2011

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Portal history | Portal Biographies | Current events | Annual calendar

| 20th century | 21st century    
| 1980s | 1990s | 2000s | 2010s        
◄◄ | | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | | ►►
Jan. | Feb. | March | Apr. | May | Jun. |Jul. | Aug. | Sep | Oct. | Nov. | Dec

Heads of State · Elections · necrology · Literature Year · Music Year · Movie Year · broadcast year · sports year

2011
After the Tōhoku earthquake on March 11th, a series of serious accidents occurred in several reactor blocks at the Japanese nuclear power plant Fukushima I.
After the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11th, a series of serious accidents occurred in several reactor units at the Japanese nuclear power plant Fukushima I.
During the revolution in Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak is forced to resign.
During the revolution in Egypt , President Hosni Mubarak is forced to resign.
Muammar al-Gaddafi is defeated in the civil war in Libya and is killed.
Muammar al-Gaddafi is defeated in the civil war in Libya and is killed.
Japan wins the women's soccer world championship in Germany.
Japan wins the Women's World Cup in Germany.
South Sudan gains independence.
The South Sudan gained its independence.
Osama bin Laden is shot dead by United States Navy SEALs at his Abbottabad property
Osama bin Laden is shot dead by United States Navy SEALs at his Abbottabad property . (Photo Situation Room )
After 30 years, the STS-135 is the last space shuttle mission.
After 30 years, the STS-135 is the last space shuttle mission .
2011 in other calendars
From urbe condita 2764
Armenian calendar 1459-1460
Ethiopian calendar 2003-2004
Badi calendar 167-168
Bengali calendar 1417-1418
Berber calendar 2961
Buddhist calendar 2555
Burmese calendar 1373
Byzantine calendar 7519-7520
Chinese calendar
 - era 4707-4708 or
4647-4648
 - 60 year cycle

Metal tiger (庚寅, 27) -
metal bunny (辛卯, 28)

French
revolution calendar
CCXIX - CCXX
219-220
Hebrew calendar 5771-5772
Hindu calendar
 - Vikram Sambat 2067-2068
 - Shaka Samvat 1933-1934
Iranian calendar 1389-1390
Islamic calendar 1432-1433
Japanese calendar
 - Nengō (era): Heisei 23
 - Kōki 2671
Coptic calendar 1727-1728
Korean calendar
 - Dangun era 4344
 - Juche era 100
Minguo calendar 100
Modern Olympics XXIX
Seleucid calendar 2322-2323
Thai solar calendar 2554

The year 2011 was particularly marked by the so-called Arab Spring . Starting with the revolution in Tunisia , protests, uprisings and revolutions in the Arab world were directed against the authoritarian regimes and the political and social structures of these countries in several states in the Middle East ( Mashrek / Arabian Peninsula ) and in North Africa ( Maghreb ) .

With a successful independence referendum , the new state of South Sudan , which is from now on independent from the Muslim north and with a majority Christian population, was born.

The year was also marked by the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami on March 11th. As a result of the natural disaster, there was a series of serious accidents in several reactor blocks at the Japanese nuclear power plant Fukushima I.

Politics and world events

Overview of politics and world events
January 2011
January 1st
January 8th
January 9th
13th January
  • Damage to the motor tanker Waldhof on the Rhine near the Loreley , as a result, shipping on Europe's most important waterway comes to a standstill for weeks.
January 14th
January 23
January 24th
January 29th
31 January
February 2011
February 6th
February 11th
13th February
February 18
20. February
February 25
March 2011
2nd March
  • Elections to the provincial parliaments
3 March
4th of March
6th March
12. - 14. March
March 13th
March 16
19th March
March, 20th
27th of March
March 31
April 2011
3rd of April
4. April
April 8th
9th April
10th of April
11 April
April 16
17th April
April 25
April, 30th
May 2011
From May
2.May
May 4th
5th of May
  • Elections to the Scottish Parliament, the Welsh National Assembly + the Regional Parliament in Northern Ireland, local council elections are held in parts of England and there is a referendum across the UK on changing the electoral law
May 7th
8th of May
May 11th
  • In an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.1 in Lorca (southeastern Spain) at least 9 people die and around 300 are injured.
May 15
  • Local elections in the canton of Vaud; Election of the executive bodies
May 19th
May 22
May 26
28th of May
June 2011
June 5th
12th of June
July 2011
July 1
3rd of July
July 9
10th of July
17th July
22nd of July
August 2011
August 7th
August 14th
August 21
August 23
August 25
26th of August
August 27
September 2011
September 4th
September 10
September 11
12th September
  • Local elections in Norway
  • 120 people are killed in a pipeline explosion in Nairobi.
September 15th
17th of September
September 18
September 20th
October 2011
October 3
  • General election in Prince Edward Island Province of Canada
October 6th
  • General election in the Province of Ontario in Canada
9th October
October 10th
October 11th
October 18
  • Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit is released after being held hostage for five years and four months in Gaza.
the 20th of October
23rd October
October 27
30th of October
October 31
  • The United Nations proclaims seven billion people on earth
November 2011
November 6th
November 8th
November 9th
November 13th
20th November
November 24th
25. November
November 26th
November 27th
November 28th
December 2011
December 4th
11th December
13th December
December 14th
December 17th
25 December
December 29th
Ongoing events

The group of eight met from May 26th to 27th for the 37th G8 summit in Deauville . Important topics of the meeting were the support of the Arab Spring and - in view of the nuclear disaster in Fukushima - the future handling of nuclear power .

UN climate conference in Durban

With the UN Climate Change Conference in Durban , the 17th Conference of the States Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 17) and the seventh meeting under the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 7) took place in South Africa from November 28 to December 11 .

Africa

In addition to the series of protests, uprisings and revolutions in northern Africa known as the Arab Spring , the government crisis in Ivory Coast and the independence of South Sudan in particular attracted worldwide attention.

In the Horn of Africa , due to two seasonal, particularly low-precipitation rainy seasons, a hunger crisis arose which, according to international organizations, currently threatens 11.5 million people (including 760,000 refugees) in Somalia , Ethiopia , Kenya and Djibouti . Eritrea and other East African countries are also affected .

Benin

In the presidential elections , which took place in Benin on March 13th after two postponements , the previous incumbent Boni Yayi was confirmed with over 50 percent. The parliamentary elections have also been postponed from their original date to April 30th. The Forces Cauris pour un Bénin Emergent emerged as the winner with 41 of 83 seats. Prime Minister was Pascal Koupaki .

Democratic Republic of Congo

In the United Nations Human Development Index , the Democratic Republic of the Congo ranked last (187th) in 2011.

The election of the President and Parliament caused controversial arguments in advance. According to the opposition, the re-election of incumbent Joseph Kabila was favored by a previously adopted change in the electoral modalities. Because of the thousands of double registrations, there were numerous demonstrations and several violent clashes, which continued after the election. According to Human Rights Watch , security forces killed 24 people between the election date and December 22. Between December 9 and 14, 20 people died in Kinshasa alone.

Djibouti

In 2011, Djibouti suffered from the hunger crisis that threatened the people of the Horn of Africa. In June, around 117,000 people were dependent on humanitarian and food aid.

