young writer (audience favorite Van Johnson ) in Paris . She respects his artistic ambitions so little that the marriage fails.

Complex characters (1955–1960)

Taylor, as many of her biographers have found, had neither good script judgment nor a sense of which film roles would advance her career. MGM also made many wrong decisions on this point. She actually found her next interesting role not in MGM, but in the Warner production Giants , for which director George Stevens had originally intended Grace Kelly. The role was her most demanding to date. Taylor embodied the character of Leslie over a large age range (21-45 years) and showed her in all its complexity, with witty, emancipated, shy and caring features. The film, which also starred in Rock Hudson and James Dean , grossed $ 14 million in US theaters, making it the most profitable Warner released in 1956.

After Taylor had proven so valuable to Warner, MGM now also used her in a prestige production. The bestseller film The Land of the Rain Tree (1957) showed her as a southern beauty who goes mad in a complicated marriage with an unequal partner (Montgomery Clift). In it she played her first insane scene . With the help of a language trainer, Taylor acquired a flawless southern accent for the role. The film, directed by Edward Dmytryk and produced very expensively using the in-house MGM Camera 65 process, was MGM's first widescreen film and was intended to build on the success of the blockbuster Gone with the Wind .

Although the film did not match its model, The Land of the Rain Tree was the first MGM film with Taylor as the Leading Lady to achieve top grossing. The second followed immediately. In the 1958 Tennessee Williams film adaptation of The Cat on a Hot Tin Roof , Taylor played the young wife Maggie, who tries to save her husband Brick ( Paul Newman ), who suffers from an unspeakable problem, from his self-destructive tendencies. In Williams' play, Brick is homosexual, a subject that director Richard Brooks was not allowed to include in the film because of the Hays Code . Brooks therefore dealt particularly intensively with the portrayal of Maggie, and under his direction Taylor interpreted the character as a multi-layered woman with just as many human weaknesses as lovable traits, who on the one hand wants the inheritance, but on the other hand really longs for the love of her husband to win. The Cat on a Hot Tin Roof became the MGM's most commercially successful film of the year, earning Taylor not only the best reviews of her career to date, but also a spot among the top ten box office stars in Quigley's Annual List of Box-Office Champions for the first time it was represented a total of nine times by 1968.

While the film was being made, Taylor's third husband, film producer Michael Todd , was killed in a plane crash. The fact that she soon began a romance with the popular singer Eddie Fisher , who left his wife, actress Debbie Reynolds , because of her , brought her temporarily very bad press. Out of consideration for Fisher, who was Jewish and whom she married in the spring of 1959, Taylor, who had been raised by her parents in the Christian Science faith, committed herself to Reform Judaism from that point on .

In 1958 Taylor's studio contract with MGM expired. She found her first freelance job in the summer of 1959 at Columbia . In Suddenly Last Summer , another Tennessee Williams film adaptation, she played the role of a seductive young woman who loves a young man. But he misuses them as bait for the men he actually desires. When he comes to a brutal end, the circumstances of which his mother ( Katharine Hepburn ) tries to cover up by all means, the young woman is traumatized and only escapes the madness thanks to an understanding neurologist ( Montgomery Clift ). Although the film posed a tough challenge to the Hays Code with its portrayals of violence, incest, cannibalism and prostitution, it became the most commercially successful Columbia released that year.

Although Taylor was no longer a contract actress with MGM, she still owed the studio one last film. The role MGM had intended for her - that of Gloria on Butterfield 8  - she only took on because she needed the fee and couldn't afford a lawsuit. As noted by Donald Spoto, among others, the characters in this film have no depth, and its theme - a call girl's unhappy love for a married man - is merely depressing, but does not achieve true tragedy. Despite the weak script, Taylor succeeded in expanding her acting repertoire once again and for the first time to portray a character with dark, sensual and evil sides instead of a sweet, innocent young woman. Telephone Butterfield 8 was the most commercially successful film released by MGM in 1960, and it won her first Oscar for Elizabeth Taylor, who was nominated in 1958, 1959 and 1960.


After calling Butterfield 8 , Taylor was no longer tied to MGM and, as was customary in the industry by now, only signed contracts for individual film projects. As early as 1958, she had entrusted the influential agent Kurt Frings , who also looked after Audrey Hepburn , with safeguarding her interests . Frings negotiated for Taylor with 20th Century Fox about the title role in the monumental Cleopatra , a prestige production that the pressured company hoped to reorganize itself with. Since films with Taylor had previously been a safe investment, Fox also agreed to their demand for a million dollar fee - a sum that had never been paid to a movie star before. With Taylor later also participating in the profits as a co-producer, her total income from the film ended up being more than $ 7 million. Taylor liked the role because she was allowed to play Cleopatra not simply as a calculating seductress, but also as an idealist who works for world peace and is even willing to forego part of her power. Filming began in London in the summer of 1960 after very long and complicated production preparations. Since neither the script nor the decorations were finished on time and Taylor fell seriously ill twice, there were again long interruptions, so that the production costs rose from the originally estimated two to more than 37 million dollars in the end.