Influenced by the Arab Spring and a constitutional amendment that allowed President Ismail Omar Guelleh his third term in the upcoming elections, numerous protests took place between January and March , but these were mainly ended by massive arrests. In the presidential election on April 8th, Guelleh was re-elected with 80% of the votes and sworn in on May 3rd.

Ivory Coast

Political events in Ivory Coast were mainly determined by the government crisis of 2010/2011 . After the 2010 presidential election , both previous incumbent Laurent Gbagbo and his challenger Alassane Ouattara each claimed victory for themselves. There was then a government crisis between supporters of both camps with violent clashes and fatalities, in which a blue helmet convoy was attacked. Heavy weapons were also used against civilians. By the end of March 2011, one million people were on the run from civil war. On April 11, 2011, the elected President Laurent Gbagbo was arrested by the troops of the internationally recognized election winner Ouattara after protracted fighting with the support of military forces of the UN and France. With this, Ouattara as the legitimate president and his prime minister Guillaume Soro have largely prevailed. Gbagbo was arrested on April 11 and transferred to the International Court of Justice in The Hague in November.

Gabon

Parliamentary elections were held in Gabon on December 17th . The ruling party under President Ali-Ben Bongo Ondimba got over 70 percent of the parliamentary seats. The result, however, was influenced by the boycott of a broad opposition alliance, which saw no forgery-proof elections guaranteed, as Bongo Ondimba refused to allow the election to take place until a system for biometric voter registration had been set up.

Liberia

Parliamentary and presidential elections as well as a constitutional referendum took place in Liberia in 2011 .

Niger

Niger got a civilian government again after the parliamentary and presidential elections on January 31st , after the military put the increasingly autocratic President Mamadou Tandja out of office in 2010. From the presidential election went Mahamadou Issoufou emerged victorious.

Nigeria

In April, won Goodluck Jonathan in Nigeria the presidential elections . Despite rioting with hundreds dead, observers rated the election as the fairest in more than ten years. On May 29, he was sworn in as Nigerian President for the second time in a year.

The Islamist group Boko Haram carried out a series of attacks in several locations in northern Nigeria on December 25 , killing at least 39 people and injuring dozens more. The attacks were condemned worldwide and led to a series of acts of revenge.

Sudan

The predominantly Christian south of Sudan was an autonomous region within Sudan from 1972 to 1983 and again from 2005 to 2011 . After an independence referendum from January 9th to 15th, South Sudan became independent from the Islamic north on July 9th, 2011. The former rebel leader Salva Kiir Mayardit became the country's first elected president. On July 14th, it was admitted to the United Nations as the 193rd member state . On July 27, the African Union accepted South Sudan as its 54th member.

America

Brazil

On January 1, Dilma Rousseff took over the office of president and became the first female head of state in Brazil . She has had to deal with incidents of corruption several times within her cabinet. A total of six cabinet members had to resign after allegations of corruption by the beginning of December, including the head of the House of Representatives Antonio Palocci in June, Transport Minister Alfredo Nascimento on July 6, Tourism Minister Pedro Novais on September 15, Minister of Sports Orlando Silva de Jesus Júnior on October 26 and Minister of Labor Carlos Lupi on December 4th.

On March 19, Barack Obama made a two-day state visit to Brazil and praised the stability and trustworthiness of Brazilian politics at a meeting with Rousseff. However, due to the situation in Libya, the visit was much shorter than originally planned.

The Realengo rampage rocked the public on April 7th. Twelve students and the attacker were killed at a school in Realengo , a suburb of Rio de Janeiro, and 15 other people were injured, some seriously.

In a referendum in December in the state of Pará , a clear majority of almost 67 percent opposed its division and the establishment of the two planned new states, Tapajós and Carajás .

Haiti

Haiti was still affected by the cholera epidemic in 2011 , which had already broken out after the earthquake the previous year. On March 28, 2011, the Haitian national health ministry reported that 4,677 people had died and more than 270,996 had been infected.

On April 21, the official result of the 2010/11 elections was announced, in which Michel Martelly emerged victorious. He became the 56th President of Haiti on May 14, 2011.

Mexico

Casino Royale was destroyed five days after the attack on August 30, 2011

The drug war in Mexico resulted in an arson attack on Casino Royale in Monterrey on August 25 . 52 people were killed.

United States

On January 3, the legislature of the 112th United States Congress began . On November 8, gubernatorial elections were held in the states of Louisiana , Kentucky and Mississippi . In Louisiana and Mississippi, the House of Representatives for the two states was re-elected on the same day . In all four states, the governorships remained in the hands of the previously ruling parties.

Since the assassination attempt on Ronald Reagan in 1981, an assassination attempt on a US federal politician was carried out for the first time in January 2011 with the assassination attempt in Tucson . It took place during a public questionnaire by Democratic Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords in a shopping mall in Casas Adobes , about 10 miles north of the city of Tucson , Arizona . Giffords was seriously injured by a headshot and 13 people were killed.

In August the credit rating of the United States was downgraded to AA + by the rating agency Standard & Poor’s . For the first time since 1941, the country lost its top AAA rating. The downgrade was justified by the high debt ratio, which is unlikely to be reduced in the foreseeable future, and it caused fluctuations in the international financial markets.

On the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 , the pavilion of the National September 11 Memorial and Museum was opened as part of the commemorative events on September 12 . President Barack Obama also opened the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial on October 16, attended by tens of thousands of spectators . The opening should have taken place in August but was postponed because of Hurricane Irene . Protests against the financial system and with it the international Occupy movement began in Manhattan in September with the slogan “ Occupy Wall Street ” . The protesters occupied a site with a tent camp that was cleared in November.

Arabic spring

In December 2010, a series of protests, uprisings and revolutions began in the Arab world , which, based on the revolution in Tunisia , took place in a number of states in the Middle East ( Mashrek / Arabian Peninsula ) and in North Africa ( Maghreb ) against the authoritarian rulers there Regimes and the political and social structures of these countries.

Libyen Ägypten Algerien Jemen Jordanien Oman Saudi-Arabien Syrien Tunesien Kuwait Bahrain Marokko Mauretanien Senegal Sudan Dschibuti Irak Iran Westjordanland Westsahara Vereinigte Arabische Emirate Katar Libanon
Arabic states:
  • Head of State overthrown
  • Government reshuffled as a result of protests
  • Popular uprising / civil war
  • Mass protests
  • Riots / protests
  • No known incidents
  • Non-Arab states:
  • Protests in non-Arab states
  • No known incidents
  • On January 5, 2011, riots began in Algeria . Protests broke out in Egypt on January 25, 2011, which eventually led to the 2011 revolution in Egypt and a military takeover . In the course of these events protests also broke out in other Arab countries, including protests against government opponents in Yemen , Jordan , Libya , Bahrain and Syria .

    The mass protests have so far led to the dismissal and flight of the Tunisian ruler Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali and the resignation of the Egyptian President Husni Mubarak . The President of Yemen , Ali Abdullah Salih , announced after more than 30 years of rule that he would not run for any further term. In Jordan was Maruf al-Bakhit as, by King in 2005, Abdullah II. Asked to form a new government. In Algeria , President Abd al-Aziz Bouteflika announced the lifting of the 19 year state of emergency . The demonstrations, which began in Kuwait at the beginning of February and were directed against corrupt ministers and parliamentarians in particular, came to a head on November 11 when the parliament building was stormed. The government around Nasir al-Muhammad al-Ahmad al-Sabah submitted its resignation to the Emir Sabah al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-Sabah in the same month .

    In Bahrain on 16./17. February demonstrations crushed by police. The protests were also decisive for protests in neighboring Saudi Arabia . In Libya, there was a civil war in which rebels supported by the NATO leader Muammar Gaddafi fell. There were also protests in individual other countries beyond the Arab world.

    Around February 18, protests began in Oman that were directed against the form of government of Sultan Qaboos ibn Said .

    Egypt

    Large demonstration on Tahrir Square

    The revolution in Egypt arose primarily from allegations of corruption and abuse of office, which were accused of the regime of Egyptian President Muhammad Husni Mubarak , which existed from October 1981 to February 2011 , as well as displeasure with the emergency legislation in Egypt . On January 29, after sustained mass protests, Mubarak appointed Omar Suleiman, a vice-president, to whom he transferred parts of his power. Mubarak was forced to resign on February 11th and arrested and tried on April 8th. As a result, a military government took power. On March 19, a referendum on the amendment to the Egyptian constitution drawn up by a commission was passed by the voters with a majority of around 77 percent . The parliamentary elections , which lasted several months , began on November 28th. The election winner was the Freedom and Justice Party of the Muslim Brotherhood and its allies in the Democratic Alliance , which received 47.2 percent of the seats. Successor parties to the once ruling National Democratic Party received only 6.4 percent of the seats.

    Libya

    The civil war in Libya in 2011 turned into a street war within a few days and claimed over 30,000 lives.

    The insurgents pursued the goal of Muammar al-Gaddafi to overthrow the longest-ruling and dictatorial ruler in Libya. It is believed that hundreds of demonstrators were shot dead by the Libyan police, security and armed forces . The political conflict escalated into a military one and divided the country's leadership. Parts of the diplomatic corps and the armed forces joined the opposition. On February 27, the insurgents established a National Transitional Council , which took control in the east of the country. He has been the official representation of Libya since September 16, 2011. As part of Operation Pegasus , a large number of workers and engineers from over 30 countries were evacuated in late February / early March.

    Gaddafi, together with his son Saif al-Islam al-Gaddafi and head of the intelligence service, Abdullah al-Sanusi, was put out to be wanted by Interpol on 9 September . Gaddafi was captured and ill-treated by rebels on October 20th. According to the Transitional Council, Gaddafi died in the hours that followed from a shot in the head that hit him in the crossfire between supporters and opponents on the transport to the hospital.

    Morocco

    As part of the Arab Spring, thousands of people protested against corruption and torture and for the democratization of Morocco from February onwards . Muhammad VI. responded to the protests with a constitutional referendum , which, among other things, provided for the division of judicial and executive branches. In the referendum on July 1, 98 percent of voters approved it. In addition, the parliamentary elections were brought forward to November 25th. The general secretary of the moderate Islamist Justice and Development Party (PJD) Benkirane became prime minister.

    On April 28, Marrakech was rocked by a terrorist attack on a café that killed 17 people.

    Syria

    In the spring, demonstrations began in Syria demanding political freedom and the overthrow of President Bashar al-Assad's government , which the government violently opposed.

    According to information from human rights organizations, around 9,100 people had been killed by the end of March 2012. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights , more than 70,000 people had been arrested by September 2011.

    Tunisia

    Demonstration organized by the UGTT union

    The revolution in Tunisia , also known as the Jasmine Revolution, began at the end of 2010 and is considered to be the trigger for the Arab Spring. The unrest began after the self-immolation of the greengrocer Mohamed Bouazizi in Sidi Bouzid . On January 14, 2011, the longtime Tunisian dictator Ben Ali fled Tunisia; three days later, Prime Minister Ghannouchi formed a transitional government. On February 27, Ghannouchi resigned after continued demonstrations; he was followed by Beji Caid Essebsi . Fouad Mebazaa was acting president from January 15 to December 12. He was followed by Moncef Marzouki .

    On October 23, the election for the Constituent Assembly of Tunisia took place. It was the first free election in the history of Tunisia .

    Asia

    At the beginning of June, probably on the 4th of the month, there were two leaks in the Penglai 19-3 production field on the Gulf of Bohai due to unexplained circumstances, which led to the so-called oil disaster in Lake Bohai . According to the Chinese authorities, the resulting pollution covered an area of ​​4250 square kilometers. Another 3,400 square kilometers have been contaminated to a lesser extent.

    Afghanistan

    In June 2011, over 130,000 soldiers, including almost 100,000 US soldiers, were stationed in Afghanistan . There were also thousands of civil advisors and mercenaries.

    On May 28, seven people died in an attack in Taloqan in northern Afghanistan, including the police commander for northern Afghanistan, Mohammed Daud Daud , as well as the police chief of Tachar province and two soldiers, a major and a sergeant major.

    In September, former President Burhānuddin Rabbāni and others were killed by a suicide bomber.

    In economic terms, Kabul Bank's losses attracted international attention. Fraud and mismanagement resulted in losses of approximately $ 900 million. The then head of the central bank, Abdel Kadir Fitrat , subsequently fled to the United States .

    Iraq

    In Iraq , the occupation that had existed since the end of the Iraq war in 2003 ended in December with the withdrawal of the last remaining US combat troops.

    Previously, on August 15, a total of 18 cities were affected by a series of attacks in which 74 people were killed and more than 300 injured. Shiites , Sunnis and Kurds were among the victims of the attacks . The authorities blame Al-Qaeda for the acts, but the motives of the attackers are unknown. On December 22nd, there was another series of attacks in Baghdad on December 22nd, 2011 , in which 69 people were officially killed and more than 169 injured. The attacks were carried out by the organization Islamic State of Iraq , the Iraqi branch of al-Qaeda .

    After Kurdistan stopped exporting oil to Turkey in September 2009 because no agreement had been reached on payment for exports, new negotiations on this issue began after the government was formed at the end of 2010. The import of oil from Kurdistan was resumed on February 3, 2011.

    Iran

    With a demonstration on February 14th, a series of protests that can be linked to the Arab Spring began in Iran .

    In March, Mohammed Reza Mahdavi-Kani succeeded former Iranian Prime Minister Akbar Hāschemi Rafsanjāni as Chairman of the Expert Council . In April 2011, Ali Khamene'i intervened directly in the affairs of government and, for the first time in the history of the Islamic Republic of Iran, reversed a decision on a ministerial post. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad had accepted the resignation of the secret service minister Heydar Moslehi , but Khamenei called him back to office.

    On November 22nd, the United States , Canada and the United Kingdom imposed sanctions on Iran in response to Iran's nuclear program . As a result, on November 27 , the Iranian parliament decided not only to reduce diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom to a minimum but also to expel British Ambassador Dominick John Chilcott . This was followed by a storming of the British embassy in Tehran on November 29th . A group of Iranian demonstrators broke into the premises, ravaged the offices and set fire to.