Rome became the final production site. Stephen Boyd , who was to play the role of Mark Antony in Cleopatra , was replaced in September 1961 by Richard Burton, whom Taylor had known only slightly since the early 1950s. With both Taylor and Burton married and with studios like Fox no longer having confidentiality agreements with the press, the love affair that developed between the two actors while filming in Rome was more public than any of Taylor's previous affairs . So it was not only from the Vatican - from Pope John XXIII. , by Vatican Radio and particularly sharply by the Osservatore della Domenica  - publicly criticized, but also by Iris Blitch , a member of the US House of Representatives , who in the spring of 1962 unsuccessfully campaigned for Taylor and Burton to re-enter the USA after filming was completed should be denied. Taylor and Burton's relationship became, as Donald Spoto put it, "the most persistently publicized private affair of the 1960s". Since their romance became known in April 1962, Taylor and Burton have been constantly besieged by paparazzi and curious crowds. Their ostentatiously displayed indifference to the moral outrage that met them and their open contempt for social conventions, as Taylor's biographers have repeatedly pointed out, played a role in the liberalization process that gradually led to the taboo being removed from “illicit sex”. The relationship between Taylor and Burton was considered a prominent model case that was repeatedly cited in the social discourse that arose around this topic at the time. Randy Taraborrelli wrote, "You have indeed led a sexual revolution ."

Neither Taylor nor Burton won any actor awards through their appearances in Cleopatra , but the film paid for itself in 1966 and is now considered the most commercially successful of its cinema year.

Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton (1962–1972)

When Taylor and Burton finally married on March 15, 1964, they were so prominent in the tabloids and so great the audience's need to see the couple on screen that by 1967 all films in which Taylor and Burton appeared together were earned their production costs easily, even in those criticized. Taylor's fees were almost always $ 1 million per film through 1969; Burton usually received less. From 1963 to 1973, the couple appeared in ten other films, although Taylor only had very minor roles in three ( Doctor Faustus , 1967; Queen for a Thousand Days , 1969; Unter dem Milchwald, 1972). In the other films - especially Hotel International (1963), … Who Desires Everything (1965), Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966), The Taming of the Shrew (1967) and His Divorce, Her Divorce (1973) - they deliberately served the expectations of the audience, who could not get enough of their turbulent love and married life.

Burton, who until then “only” had the rank of first-class Shakespeare actor, achieved international fame through the films. Artistically, however, the collaboration with Taylor was not very productive for him. Although Burton learned a lot about film acting from Taylor, he did his best in films such as Becket (1963), The Night of the Iguana (1964), and The Spy Who Came in the Cold (1965), in which Taylor did not appear.

All films in which Taylor appeared in the following years were produced in Europe. For tax reasons, she also gave up her US citizenship in the mid-1960s and formally took up residence in Switzerland . To love movies Hotel International and covet everything ... followed 1965/66 by Warner Bros. produced Edward Albee film version Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf ?, one worn by daring dialogues chamber play about illusions, human relationships, especially marriage threaten. Taylor again played an extremely complex role in that film, and for the first time a woman 12 or 15 years older than herself. The film became the most commercially successful Warner released in 1966, and her role brought Taylor among a few in 1967 also won her second Oscar with significant critical awards.

Ellis Auburn complains that this Oscar was the "kiss of death" for Taylor's career as a serious actress, because it led to a type casting as Xanthippe , which she could hardly avoid in the following years. As a nagging or teasing mega-figure, she also appeared in her next larger roles, for example as Katharina in Franco Zeffirelli 's Shakespeare adaptation The Taming of the Shrew (1967; with Burton) or as Leonora in John Huston's artistically and thematically unusual, but commercially unsuccessful chamber play Reflection in the Golden Eye (1967). In 1967 Taylor and Burton founded the Taybur company , with which they wanted to produce films themselves, but which then never became active. The avant-garde film Surf (1968), in which Taylor was again loud and vulgar, is the first in a whole series of films -  The Woman From Nowhere (1969), The Only Game in Town (1970), X, Y and Zee (1972), Unter dem Milchwald (1972; with Burton), Hammersmith is out (1972; with Burton), The Night of a Thousand Eyes (1973) and The Rival (1973) - for which she still received millions in fees, at least in the USA no longer received any attention from the public or criticism. In Europe, however, Taylor has now received major film awards and some critics and authors are of the opinion that she only showed her best acting in a time when she dared to portray unattractive women.

Withdrawal from the film business and death

Taylor with fellow actress Bette Davis (1981)

As early as the 1950s, television increasingly displaced cinema and gained in importance in the following two decades. Elizabeth Taylor first appeared in a television role in 1972, namely in the television film His Divorce, Her Divorce, produced for ABC . It was their last film appearance together with Richard Burton. Their marriage was divorced in 1974; They married again in 1975, but divorced again in 1976.

Taylor's last film appearancesIdentikit (1974), The Blue Bird (1976), The Smile of a Summer Night (1977), Murder in the Mirror (1980), Il giovane Toscanini (1988) and Flintstones - The Flintstones (1994) - were received by audiences and criticism hardly noticed. Taylor turned forty in 1972 and was too old for a leading lady by Hollywood standards; the search for good roles was also made difficult by her increasing body. The end of her film career was accelerated by her marriage to the Republican politician John Warner , with whom she lived in Washington, DC from 1978 after his election as US Senator . Although she did not have the appropriate technology as a film actress, Taylor first appeared as a stage actress in 1981, initially in Lillian Hellman's family drama The Little Foxes, which Zev Bufman had produced for Broadway . The play was well received by audiences and grossed Taylor $ 1.5 million in nine months. 1983 was followed by Noël Coward's divorce lust game Private Lives, in which Taylor appeared one last time alongside Richard Burton, who died in 1984. Although it was panned by criticism, Private Lives, which Taylor also co-produced this time around, was another hit with audiences.

In December 1983 Taylor, who had been an alcoholic and later a drug addict since her relationship with Burton, began a seven-week inpatient drug rehab program at the Betty Ford Center, California . A second inpatient stay followed there in October 1988. Along with Liza Minnelli, Taylor was the first very prominent personality to speak openly about this treatment and thus also campaigned for the acceptance and recognition of alcoholism as a disease.