    At the beginning of September, the Bushehr nuclear power plant was connected to the national power grid, which led to international disputes as part of the Iranian nuclear program .

    Israel

    According to Amnesty International , in 2011 Israel displaced more than 1,000 Palestinians and destroyed more than 500 houses, apartments and water supplies, as Israeli settlements increased and the number of violent attacks by settlers on Palestinians increased in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. With the Iron Dome , a new mobile missile defense system for the defense against short-range missiles went into operation for the first time north of Be'er Scheva on March 26th . On April 7, this was the first time a Grad rocket fired from the Gaza Strip was successfully shot down.

    Demonstration in Tel Aviv on August 6, 2011

    In the shadow of the Arab Spring, protests also broke out in Israel from July , but they differed from the democracy movement in the surrounding states. The Israeli demonstrators primarily complained about a lack of social justice and particularly called for the housing market to ease.

    While Hebrew and Arabic have been the official languages so far , in August 40 members of the government and opposition parties brought a bill before the Knesset, according to which Hebrew should be the only official language of Israel.

    Japan

    As a result of the Tōhoku earthquake with a moment magnitude of  9.0 in the Pacific Ocean 130 kilometers east of the city of Sendai , a tsunami up to 20 meters high occurred on March 11, affecting numerous coastal cities, especially in Miyagi Prefecture destroyed and partly ran up to three kilometers inland. At least 15,858 people were killed in the natural disasters. The tsunami also led to power outages and damage to the Fukushima I nuclear power plant on the coast . The damage and failure of the reactor cooling circuit led to the Fukushima nuclear disaster .

    On March 12, the United States Armed Forces launched Operation Tomodachi to assist in providing relief supplies to those affected by the earthquake and tsunami.

    The uniform regional elections took place on April 10th and 24th , but the dates for the prefectural parliamentary elections in Fukushima , Iwate and Miyagi were postponed to November due to the earthquake disaster. In addition, the gubernatorial elections took place that year .

    Pakistan

    The Bin Laden estate in Abbottabad - schematic diagram

    The killing of al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden , carried out on May 2 by a US special unit as part of Operation Neptune's Spear on his property in Abbottabad , received special international attention in Pakistan . The Pakistani Parliament condemned the incident and called for a review of Pakistan-US relations.

    On November 26, NATO launched an air raid on the Pakistani base in Salala in the tribal area under federal administration of Mohamad near the Afghan border. Between 24 and 26 Pakistani soldiers were killed and several wounded. As a result, diplomatic relations between Pakistan and the US tightened further. In addition, the People's Republic of China positioned itself against the attack.

    Singapore

    In the 16th parliamentary elections in Singapore on May 7th, it was possible for the first time in the history of the state since independence to vote for an opposition party in all but one constituency. The People's Action Party reached 81 seats.

    Turkey

    In the election for the 24th Grand National Assembly of Turkey on June 12, the ruling Islamic-conservative Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi (AKP) under Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan won for the third time in a row with an absolute majority and thus appointed Erdoğan III's cabinet .

    Political controversy was sparked in 2011 by government censorship. For example, in a media law passed by parliament, the prime minister had himself given the personal authority to temporarily close television channels or to ban programs if the content would threaten national security or disrupt public order.

    In June, the government announced restrictions on Internet access for the Turkish population (topic and keyword-related filtering of Internet pages) led to violent protests inside and outside Turkey. The country fell to 138th place on Reporters Without Borders' press freedom index .

    Europe

    The euro crisis was the central issue in the eurozone in 2011 as well . In order to increase competitiveness, the Euro Plus Pact was agreed on March 11, 2011 at a special meeting in Brussels and finally discussed at the European Council on March 24 and 25, 2011. Greece , Ireland and Portugal made use of the euro rescue package . The Presidency of the Council of Ministers of the European Union was taken over by Hungary in the first half of the year and by Poland in the second half of the year . With the 2011 census , a joint survey of citizen data as part of a census was carried out in the member states for the first time.

    On December 8th, British Prime Minister David Cameron vetoed the amendment of the EU treaties, according to which violations of the Stability and Growth Pact should automatically lead to the initiation of an excessive deficit procedure. This is followed by discussions about the question of whether the UK wants and should remain a member of the EU.

    Belgium

    Elio Di Rupo of the Parti Socialiste became Prime Minister of Belgium on December 6, 2011 .

    On December 13th, the country was rocked by a rampage in Liège . At least six people were killed and 124 injured.

    Germany

    After the Bundestag amended the conscription law, conscription was suspended in Germany in March. Starting in November, the self-exposure of the right-wing extremist terrorist organization National Socialist Underground caused a sensation, including a series of murders of migrants , the police murder in Heilbronn and several bomb attacks and robberies; Investigations into the role of some security agencies have also started.

    In February the Guttenberg plagiarism affair preoccupied public interest in Germany . In the dissertation of the then Federal Defense Minister Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg , several plagiarisms were discovered, which led to his doctorate being revoked by the University of Bayreuth . On March 1, 2011 Guttenberg announced his resignation from all federal political offices. With the help of the GuttenPlag Wiki and VroniPlag Wiki , further plagiarism affairs were uncovered.

    In response to the nuclear disaster in Fukushima , the federal government initiated a safety review of all 17 German nuclear power plants and the three-month shutdown of the seven oldest nuclear power plants as part of the so-called nuclear moratorium . On June 6, the Merkel II cabinet decided to phase out nuclear energy by 2022, thereby reversing the term extensions decided in autumn 2010 .

    Course of HUS infections

    From May to the end of July, Germany in particular was hit by a HUS epidemic . The hitherto unknown, severe form of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with diarrhea first appeared mainly in northern Germany and was most likely due to Egyptian fenugreek seeds .

    The following seven state parliamentary elections took place during the year:

    Estonia

    On January 1st, Estonia became the first of the Baltic states to introduce the euro . In the parliamentary elections in March , the Estonian Reform Party under the previous Prime Minister Andrus Ansip emerged as the winner again.

    Greece

    Papandreou cabinet one day before the Prime Minister's resignation

    Greece continued to be primarily concerned with the financial crisis . The third austerity package was decided on June 29th. The public spending cuts were accompanied by massive protests .

    The then Prime Minister Giorgos A. Papandreou initially survived a vote of confidence in June . After an announced referendum on the austerity stipulations, which were based on the resolutions of the previous EU summit in Brussels on aid to Greece, he asked again for the vote of confidence and, after the announcement that he wanted to form a transitional government with the involvement of the opposition Nea Dimokratia , received again here the majority.

    On November 9th, Papandreou announced his resignation. Loukas Papadimos became the new Prime Minister .

    Italy

    An abrogative four-question referendum was held in Italy on June 12th and 13th . In mid-November, the then Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi announced his resignation because he no longer had a majority in parliament. Four days later, a new government was sworn in, chaired by former EU Commissioner Mario Monti .