While her film work waned, Taylor appeared repeatedly in television films until 2001 - such as Between Friends (1983), Malice in Wonderland (1985), There Must Be a Pony (1986) and Poker Alice (1987) - and individual episodes of television series ( General Hospital , All My Children , Hotel and Torches in the Storm ). From 1992 to 2003 she occasionally appeared as a voice actress for animated films and series.

Elizabeth Taylor lived in a large mansion in Bel Air , California from 1981 . After 2003 she stopped acting, but appeared on talk shows and television shows. She died on March 23, 2011 at 01:28 local time at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles of heart failure . She had been hospitalized there for heart problems since February 2011. The funeral took place a day later in Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Glendale) , California. And even for her funeral - as she had it laid down in her will - her coffin should arrive 15 minutes later.

Children, marriages and friendships

Elizabeth Taylor with daughter Liza Todd, sons Christopher and Michael Wilding and her husband Michael Todd, photographed by Toni Frissell , 1957

Elizabeth Taylor had three biological children and an adopted daughter and, apart from numerous romances and engagements reported in the press, was married eight times:

  1. Conrad Nicholson Hilton, Jr. (May 6, 1950 - February 1, 1951; divorced)
  2. Michael Wilding (February 21, 1952 - January 26, 1957; divorced),
    two sons together: Michael Jr. (* 1953; actor) and Christopher (* 1955)
  3. Michael Todd (February 2, 1957 - March 22, 1958; the marriage lasted until Todd's death in a plane crash),
    one daughter: Elizabeth "Liza" Frances (* 1957)
  4. Eddie Fisher (May 12, 1959 - March 6, 1964; divorced)
  5. Richard Burton (March 15, 1964 - June 26, 1974; divorced),
    one daughter was adopted in the marriage: Maria (* 1961, adopted 1964); Taylor had initiated the adoption process during her previous marriage to Fisher
  6. Richard Burton (October 10, 1975 - July 29, 1976; divorced)
  7. John Warner (December 4, 1976 - November 7, 1982; divorced)
  8. Larry Fortensky (October 6, 1991 - October 31, 1995; divorced)

Taylor had been friends with actor Roddy McDowall since childhood , Montgomery Clift since filming A Place in the Sun , and Michael Jackson since 1984 . Taylor was also close friends with Rock Hudson since filming Giants . She helped to organize his memorial service after his death in 1985. Their commitment to HIV- positive people came to a large extent from this friendship.

Acting technique and means of expression

Like many other successful actresses of her generation - e.g. B. Shirley Temple , Audrey Hepburn , Tippi Hedren , Debbie Reynolds , Kim Novak and Shirley MacLaine  - Elizabeth Taylor never received formal acting lessons, but only acquired her craft skills on the set , where she was taught by her directors (George Stevens, Richard Brooks , Mike Nichols) and later also her film partners (Montgomery Clift, Richard Burton) were instructed and trained. Taraborrelli also mentions the mother as a teacher.

This hands-on training had a number of consequences for Taylor's acting work. The MGM studios were an extremely efficient facility, a lot of money involved and the discipline counted more than artistic self-expression. Taylor fitted in well with this system because she learned at a very young age to meet the expectations of her directors. She was very disciplined and focused on set and rarely made a mess, so that the first take could usually be used. At MGM she was nicknamed One-Shot-Liz ("First Recording Liz"). The Hollywood Women's Press Club even honored her with its 1985 Golden Apple Award for her cooperative behavior in every respect . More than other actresses, Taylor was also dependent on the ability of her directors, and she always showed her weakest acting performances when the director was mediocre.

Unlike the Method cast, who began to dominate the acting scene in the 1950s, and similar to e.g. B. Spencer Tracy Taylor prepared for her text, but did not plan her means of expression (emphasis, gestures, etc.), but developed them spontaneously in front of the camera, which was her real element. Her screen partners, who had a real education, were occasionally irritated when she just recited her lines during a rehearsal and only started to play when the camera started. Similar to Marilyn Monroe, Taylor's acting work was often ignored by critics because the director, camera, lighting and mask presented her beauty so professionally and effectively that the actual means of expression behind it were easy to overlook. However, Taylor herself believed that she was best when she was carefully costumed, made up and lit.

Engagement and activities outside of film and television

Elizabeth Taylor (1985)

In early 1958 - during the Cold War  - Taylor's third husband, film producer Michael Todd, attempted to get the actress out as a goodwill ambassador for a US-Soviet understanding. The US authorities did not want to hear about it, and although Taylor had succeeded in introducing Bulganin , Khrushchev , Mikoyan and Gromyko during a visit to Moscow on January 27, 1958 , their efforts ended unsuccessfully. A second goodwill trip behind the Iron Curtain , which Taylor and Eddie Fisher undertook in July 1961 on the occasion of the Moscow International Film Festival, found stronger press coverage . In 1975 Taylor took part in the fairy tale film The Blue Bird, shot in Moscow and Leningrad . The film was the only US-Soviet co-production that took place during the Cold War. However, it flopped in US cinemas. A third "diplomatic mission", which was not coordinated with the US authorities, took Taylor at the end of 1982 to the Middle East states of Lebanon and Israel , which had just fought an open war that summer .

In 1976, Taylor gave her name to the founding of a jewelry trading company (Elizabeth Taylor Diamond Corporation), but was robbed of her agreed income and parted ways with the company in early 1978. In 1987, Chesebrough Pond’s subsidiary Parfums International marketed a Taylor-named one for the first time Perfume ; others followed. In the mid-1990s, she was one of the richest women in the United States because of her income from that business, according to Forbes Magazine ; In 1994 her personal fortune was more than $ 600 million.

Back in 1964, Taylor and Burton, who had hemophilia , founded a Richard Burton Hemophilia Fund , a fundraising organization that raised money to raise awareness about the disease. In 1981 the AIDS pandemic broke out in the United States , and while the authorities and politicians ignored the problem, which was initially exclusively associated with homosexuality, Elizabeth Taylor became the first person in the country to use her prominence in June 1985 to draw public attention to it. In 1985 she became chair of one of the first major AIDS charities (Commitment of Life), whose proceeds went to AIDS Project Los Angeles (APLA), and also helped found the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) . In 1991 she founded her own Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation. Until 1992 she appeared more publicly with her commitment and raised more donations for AIDS work than any other prominent figure in the country. In 1998 she spoke at a fundraising event in Santa Monica.

Image and impact

Taylor's film career spanned 52 years as she matured from naive child to aging lady. Their image continued to develop during this time, with the advertising department of MGM and later the tabloids often only being able to follow what Taylor told them to do. It was one of the first MGM creations that no longer unconditionally submitted to the guidelines of his father's Louis B. Mayer and wanted to decide - at least to a small extent - about its own career. By the time she left MGM in 1958 and thus gained the formal freedom to determine her own image, she had already made the art of media-effective self-expression her second nature. As an MGM creation, she had learned very early on that not just working in front of the camera, but her whole life - photo ops, public appearances, award ceremonies - was acting. Taraborrelli wrote in 2006, "She learned to play, to be Elizabeth Taylor, and it was a full-time job." And, "She loved being a star and rarely complained about it like so many other celebrities do [ …]. ”Since 1964, Taylor has also been assisted by one of the country's best press agents, John Springer .

Through her repeated appearances in film adaptations of works by homosexual authors (Tennessee Williams, Edward Albee, James Kirkwood, Jr.), in films that openly or covertly dealt with homosexuality (Reflection in the Golden Eye, The Woman from Nowhere, X, Y and Zee), through trash and drag roles like in surf, which were perceived as camp by their gay fans , and through their friendships with bisexual and homosexual colleagues (Roddy McDowall, Montgomery Clift, Rock Hudson, Helmut Berger), Taylor also got on a homosexual idol. The artists who owed her stylistic suggestions included u. a. the drag queen Divine .

Pop artist Andy Warhol painted Elizabeth Taylor repeatedly in the 1960s. Michael Jackson, who had set up an "Elizabeth Taylor Shrine" in Neverland, quoted this jokingly in his 1988 music video Moonwalker (song Leave Me Alone). He later wrote a song Elizabeth, I Love You, which he sang in a 1997 television gala produced for ABC .

In Japan , the Time Kill Communication publisher launched a magazine in 1998 that promised divorced help and whose title LIZ refers to Elizabeth Taylor, who was divorced seven times. Toy manufacturer Mattel released three Elizabeth Taylor Barbie doll models in 2000 .

Elizabeth Taylor has been hailed time and again by the press, photo book publishers and individual personalities as the "most beautiful woman in the world". The American Film Institute placed her 7th on their list of the 25 greatest female screen legends in American film history .

German dubbing voices

Erika Georgi: The imperfect lady
Marion Degler : Conspirators, A Gift from Heaven, Elephant Path, Symphony of the Heart, Back then in Paris, Beau Brummell, The Land of the Rain Tree, The Cat on the Hot Tin Roof, ... who desire everything
Bettina Schön : Ivanhoe, the black knight, a place in the sun
Eleonore Noelle : Giants
Johanna von Koczian : Suddenly last summer
Dinah Hinz : Telephone Butterfield 8, Hotel International
Rosemarie Fendel : Cleopatra, reflection in the golden eye, The Taming of the Shrew, The Comedians' Hour, Surf, The Woman From Nowhere, The Only Game in Town, X, Y and Zee, The Rival, Entebbe, Torches in the Storm
Hannelore Schroth : Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Ute Meinhardt: That'll never happen again - That's Entertainment
Dagmar Altrichter : Flintstones - The Feuerstein family