    Latvia

    In Latvia , early elections were held for the first time in the country's history after the then President Valdis Zatlers applied to the Constitutional Court on May 28 for a referendum on the dissolution of the Saeima . The referendum was approved on July 23 by around 95 percent of voters, with a turnout of 44.73 percent. In the parliamentary elections on September 17, the Saskaņas Centrs alliance became the strongest party for the first time .

    In December, a run on Swedbank attracted international attention. About 10,000 Latvians withdrew a total of more than ten million lats from their accounts on December 11th after rumors of the bank's bankruptcy spread on Twitter .

    Macedonia

    On 28 January began Macedonia , the Social Democrats together with the Albanian party New Democracy and three other smaller parties with a boycott against the Macedonian Parliament . They accused Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski of severely restricting the freedom of the press in the country and of being engrossed in corruption with his family. The Albanian Democratic Party had also boycotted parliament for two years . With the non-participation of these parties in future parliamentary sessions, the number of MPs from the opposition parties fell to just two who were independents. On March 16, the Democratic Union for Integration also boycotted the parliamentary session, which extended the boycott to the ruling parties.

    On April 16, parliament was dissolved, and by then all the electoral law reforms that the opposition had long been calling for were carried out. The Social Democrats, however, continued their boycott. On June 5th, early parliamentary elections took place in which Nikola Gruevski was re-elected.

    Netherlands

    The public in the Netherlands was preoccupied with the Alphen killing spree in the spring of April 9th ​​in Alphen aan den Rijn . Here, a man killed in a shopping center, six people by using a semi-automatic small caliber - rifle fired into the crowd. Another 17 people were injured. The perpetrator then began suicide .

    Norway

    77 people were killed in attacks in Norway.

    The Norwegian Anders Behring Breivik carried out attacks on July 22nd , which affected the world and claimed 77 lives. In the act with a right-wing extremist background, Breivik first set off a car bomb in the government district of Oslo . He later drove to a tent camp run by the social democratic youth organization Arbeidernes Ungdomsfylking (AUF) and shot the victims with a semi-automatic weapon for about 90 minutes .

    Towards the end of the year there was a butter crisis . The markets were hit by an acute shortage of butter and an inflation in butter prices. Because of the acute shortage, prices rose and butter stocks in supermarkets were sold out shortly after new deliveries.

    Austria

    Otto von Habsburg died on July 4th in his house in Pöcking at the age of 98. He was the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary and President of the Paneuropean Union until his death . On July 16, his coffin was brought to St. Stephen's Cathedral , where Archbishop Christoph Schönborn held a funeral mass in his honor. This was attended by members of the Habsburg family as well as numerous foreign heads of state and the then Austrian Federal President Heinz Fischer . Then there was a funeral procession which was accompanied by 3500 participants. Otto von Habsburg's body was finally buried in the Capuchin crypt.

    Portugal

    Pedro Passos Coelho in June 2011 at the EPP Congress

    Initiated by the Geração à rasca movement, numerous mass demonstrations took place in Portugal , which opposed rising unemployment and poor working conditions as well as falling living standards and drastic austerity measures by the government. Union federations joined the protests. In March the conservative Partido Social Democrata withdrew its support for the austerity and cutback programs of the Portuguese minority government. The government crisis led to new parliamentary elections on June 5, from which the liberal-conservative PSD emerged victorious and replaced the ruling socialists. The new Prime Minister was Pedro Passos Coelho and formed the Passos Coelho cabinet .

    Previously, the incumbent President Aníbal Cavaco Silva was re-elected in the 2011 presidential election on January 23 .

    On October 9, the regional elections took place in Madeira , in which the ruling Social Democratic Party of President Alberto João Jardim lost an absolute majority for the first time in its history.

    Russia

    Protests after the Russian parliamentary elections

    In the parliamentary elections on December 4 , the United Russia party emerged as the clear winner with 49.3 percent. However, the result of alleged election fraud resulted in the largest protest rallies in the country's recent history. The police responded to all rallies with large numbers. Due to restrictive party laws, numerous parties were also not allowed to vote. International election observers came to the conclusion that basic democratic rules were seriously violated in the election.

    Terrorist attack at Moscow Domodedovo Airport

    Switzerland

    On March 31, a letter bomb attack was carried out on Swissnuclear, a specialist group made up of representatives from Swiss electricity network companies . The letter was addressed to a member of the management of the Mühleberg nuclear power plant .

    Slovenia

    The Slovenian government under Borut Pahor had to record several resignations by cabinet members, including the resignation of then Interior Minister Katarina Kresal , which was preceded by a corruption affair. According to a survey by the daily Dnevnik , 84 percent of the population were recently dissatisfied with the work of the government. On September 20, the State Assembly expressed its distrust of the government and Prime Minister Pahor .

    After the early parliamentary elections on December 4th, Janez Janša became the new Prime Minister of Slovenia.

    Spain

    In the year of the Spanish parliamentary elections and the regional and local elections , there were first popular protests in which social, economic and political grievances were criticized. The bullfighting ban in Catalonia also sparked greater debate . Furthermore, the Basque nationalist underground organization Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA for short) announced the “final end of armed activities”.

    Transnistria

    In the internationally unrecognized Eastern European state of Transnistria , the Transnistrian presidential election 2011 took place in December . As a result, the long-time ruler Igor Smirnov was voted out of office after almost 20 years. There was a runoff between Anatoly Kaminsky and Yevgeny Shevchuk , which the latter clearly won.

    Hungary

    On the occasion of the national-conservative Fidesz party, which received a two-thirds majority in the Hungarian parliament in the parliamentary elections in April 2010 , a new constitution has been in force in Hungary since January 1, 2012 . The ruling party's draft was submitted to parliament on March 15th, passed on April 18th and signed on April 25th.

    On January 1, 2011, a new, restrictive media law came into force that was criticized across Europe. The law made the agency Nemzeti Média- és Hírközlési Hatóság the central control authority for all media available in Hungary.

    In the first half of 2011 Hungary took over the presidency of the Council of the European Union for the first time . At the beginning of the Council Presidency, there was controversy with other EU partners, mainly due to the controversial Hungarian media law.

    United Kingdom

    The political year 2011 in the United Kingdom was marked by an electoral referendum in which the change of the electoral law to an instant runoff voting ( alternative vote "AV" ) was rejected, and the Scottish general election , in which for the first time a party that Scottish National Party to obtain an absolute majority of parliamentary seats. In the media, however, the unrest in London and other English cities that flared up among the population after the shooting of 29-year-old Mark Duggan, as well as the News International scandal surrounding the US media entrepreneur Rupert Murdoch, were discussed above all . The media group had illegally gained access to cell phone mailboxes and was suspected of bribing police officers.