1942: There's One Born Every Minute - Directed by Harold Young
1943: Heimweh (Lassie Come Home) - Director: Fred M. Wilcox
1943: The Orphan of Lowood (Jane Eyre) - directed by Robert Stevenson
1944: The White Cliffs of Dover - Directed by Clarence Brown
1944: Little Girl, Big Heart (National Velvet) - directed by Clarence Brown
1946: Lassie - Hero on Four Paws (Courage of Lassie) - Director: Fred M. Wilcox
1947: Cynthia - Director: Robert Z. Leonard
1947: Life with Father (Life with Father) - Director: Michael Curtiz
1948: Whirl around Judy (A Date with Judy) - Director: Richard Thorpe
1948: The Imperfect Lady (Julia Misbehaves) - Director: Jack Conway
1949: Little Brave Jo (Little Women) - Director: Mervyn LeRoy
1949: Conspirator (Conspirator) - Director: Victor Saville
1950: Von Katzen und Katern (The Big Hangover) - Director: Norman Krasna
1950: Father of the Bride (Father of the Bride) - Director: Vincente Minnelli
1951: A Gift from Heaven (Father's Little Dividend) - Directed by Vincente Minnelli
1951: A Place in the Sun (A Place in the Sun) - Director: George Stevens
1951: Quo vadis? (as an extra) - Director: Mervyn LeRoy
1951: Callaway Went Thataway ( cameo ) - Directed by Norman Panama, Melvin Frank
1952: The sweet case (Love Is Better Than Ever) - Director: Stanley Donen
1952: Ivanhoe - The Black Knight (Ivanhoe) - Director: Richard Thorpe
1953: A spoiled Beast (The Girl Who Had Everything) - Director: Richard Thorpe
1954: Elefantenpfad (Elephant Walk) - Director: William Dieterle
1954: Symphony of the Heart (Rhapsody) - Director: Charles Vidor
1954: Beau Brummell - Rebel and seducer (Beau Brummell) - Director: Curtis Bernhardt
1954: Back in Paris (The Last Time I Saw Paris) - Director: Richard Brooks
1956: Giant (Giant) - Director: George Stevens
1957: The Land of the Rain Tree (Raintree County) - Director: Edward Dmytryk
1958: Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (Cat on a Hot Tin Roof) - Director: Richard Brooks
1959: Suddenly Last Summer (Suddenly, Last Summer) - Director: Joseph L. Mankiewicz
1960 Scent of Mystery / Holiday in Spain (cameo) directed by Jack Cardiff
1960: Telephone Butterfield 8 (Butterfield 8) - Director: Daniel Mann
1963: Cleopatra (Cleopatra) - Director: Joseph L. Mankiewicz
1963 Hotel International (The VIPs) - Director: Anthony Asquith
1964: Becket (as an extra) - Director: Peter Glenville
1965: … who desire everything (The Sandpiper) - Director: Vincente Minnelli
1966: Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?) - Director: Mike Nichols
1967: The Taming of the Shrew (The Taming of the Shrew) - Director: Franco Zeffirelli
1967: Doktor Faustus (Doctor Faustus) - Directed by Richard Burton , Nevill Coghill
1967: Reflections in a Golden Eye (Reflections in a Golden Eye) - Director: John Huston
1967: The Comedians (The Comedians) - Director: Peter Glenville
1968: Surf (Boom) - Director: Joseph Losey
1969: The Woman from Nowhere (Secret Ceremony) - Director: Joseph Losey
1969: Anne of the Thousand Days (Anne of the Thousand Days) unnamed - Director: Charles Jarrott
1970: The only game in town (The Only Game in Town) - Director: George Stevens
1972: X, Y and Zee (Zee and Co.) - Director: Brian G. Hutton
1972: Under Milk Wood (Under Milk Wood) - Director: Andrew Sinclair
1972: Hammersmith Is Out / Hammersmith Is Out (Hammersmith Is Out) - Director: Peter Ustinov
1973: The Night of a Thousand Eyes (Night Watch) - Director: Brian G. Hutton
1973: The Rival (Ash Wednesday) - Director: Larry Peerce
1974: Identikit - Director: Giuseppe Patroni Griffi
1976: The Blue Bird (The Blue Bird) - Director: George Cukor
1977: Smiles of a Summer Night (A Little Night Music) - Director: Harold Price
1979: Winter Kills (cameo) - Director: William Richert
1980: Murder in the Mirror (The Mirror Crack'd) - Director: Guy Hamilton
1988: Il giovane Toscanini (Young Toscanini) - Director: Franco Zeffirelli
1994: Flintstones - The Flintstones (The Flintstones) - Director: Brian Levant

TV films and series

1973: His Divorce, Her Divorce (Divorce His, Divorce Hers) - Director: Waris Hussein
1977: Entebbe (Victory at Entebbe) - directed by Marvin J. Chomsky
1978: Return Engagement / Repeat Performance - Director: Joseph Hardy
1981: General Hospital (guest appearances in 3 episodes)
1983: Between Friends - Director: Lou Antonio
1984: Hotel in the episode: privacy
1985: Torches in the Storm (North and South) - Director: Richard T. Heffron
1985: Mad Hollywood (Malice in Wonderland) - Directed by Gus Trikonis
1986 There Must Be a Pony - Directed by Joseph Sargent
1987: Poker Alice - Director: Arthur Allan Seidelman
1989: Sweet Bird of Youth (Sweet Bird of Youth) - Director: Nicolas Roeg
1996: The Nanny (Where's the Pearls?) - Director: Dorothy Lyman
2001: These Old Broads - Director: Matthew Diamond

Voice actress

1992: Captain Planet (TV animation series, 1 episode)
1992: The Simpsons (TV animation series, 1 episode)
2003: God, the Devil and Bob (TV animation series, 1 episode)

Film reports and documentaries about Elizabeth Taylor

1963: Elizabeth Taylor in London (TV documentary, USA)
1975: Elizabeth Taylor: Hollywood's Child (TV documentary, USA)
1991: A Closer Look: Elizabeth Taylor (TV documentary, USA)
1996: Elizabeth Taylor (TV documentary, USA, screenplay: David Ansen)
2000: Elizabeth Taylor: England's Other Elizabeth (TV documentary, USA, Director: Chris Bould)
2000: Elizabeth Taylor (episode of the TV series Legenden, Germany, director: Michael Strauven)
2001: Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton (TV documentary, directed by Laurent Preyale)
2001: Hollywood Legends: Elizabeth Taylor and Shirley Temple (USA, Director: Marino Amoruso)
2002: Elizabeth Taylor (episode of the TV series Intimate Portrait, USA, screenplay: Larissa Bills)
2003: Elizabeth Taylor: Facets (episode of the TV series Biography, USA)
2008: Elizabeth Taylor versus Richard Burton (episode of the television series Duelle, Germany, director: Stephen Lamby, Michael Wech)
2011: Elizabeth Taylor: A Tribute (TV documentary, UK)

Fictional films about Elizabeth Taylor

1987: A Matter of Convenience (TV movie, with Marion Heathfield as Elizabeth Taylor)
1995: The Elizabeth Taylor Story (TV movie, with Casey Ahern and Sherilyn Fenn )
2004: Man in the Mirror: The Michael Jackson Story (TV movie, with Lynne Cormack)
2012: Liz & Dick (TV movie, with Lindsay Lohan)
2013: Burton and Taylor (TV movie, with Helena Bonham Carter)