    Natural events

    Queensland floods
    Irene's train track map

    Sports

    Opening ceremony of the women's soccer World Cup in the Olympiastadion Berlin on June 26, 2011
    Overview sport
    December 28, 2010 to January 6, 2011
    1-8 January
    1. – 16. January: 33.
    7-29 January
    13.-30. January
    14.-23. January
    17.-30. January
    24.-30. January
    February 6th
    7-20 February
    February 19 to April 2
    20. February
    February 23 to March 6
    3rd - 13th March
    March 4th to December 4th
    21.-27. March
    March 27th to November 27th
    3rd of April
    April 16 to May 2
    April 30th to May 15th
    May 18
    May 21
    May 22nd to June 5th
    28th of May
    5th - 25th June
    18.-26. June
    June 20th to July 3rd
    June 26th to July 17th
    3rd - 24th July
    July 6th
    10th of July
    10-16 July
    16.-31. July
    July 23
    July 29th to August 20th
    5th of August
    7-14 August
    12-23 August
    August 23
    August 26th to September 5th
    August 27th to September 4th
    August 29th to September 11th
    August 31st to September 18th
    7th of September
    September 9th to October 23rd
    19.-26. September
    13.-30. October
    13.-25. November
    3rd-18th December

    Culture and society

    BUGA 2011 : Landscape park in front of the Ehrenbreitstein Fortress in Koblenz with a view of the mountain station of the Rhine cable car
    Prince William and Catherine Middleton on the balcony of Buckingham Palace

    music

    Movie

    watch TV

    theatre

    Visual arts

    Fashion

    literature

    religion

    Overview religion
    January 1st
    April 24th
    1st of May
    17th of May
    1st - June 5th
    15th June
    August 1st - 29th
    5 - August 7
    15 - August 21
    September 22nd - 25th
    8th October
    October 26th
    November 6th
    November December
    October 21 to December 29

    On January 1, an attack on Coptic Christians was committed in the Egyptian city ​​of Alexandria , in which at least 23 people died and 97 were injured. A car bomb was detonated in front of the Al-Qiddissine Church when around 1,000 supporters of the Christian Copts minority left the New Year's service.

    Referring to the cases of abuse that have become known at the Canisius College in Berlin and the deep crisis of the Roman Catholic Church resulting from these and other cases , theologians from universities, especially from German-speaking countries, called in February under the title Church 2011: A necessary departure for reform of the Roman Catholic Church .

    Federal President Christian Wulff receives the Pope

    At the 33rd German Evangelical Church Congress from June 1st to 5th, a total of 117,957 permanent participants and 26,919 day participants came together in Dresden to take part in the 2,350 individual events. The 21st apostolic journey of Benedict XVI took place from September 22nd to 25th with the Pope's visit to Germany . instead of. The Pope's speech in the Bundestag , in particular , caused political controversy. 55 organizations had also called for protests, which were directed primarily against the sexual morality of the church.

    With the Russian Youth Day , the first major youth day in the history of the New Apostolic Church for the Russian-speaking countries took place in Pokrovskoye near Moscow from August 5th to 7th .

    astronomy

    Overview astronomy
    January 4th
    June 1st
    July 1
    15th June
    • Total lunar eclipse , visible in East Africa, India and the Middle East.
    August 24th
    25. November
    December 5th
    10th of December
    • Total lunar eclipse, visible in Asia and Australia.
    Partial solar eclipse of January 4th, 2011 as seen from northern Germany.

    In 2011, four partial solar eclipses occurred , the first time on January 4th over Europe, North Africa and West Asia. The June 1 solar eclipse was visible from eastern Siberia, northern Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland. During the solar eclipse on July 1st, the penumbra of the moon only touched the earth over the sea between the Antarctic continent and Africa. It was therefore only visible in the Southern Ocean between South Africa and the Antarctic. Another partial solar eclipse could be observed on November 25th from Antarctica, South Africa, Tasmania and New Zealand.

    Two total lunar eclipses occurred . On June 15, visible in East Africa, India and the Middle East, and December 10 in Asia and Australia.

    As part of the large-scale, fully automated screening of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) on August 24, the Supernova SN 2011fe type Ia was discovered on recordings from the nights of August 22 and 23 . On December 5, the discovery of the Earth-like exoplanet Kepler-22b was published, which orbits the Sun-like star Kepler-22 , some 600 light-years from Earth .

    economy

    science and technology

    Overview science and technology
    3 February
    • The last IPv4 addresses have been symbolically assigned to representatives of the registration offices on the continents.
    February 24th
    • The space shuttle “ Discovery ” is on its way into space for the last time. The space shuttle took off on Thursday at 10:53 p.m. CET, a few minutes later than planned from the Cape Canaveral spaceport in Florida.
    March 18th
    8th of July
    • Decommissioning of the space shuttles : The last shuttle mission STS-135 starts with the space shuttle “ Atlantis ” to the ISS and brings the last supplies and spare parts with it.
    October 31
    • Launch of the Shenzhou-8 rocket from the Chinese space agency CNSA , which is also taking several experiments from Germany for the first time.
    • November: Launch of the ESA satellite ADM-Aeolus to record the earth's dynamics in the earth's atmosphere.
    25. November
    Tablet PCs and smartphones, among others. with the Android operating system become a bestseller

    In 2011 the market for tablet computers and smartphones grew significantly. The new web standard HTML5 slowly began to replace the Flash Player as the standard. According to the market research company Gartner, the Android smartphone operating system developed by Google brought its global market share to 52.5 percent in the third quarter of 2011, more than doubling it compared to the third quarter of 2010. In addition, at the end of June, Google presented the Google+ social network as a competitor to Facebook .

    The German Future Prize was awarded in 2011 to the Dresden Fraunhofer researcher Karl Leo for the development of organic light-emitting diodes .

    The Atlantis at launch on July 8th, 2011

    With the last mission of the space shuttle Atlantis , which was completed in April 1984, the last planned manned space mission with a space shuttle was also carried out in July .

    Nobel Prizes

    The announcement of the Nobel Prize winners for 2011 took place from October 3rd to October 10th, 2011. The awards took place on December 10th, 2011 in Oslo (Nobel Peace Prize) and Stockholm.

    Annual dedications

    See also: Annual dedications and species protection 2011 in Germany

    Initiatives

    science

    Born

    Died

    For the detailed list of the deceased see Nekrolog 2011 .

    January

    February

    March

    April

    May

    June

    July

    August

    September

    October

    November

    December

    Date unknown

    Mohammad Rahim Khushnawaz , Afghan rababer (* 1943 )

    Gallery of the deceased

    Web links

    Commons : 2011 (Category)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
    Commons : 2011  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
     Wikinews: 2011  - in the news

    Individual evidence

    1. a b Korotayev A., J. Zinkina Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis. Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinary 13 (2011): 139-169.
    2. ^ Egyptian President Mubarak resigned
    3. Announcement of the election date ( memento of February 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) on the website of the Berlin State Returning Officer.
    4. Hessian parties agree on debt brake ( Memento from October 25, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
    5. spiegel.de: Terror in Pakistan - suicide bomber survived his own attack (accessed on April 5, 2011).
    6. europeonline-magazine.eu: Change of government in the mini-state Andorra (accessed on April 5, 2011).
    7. ^ Nzz.ch: Green Liberals and BDP are the names of the winners in the canton of Zurich (accessed on April 4, 2011).
    8. stern.de: First woman in Mali to head the government ( memento of March 24, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on April 4, 2011).
    9. See first international criminal law trial in Stuttgart started at de.reuters.com, May 4, 2011 (accessed on May 4, 2011).
    10. derstandard.at: Head of government resigned - after the failure of discussions with other party leaders about the new constitution (accessed on August 24, 2011)
    11. ^ Serious pipeline accident in Nairobi , ntv September 12, 2011.
    12. "We announce that Gaddafi was killed" ( Memento from October 21, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
    13. ↑ The seven billionth person symbolically welcomed. Die Presse , October 31, 2011, accessed on October 31, 2011 : "The UN symbolically declared several newborns worldwide as the seven billionth person, including Danica May Camacho in the Philippines."
    14. ^ G8 summit begins in France , DiePresse.com , May 26, 2011. Accessed on May 26, 2011.
    15. Jump up ↑ killings and arbitrary arrests. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . December 22, 2011, accessed December 22, 2011 .
    16. Thomas Scheen: Congo Hardly any excesses in Kinshasa. In: faz.net. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , December 11, 2011, accessed on December 12, 2011 .
    17. ^ Eastern Africa: Drought - Humanitarian Snapshot. (PDF) Archived from the original on July 14, 2013 ; accessed on January 10, 2016 . (PDF; 818 kB), in: fews.net, June 24, 2011.
    18. ^ International Foundation for Electoral Systems Elections Guide
    19. Ivory Coast Gbagbo has West African leaders turned down , on spiegel.de
    20. Powder keg Ivory Coast Paris is pushing for a more robust mission , on n-tv.de.
    21. Ivory Coast: Soldiers arrest Gbagbo in his bunker. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online , April 11, 2011, accessed April 11, 2011 .
    22. Niger set to adopt new charter . In: news24.com, November 2, 2010. Accessed December 24, 2014. (English)
    23. Goodluck Jonathan sworn in as President in Nigeria . news.ch. May 29, 2011. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
    24. Christmas attacks in Nigeria by Muslim sect kill 39 (English) . In: USA Today \ AP , December 25, 2011. 
    25. ^ UN welcomes South Sudan as 193rd Member State , in: UN News Center, July 14, 2011.
    26. African Union Welcomes South Sudan as the 54th Member State of the Union ( Memento of August 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), AU media release, July 28, 2011.
    27. Brazil: Transport minister resigned after allegations of corruption
    28. Another resignation in Brazil's government. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . September 15, 2011, accessed September 15, 2011 .
    29. Brazil's sports minister resigns. In: orf.at. Österreichischer Rundfunk , October 27, 2011, accessed on October 27, 2011 .
    30. Sixth resignation from the minister in six months. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online, December 5, 2011, accessed December 5, 2011 .
    31. (dpa, AFP): Brazil. At least 13 dead after a school rampage . On: Die Zeit , April 7, 2011; Retrieved April 9, 2011.
    32. Brazil Annual Review 2011 ( Memento from February 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
    33. Deaths from cholera rose to 4,766, Latina-press.com (accessed May 8, 2011)
    34. ^ Paul Koring: US congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords shot as six die in Arizona massacre - theguardian.com (English) , The Globe and Mail. January 9, 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2011. 
    35. "Kuwait's Government Resigns ", online time, accessed: November 28, 2011 at 8:48 pm.
    36. Felix de Cuveland: Violence in Bahrain: shots at demonstrators . In: tagesschau.de , February 17, 2011. Archived from the original on February 18, 2011. Retrieved on February 19, 2011. 
    37. Jan Roß: Libya mission: The way is free . In: The time . No. 35 , August 25, 2011, ISSN  0044-2070 ( online ).
    38. handelsblatt.com: The Middle East is on fire! , Handelsblatt.com, February 18, 2011.
    39. Federal Agency for Civic Education: Constitutional referendum in Egypt - bpb. In: bpb.de. Retrieved January 7, 2019 .
    40. Gaddafi shouts down his people. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online, February 22, 2011, accessed February 22, 2011 .
    41. Reinhard Mutz in Die Tageszeitung , October 2011 ( online )
    42. Interpol writes out Muammar al-Ghadhafi for a search. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . September 9, 2011, accessed September 9, 2011 .
    43. ^ FAZ: Gaddafi's last hours , October 21, 2011.
    44. Alexander Göbel: Thousands are calling for democratic reforms - Moroccans demonstrate on the “Day of Dignity”. tagesschau.de, February 21, 2011, archived from the original on November 16, 2012 ; Retrieved December 25, 2015 .
    45. Alexander Göbel: Reaction to riots: Moroccan king announces reforms. tagesschau.de, March 10, 2011, archived from the original on February 19, 2012 ; Retrieved April 25, 2011 .
    46. 98 percent for constitutional reform. Archived from the original on November 16, 2012 ; Retrieved December 25, 2015 .
    47. New Prime Minister of Morocco. Retrieved November 29, 2011 .
    48. ↑ The main suspect in the Marrakech attack revokes confession. In: nzz.ch. Neue Zürcher Zeitung , September 22, 2011, accessed on September 23, 2011 .
    49. Support for Assad - Iran supplies Syria's rulers with weapons. Focus, March 24, 2012, accessed March 27, 2012 .
    50. 2,600 people died in the uprising against Assad. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online, September 12, 2011, accessed February 9, 2012 .
    51. ^ "This is Tunisia's new head of government" ( Memento from March 2, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Hamburger Morgenpost online, accessed: February 27, 2011.
    52. Afghanistan: Two German soldiers killed in a bomb attack. In: spiegel.de. Spiegel Online, May 28, 2011, retrieved on December 5, 2011 (cited source: mbe / mgb / dpa / Reuters ).
    53. ^ Press and information staff : Afghanistan: Blast attack in Talokan. (3rd update). Federal Ministry of Defense , Head of the Press and Information Staff , May 29, 2011, accessed on December 5, 2011 .
    54. ^ New York Times: Losses at Afghan Bank Could Be $ 900 million, Jan. 30, 2011
    55. see BBC News : US flag ceremony ends Iraq operation , December 16, 2011.
    56. ^ Al Qaeda offshoot is committed to the series of attacks. In: fr-online.de. Frankfurter Rundschau , December 27, 2011, accessed on December 27, 2011 .
    57. UPDATE 1-Iraq starts exporting Kurdish oil - officials , on reuters.com
    58. حکومەتی هەرێمی كوردستان , on krg.org
    59. Bahman Nirumand : Deposed secret service minister remains in office . In: Heinrich Böll Foundation (ed.): Iran Report, No. 05/211, p. 3 f.
    60. States stop energy and financial transactions with Iran , Zeit.de of November 22, 2011, accessed on December 1, 2011
    61. Larijani: Students Representative Iran's Public Opinion ( Memento from June 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), farsnews.com from November 30, 2011, accessed on December 1, 2011