Stage appearances

1964: World Enough and Time (June, Lunt-Fontanne Theater, Broadway, stage reading)
1966: The tragic story of Doctor Faustus (Oxford Playhouse, Oxford )
1981: The Little Foxes (May 5 to September 9, Martin Beck Theater, Broadway)
1983: Private Lives of Noël Coward (May 8th to July 17th, Lunt-Fontanne Theater)


Taylor in 1981

Film awards


  • Awards
    1961: Best Actress (Telephone Butterfield 8)
    1967: Best Actress (Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?)
    1993: Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award for her commitment to the fight against AIDS
  • Nominations
    1958: Best Actress (The Land of the Rain Tree)
    1959: Best Actress (The Cat on a Hot Tin Roof)
    1960: Best Actress (Suddenly Last Summer)

BAFTA Awards

  • Awards
    1967: Best British Actress (Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?)
    1999: Academy Fellowship for overall achievement
    2005: Britannia Award
  • Nominations
    1959: Best Foreign Actress (The Cat on a Hot Tin Roof)
    1968: Best British Actress (The Taming of the Shrew)

Golden Globe Award

  • Awards
    1957: Special Achievement Award
    1960: Best Actress - Drama (Suddenly Last Summer)
    1974: Henrietta Award for most popular film actress in the world
    1985: Cecil B. DeMille Award
  • Nominations
    1961: Best Actress - Drama (Telephone Butterfield 8)
    1966: Henrietta Award for most popular film actress in the world
    1967: Best Actress - Drama (Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?)
    1969: Henrietta Award for most popular film actress in the world
    1974: Best Actress - Drama (The Rival)

Laurel Award

  • Awards
    1958: Best Actress in a Drama (The Land of the Rain Tree)
    1959: Best Actress in a Drama (The Cat on a Hot Tin Roof)
    1960: Best Actress in a Drama (Suddenly Last Summer)
    1965: Best Female Star
    1966: Best Female Star
    1967: Best Actress in a Drama (Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?)
  • Nominations
    1958: Best female star (4th place)
    1959: Best female star (2nd place)
    1960: Best female star (2nd place)
    1961: Best female star (2nd place)
    1962: Best female star (6th place)
    1963: Best female star (2nd place)
    1964: Best female star (2nd place)
    1966: Best leading actress in a drama (... who desire everything, 3rd place)
    1967: Best female star (2nd place)
    1968: Best female star (7th place)
    1971: Best female star (6th place)

Further film awards

1966: National Board of Review Award for Best Actress (Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?)
1966: New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress (Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?)
1967: Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress (Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?)
1969: Étoile de Cristal together with Mia Farrow as best foreign actress (The Woman from Nowhere)
1972: David di Donatello as best foreign actress (X, Y and Zee)
1972: Silver Bear from Berlin as best actress (Hammersmith is out)
1981: Filmex Award
1985: Golden Apple Award as "Female Star of the Year"
1985: Women in Film Crystal Award
1986: Film Society of Lincoln Center Gala Tribute
1993: Life Achievement Award from the American Film Institute
1997: Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award
2000: GLAAD Media Awards Media Vanguard Award
2001: Taos Talking Picture Festival (Maverick Award)
Taylor's Star on the Walk of Fame, Immediately After Her Death (2011)

Elizabeth Taylor has also been immortalized with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame (at 6336 Hollywood Boulevard).

State awards

1987: Ribbon of the French Legion of Honor (for their commitment in the fight against AIDS)
1999: Appointment as Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II (for her achievements as an actress and as an AIDS activist), thus elevation to the British nobility
2001: Presidential Citizens Medal (second highest civil order in the United States)

Further honors

1949: Miss Junior America; "Princess" of the Jewelry Council
1950: Roscoe Prize from satirical magazine The Harvard Lampoon for "gallant insistence on her career despite a total inability to act"
1968: Bambi
1977: Hasty Pudding Woman of the Year
1980: Simon Wiesenthal Humanitarian Award (for your commitment to Judaism)
1981: Theater World Award (for her appearance in Die kleine Füchse)
1981: Outer Critics Circle Award (for her appearance in Die kleine Füchse)
1988: Aristotle Prize from the Athens Onassis Foundation (for their commitment to the fight against AIDS)
1992: Prince of Asturias Prize
1998: Special award from the Council of Fashion Designers of America ("for a lifetime of glamor")
1999: Angel Award from Project Angel Food
2000: Marian Anderson Prize from the City of Philadelphia (for her humanitarian work)
2002: Kennedy Center Honors Award (for her contribution to American culture through the performing arts)


Unless otherwise stated, all book titles listed are in English.


About Elizabeth Taylor


  • Brenda Maddox: Who's Afraid of Elizabeth Taylor? A Myth of Our Time. Evans, 1977, ISBN 0-87131-243-3 .
  • Sheridan Morley: Elizabeth Taylor. A celebration. Pavilion Books, 1988, ISBN 1-85145-437-3 .
  • Andrea Thain, Michael O. Huebner: Elizabeth Taylor. Hollywood's Last Diva - A Biography. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1994, ISBN 3-499-13512-4 (German).
  • David Heymann: Liz: An Intimate Biography of Elizabeth Taylor. Citadel, 1995, ISBN 1-55972-267-3 (biography which Taylor went to court in 1994)
  • Donald Spoto: Elizabeth Taylor. Time Warner Paperbacks, 1996, ISBN 0-7515-1501-9 .
  • Alexander Walker: Elizabeth: The Life of Elizabeth Taylor. Grove Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8021-3769-5 .
  • J. Randy Taraborrelli: Elizabeth. Grand Central Publishing, 2007, ISBN 0-446-40036-X .
  • William J. Mann: How to Be a Movie Star: Elizabeth Taylor in Hollywood. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Trade, 2009, ISBN 0-547-13464-9 .
  • Sam Kashner and Nancy Schoenberger (from the American by Johanna Sophia Wais): Furious love: Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton - The love story of the century. Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-453-20012-8 .
  • Christa Maerker: We loved each other desperately: Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton. Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-548-61145-7 .