    62. Our Ambassador ( Memento of July 18, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), on ukiniran.fco.gov.uk, accessed on December 2, 2011
    63. ↑ Assault on British Embassy in Tehran , Spiegel.de from November 29, 2011 (accessed December 1, 2011)
    64. ^ Israel / Occupied Territories. House demolitions and evictions continue to increase , December 14, 2011, accessed December 16, 2011.
    65. Israel posts the "Iron Dome" missile defense system. In: orf.at. Österreichischer Rundfunk, March 27, 2011, archived from the original on April 12, 2011 ; Retrieved April 12, 2011 .
    66. Anshel Pfeffer, Yanir Yagna: Iron Dome successfully intercept Gaza rocket for first time. In: Haaretz.com. Haaretz, April 7, 2011, accessed April 13, 2011 .
    67. הצעת חוק חדשה: ערבית אינה שפה ( Memento from January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) [Ha'aretz], August 4, 2011.
    68. Mosche Arens : לימודי ערבית לכל / Israel's shameful attack on Arabic must be stopped Ha'aretz , November 15, 2011.
    69. Pakistan's parliament condemns US mission to kill bin Laden's Reuters on May 14, 2011.
    70. Military action : Pakistan's government condemns heavy NATO attack , ZEIT November 26, 2011
    71. Helicopter attack: Pakistan meets USA with “deep feeling of anger” , ZEIT, November 27, 2011
    72. NATO attack on military post China takes the side of Pakistan , Spiegel online, November 28, 2011
    73. ^ GE 82 of 87 seats contested . channelnewsasia.com. April 27, 2011. Retrieved May 12, 2012.
    74. Article in the Turkish daily newspaper Sözcü reflected on the news portal Muhalif Gazete : Padişahimiza TV kapatma Yetkisi (German: For our Sultan the authority to close channels) ( Memento of April 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on February 8, 2011, (Turkish)
    75. Online filter in Turkey: Erdogan plans the Web 0.0 Spiegel Online, June 24, 2011, accessed on June 25, 2011.
    76. Death toll increased to 5. deredactie.be, December 15, 2011, archived from the original on November 20, 2012 ; accessed on January 9, 2016 .
    77. Killer von Lüttich wanted as many victims as possible , Focus Online, accessed on December 14, 2011.
    78. sueddeutsche.de, Cabinet decides to phase out nuclear power by 2022 , June 6, 2011, accessed on July 2, 2011.
    79. bundesregierung.de: The way to the energy of the future ( Memento from September 4, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
    80. Papandreou leaves without a successor. In: zeit.de. Die Zeit , November 9, 2011, accessed on January 26, 2015 .
    81. ^ Deutsche Welle , July 24, 2011: Latvians vote for new elections .
    82. Latvia: Panic after rumors of bank failure Focus from December 12, 2011.
    83. Latvians storm the Süddeutsche Zeitung ATM on December 12, 2011.
    84. SELMANI: DR KA ZGJEDHUR TË JETË MES POPULLIT DHE ME POPULLIN! ( Memento from July 25, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
    85. Thellohet kriza ( Memento from November 20, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
    86. ^ Rampage in Holland: two other people dead ( memento from June 16, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), on noows.de, accessed on April 11, 2011.
    87. ^ Rampage in the Netherlands: the perpetrator had five gun licenses. Retrieved December 14, 2019 . , on rp-online.de
    88. Alt om tragedien Aftenposten, July 23, 2011 (accessed on August 8, 2011)
    89. Burial in the Capuchin Crypt. July 4, 2011, accessed October 3, 2019 .
    90. Otto Habsburg's funeral ceremony - derStandard.at. Retrieved October 3, 2019 (Austrian German).
    91. 01 06 2016 at 9:15 am: When the "Scion of the Imperial Family" came back to Austria. Retrieved October 3, 2019 .
    92. Otto Habsburg dead: burial in the Capuchin crypt. July 4, 2011, accessed October 3, 2019 .
    93. I. Küpeli: Now it's getting loud - In Portugal there is resistance to neoliberal crisis management. In: analysis & criticism (No. 560, April 15, 2011, p. 24)
    94. Slovenia's government has come to an end. Archived from the original on January 9, 2014 ; accessed on January 7, 2016 . tagesschau.de, September 20, 2011.
    95. ^ Draft law T / 2627 “Magyarország Alaptörvénye” (“Basic Law of Hungary”) of March 15, 2011 , website of the Hungarian Parliament. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
    96. FE Region Germany Time 2011-02-14 12: 43: 11.7 UTC , on geofon.gfz-potsdam.de
    97. FE Region Germany Time 2011-09-08 19: 02: 48.6 UTC , on geofon.gfz-potsdam.de
    98. Magnitude 4.8 - SOUTHERN TEXAS 2011 October 20 12:24:40 UTC ( Memento from October 21, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), on earthquake.usgs.gov
    99. Magnitude 7.4 - KERMADEC ISLANDS REGION 2011 October 21 17:57:16 UTC ( Memento from October 22, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), on earthquake.usgs.gov
    100. M 7.1 - eastern Turkey , on earthquake.usgs.gov
    101. Missing navy ship with 27 people on board
    102. 83rd Academy Awards
    103. ^ Leipzig Book Fair
    104. Buga 2011 ( Memento from October 13, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
    105. Announcement of the wedding date
    106. ^ Mahler Festival in Leipzig ( Memento from January 26, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
    107. ^ Dresden Music Festival
    108. Rhineland-Palatinate Day
    109. Handel Festival in Halle ( Memento from September 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
    110. Hessentag
    111. Leipzig Bach Festival
    112. 22. World Scout Jamboree. Archived from the original on April 10, 2015 ; accessed on December 27, 2015 .
    113. Mendelssohn Festival 2011 ( Memento from September 9, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
    114. Beethovenfest
    115. ^ Day of German Unity and North Rhine-Westphalia Day 2011 in Bonn ( Memento from May 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
    116. Message on the BBC website , accessed on November 14, 2011.
    117. Christie's: Overview of the prices achieved so far for Gursky's works, some with illustrations , accessed on November 14, 2011.
    118. Frankfurt Book Fair 2011
    119. tagesschau.de on January 1, 2011 in: The assassin waited in front of the church ( Memento from January 4, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
    120. Memorandum from theology professors on the crisis of the Catholic Church ( Memento from August 31, 2019 in the Internet Archive )
    121. kirchentag.de: 33rd German Evangelical Church Congress Dresden 2011 in numbers ( Memento from May 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    122. Earth-like planet discovered Süddeutsche Zeitung from December 6, 2011.
    123. 255.255.255.255 IP center has used up all addresses , Spiegel online, February 4, 2011
    124. DLR-Nachrichten: Germany and China are experimenting together in space
    125. Smartphones: Android overtakes Symbian, Apple loses market share . Heise.de. January 31, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
    126. ^ Live Coverage of 2011 Nobel Prize Announcements and Exclusive Content on Nobelprize.org. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012 ; accessed on January 26, 2016 .
    127. Press release of the Swedish Academy (PDF; 23 kB) , October 6, 2011.
    128. ^ The Nobel Peace Prize 2011: Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee, Tawakkul Karman at nobelprize.org, October 7, 2011 (accessed October 7, 2011).
    129. The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2011: Thomas J. Sargent, Christopher A. Sims at nobelprize.org, October 10, 2011 (accessed October 10, 2011).
    130. International year of Forests ( Memento from May 25, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
    131. 2011 will be the UN year of chemistry ( memento from September 14, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ), on unesco.de
    132. Decision 2010/37 / EC
    133. Tallinn 2011 ( Memento of July 4, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
    134. Turku 2011