Illustrated books

  • Larissa Branin: Liz: the Pictorial Biography of Elizabeth Taylor. Courage Books, 2000, ISBN 0-7624-0774-3 .
  • Gianni Bozzacchi: Elizabeth Taylor: The Queen and I. University of Wisconsin Press, 2002, ISBN 0-299-17930-3 .
  • Bob Willoughby: Liz: an Intimate Collection. Photographs of Elizabeth Taylor. Merell Publishers, 2004, ISBN 1-85894-270-5 .
  • Pierre-Henry Verlhac, Yann-Brice Dherbier (Eds.): Elizabeth Taylor: A Life in Pictures. Pavilion, 2008, ISBN 1-86205-832-6 , German edition: Liz Taylor. Pictures of a life. With a biographical essay by Alexandre Thiltges. Henschel Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-89487-625-8 .
  • Christopher Belport, Joe Maddelena: Elizabeth Taylor: The Most Beautiful Woman in the World. A Photographic Biography. Hermes Press, 2010, ISBN 1-932563-39-3 .

Web links

Commons : Elizabeth Taylor  - Album with Pictures, Videos and Audio Files


Individual evidence

  1. "Liz" was and is called Elizabeth Taylor almost exclusively in the media. She never liked this short form and was addressed as "Elizabeth". (Taraborrelli, p. 229; Amburn, p. 9, 24)
  2. Maddox, pp. 117f
  3. Taraborrelli, pp. 460-462
  4. ^ Spoto, pp. 9-17
  5. Spoto, pp. 20f
  6. Maddox, pp. 9f; Spoto, p. 22
  7. Taraborrelli, pp. 33f
  8. Spoto, pp. 22-26; Taraborrelli, p. 35
  9. Amburn, p. 238. Taylor only sang in the films Wirbel um Judy (1948) and The Smile of a Summer Night (1977); She had modest dance scenes in The Sweet Trap (1952).
  10. Maddox, p. 20
  11. Spoto, pp. 26-31; Taraborrelli, pp. 35f
  12. Spoto, pp. 31-36
  13. Amburn, p. 7
  14. Spoto, pp. 37-39
  15. Maddox, pp. 19, 37, 44-46; Spoto, pp. 40-56; Morley, pp. 36f
  16. Maddox, p. 44
  17. Spoto, pp. 40-56
  18. Maddox, p. 51
  19. Maddox, pp. 52, 54, 104
  20. Maddox, pp. 52, 54
  21. Spoto, pp. 40-56; Morley, pp. 36f
  22. Maddox, pp. 63f, 103
  23. Maddox, p. 103
  24. Morley, pp. 9, 44f, 65
  25. Morley, pp. 46f
  26. Spoto, pp. 62-64
  27. Amburn, p. 30
  28. Morley, pp. 47, 52f
  29. Maddox, p. 48; Amburn, p. 35; Spoto, pp. 66-69
  30. Spoto, pp. 77-79
  31. Maddox, pp. 102, 107, 142
  32. Morley, pp. 58, 66, 70
  33. Spoto, p. 73
  34. Maddox, p. 102
  35. Maddox, p. 213; Spoto, pp. 196f, 235f; The Taylor-Burton ; The Krupp
  36. ^ Spoto, p. 135
  37. ^ Spoto, pp. 93-95
  38. ^ Spoto, p. 138
  39. Spoto, pp. 87, 95-99
  40. Taraborrelli, pp. 123, 262f; Morley, pp. 152f
  41. Maddox, p. 107
  42. Spoto, pp. 101-106; Taraborrelli, p. 122
  43. Maddox, p. 115
  44. Spoto, pp. 109-113
  45. Screen: 'Cat on a Hot Tin Roof' New York Times
  46. Maddox, p. 146; Quigley's Annual List of Box-Office Champions, 1932-1970
  47. ^ Spoto, p. 133
  48. Spoto, pp. 152f; Peter Harry, Pamela Ann Brown: The MGM Girls - Behind the Velevet Curtain , pp. 23–244
  49. Maddox, pp. 9f, 149; Spoto, pp. 17, 185; Amburn, pp. 114f; Taraborrelli, p. 35
  50. Maddox, pp. 151-153; Spoto, pp. 161-165
  51. Maddox, p. 148; Spoto, pp. 167-169
  52. Spoto, p. 181; Morley, p. 112
  53. a b Spoto, p. 208
  54. Maddox, p. 147; Morley, p. 102. In the MGM era, lawyer Jules Goldstone was their agent. In the 1960s, Taylor was represented by Burton's agent, Hugh French, and later by Robert Lantz.
  55. Maddox, pp. 153, 160; Spoto, pp. 166f, 171
  56. ^ Spoto, p. 183
  57. Spoto, pp. 172f, 177-180, 187; Morley, p. 128
  58. Maddox, p. 166; Spoto, pp. 89f, 179f, 186
  59. Lessons in Liz Telegraph; Maddox, p. 169; Taraborrelli, p. 201
  60. Spoto, pp 189-202
  61. Spoto, pp. 204f; P. 266
  62. Taraborrelli, pp. 211, 242-244
  63. Maddox, p. 170; Spoto, pp. 204f; Morley, p. 154
  64. Taraborrelli, p. 200
  65. Maddox, p. 174
  66. Maddox, p. 189; Spoto, p. 258
  67. Taraborrelli, p. 259
  68. Maddox, p. 243; Morley, pp. 7, 142; Taraborrelli, p. 274
  69. Maddox, p. 189; Spoto, p. 221; Morley, p. 142; Taylor owned a chalet in Gstaad from the early 1960s .
  70. Maddox, pp. 191, 194, 197; Spoto, pp. 207-209, 219-227
  71. Maddox, p. 195; Amburn, p. 167
  72. Spoto, pp. 229-233; Taraborrelli, p. 262
  73. Maddox, p. 212
  74. Spoto, pp. 233-247; Morley, p. 132; Taraborrelli, p. 263
  75. Liz-Anne Bawden (Ed.): Rororo Filmlexikon , Vol. 6, Reinbek, Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, 1984, ISBN 3-499-16233-4 , p. 1400; Maddox, pp. 208, 245
  76. ^ Spoto, p. 247
  77. Spoto, pp. 247, 259-261, 265, 309
  78. In the early 1980s Taylor weighed more than 80 kg with a height of 1.57 cm (Spoto, p. 281).
  79. Spoto, pp. 247f, 259-261, 266-270, 272-284
  80. Spoto, pp. 284-287, 289f; Morley, p. 176; Amburn, p. 241
  81. Spoto, pp. 290f, 294f
  82. Taraborrelli, pp. 361-363
  83. Spoto, pp. 208, 238-240, 288f, 295-300
  84. Spoto, pp. 310f
  85. Morley, p. 181; Amburn, pp. 250f
  86. Spoto, pp. 294, 301f, 307f, 316; Between Friends (1983) New York Times; Malice in Wonderland (1985) New York Times; "There Must be a Pony," with Elizabeth Taylor New York Times; Poker Alice (1987) New York Times
  87. Spoto, p. 302
  88. https://www.fr.de/panorama/taylors-millionen-villa-estand-verkauf-11402606.html
  89. Elizabeth's Home
  90. ^ Spiegel online, March 23, 2011
  91. stern.de: Elizabeth Taylor buried one day after her death , from March 24, 2011
  92. Taylor isn't the only Hollywood star with so many marriages. Zsa Zsa Gabor has married nine times, Mickey Rooney and Lana Turner eight times.
  93. Spoto, pp. 65-75, 85
  94. Spoto, pp. 81-86, 124
  95. Spoto, pp. 114-133
  96. ^ Spoto, p. 160
  97. Spoto, pp. 184-186, 189, 214-216, 256f
  98. ^ Spoto, pp. 261, 265f
  99. Spoto, pp. 266-270, 272-276, 288
  100. Spoto, pp. 311-318
  101. ^ Morley, p. 26
  102. Spoto, pp. 63f; Morley, pp. 50f
  103. Spoto, pp. 1-8, 318f; Amburn, pp. 253ff, 309
  104. Rock Hudson, My Life
  105. Spoto, pp. 56, 110f, 188, 271; Amburn, p. 26f; Taraborrelli, p. 258
  106. Taraborrelli, p. 54
  107. Maddox, p. 95; Spoto, pp. 135, 208; Morley, p. 118
  108. Maddox, p. 241; Amburn, p. 12
  109. Maddox, pp. 193, 242
  110. Spoto, pp. 56, 110f
  111. Maddox, p. 136; Spoto, p. 141
  112. Spoto, pp. 110f
  113. ^ Spoto, pp. 135-137
  114. Spoto, p. 184; Article in The Gazette , July 8, 1961
  115. Spoto, pp. 259-261
  116. Maddox, p. 231; Spoto, pp. 291-294; Taraborrelli, p. 358
  117. Spoto, pp. 271f
  118. Taraborrelli, pp. 431, 447; see. also Spoto, pp. 307, 317f, and Amburn, p. 291
  119. Maddox, p. 219; Taraborrelli, p. 249 f.
  120. Amburn, p. 260
  121. Taraborrelli, p. 421
  122. Spoto, pp. 303-307, 318
  123. Amburn, p. 302. See also Candlelight AIDS March Fills DC Streets Los Angeles Times
  124. ^ Morley, p. 117
  125. Morley, p. 34
  126. Taraborrelli, p. 59
  127. Taraborrelli, p. 289
  128. Maddox, p. 180; Taraborrelli, p. 258; In the mid-1970s, Chen Sam (1938-1995) became her press secretary.
  129. Christopher, p. 162
  130. Divine ; Divine ( Memento of the original from September 1, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.allbusiness.com
  131. ^ Andy Warhol: Colored Liz (1963) ; Andy Warhol: Liz (1964-65)
  132. Amburn, p. 275; text
  133. ^ Dawn Bradley Berry: The Divorce Sourcebook , p. 21; James Christopher: Elizabeth Taylor. A Biography , Chivers Press / Thorndike Press, 1999, ISBN 0-7862-2587-4 , p. 27; Liz proves perfect divorce role model Daily Mail, October 18, 1997
  134. Among others by Hedda Hopper (Kitty Kelly: Elizabeth Taylor, the last star , p. 20); The 30 Most Beautiful Female Movie Stars of All Time
  135. AFI's 100 YEARS ... 100 STARS
  136. Taraborrelli, p. 461
  137. Spoto, p. 287; Elizabeth Taylor to Get Filmex Award on Coast New York Times
  138. Amburn, p. 266
  139. Knights and Dames: SW-WAL at Leigh Rayment's Peerage
  140. ^ House of Taylor Jewelry, Inc. Established ( December 9, 2011 memento on the Internet Archive ) American Chronicle
  141. Spoto, p. 60
  142. Maddox, p. 247; Education: Persistence
  143. ^ Spoto, p. 284
  144. a b Taraborrelli, p. 339
  145. Amburn, p. 302; Fashion Honors Its Brightest Stars New York Times
  146. Amburn, p. 307 f .; Project Angel Food ( Memento of the original from October 23, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.angelfood.org
  147. Amburn, p. 289.