Revolution in Egypt 2011

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Protesters standing on an army truck in downtown Cairo on January 29, 2011

The 2011 revolution in Egypt ( Egyptian-Arabic ثورة 25 يناير, thawret 25 yanāyir ; January 25th revolution) was a political upheaval in Egypt inspired by the Tunisian Jasmine Revolution , in which mass protests from various sections of the Egyptian population played a role. The revolution was part of the so-called " Arab Spring ".

On January 25, 2011, demonstrations began in the major cities of Egypt , which culminated on Friday, January 28, 2011, known as the "Day of Wrath". The demonstrators mainly turned against the regime of Egyptian President Muhammad Husni Mubarak , which existed from October 1981 to February 2011 and was accused of corruption and abuse of office. On January 29, 2011, Mubarak appointed Omar Suleiman as Vice President and transferred some of his power to him. Mubarak was announced to resign on February 11, 2011forced. A judges' commission later found that 846 people had been violently killed by that day. During these days the demonstrations were accompanied by worldwide media reports; the Tahrir Square in Cairo was the center of international reporting. Even in Egypt itself, citizens were able to find out more about the events despite censorship .

Instead of a civil presidential council called for by the opposition, Mubarak was replaced by a military council made up of high-ranking officers, which guaranteed the demonstrators free and democratic elections and the repeal of the emergency legislation that had been in force for 30 years . The chairman of the military council and thus de facto Mubarak's successor was Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi . Contrary to expectations, on March 23, the Military Council tightened the emergency laws, but on the first anniversary, on January 25, 2012, they were largely repealed. On May 31, 2012, the emergency laws were formally terminated, but largely reintroduced in a different form.

After Mubarak was deposed, demonstrations soon resumed. In the course of 2011, demonstrations increasingly turned into violent clashes with police officers and the military, with several demonstrators killed and hundreds injured at each time. It started with the demonstrations by the Christian Copts ; From autumn 2011 onwards, protests against the military council often took this path. The Military Council responded several times to large demonstrations by reshuffling the government it had previously installed, with Tantawi, the Provisional Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of Egypt , Minister of Defense and Minister of Military Production, remaining in office. Tantawi was retired in August 2012; he was succeeded by Abd al-Fattah as-Sisi .

The former ruling party of the Egyptian ex-president, the National Democratic Party (NDP), was dissolved by the Supreme Administrative Court of Egypt. Former President Mubarak was arrested on April 8 and sentenced to life imprisonment by a court in early June 2012 . Former Interior Minister Habib al-Adli was sentenced to twelve years' imprisonment for money laundering and illegal enrichment ; In early June 2012 he was sentenced to life imprisonment for the killings during the revolution. In March 2013, the Court of Cassation ordered the money laundering process to be restarted. He was released in March 2015.

General elections for both houses of parliament began on November 28, 2011 and lasted for several months. The Islamist parties won the election for the Egyptian people's assembly with around 70 percent. The current Constituent Assembly is limited by supra-constitutional principles. ( English supra-constitutional principles ) The presidential election took place in May and June 2012.

After the Constitutional Court on June 14, 2012 declared the election to the People's Assembly to be partially flawed, the Military Council dissolved the People's Assembly on June 16, took over its legislative and budgetary rights and banned members of parliament from entering. The runoff election for the Egyptian president, between the air force commander Ahmad Schafiq and the Muslim Brother and party chairman Mohammed Morsi , took place anyway, with the military council still wanting to decide on the president's powers. Mohammed Morsi was elected as the new President of Egypt with 51.7 percent of the vote and the turnout is said to have been 51 percent. After the election, Morsi resigned from his post with the Muslim Brotherhood and his party. By decree, President Morsi reinstated the People's Assembly on July 8th, and a short session of deputies was held on July 10th.

Morsi's term of office was ended on July 3, 2013 as a result of the ongoing protests by the coup .


Starting position

Shortly after taking office, Mubarak had an emergency law passed in 1982 that gave him dictatorial powers. The reason was the assassination attempt by fundamentalist members of the Egyptian armed forces on his predecessor Anwar as-Sadat , in which he was killed in 1981.

In the run-up to the 2005 presidential elections, the opposition organized itself in the Kifaja movement (= enough) and in the al-Ghad party (morning party) and caused a stir on the political floor, in the media and with rallies on the streets. Mubarak promised a political opening of the country and the admission of independent candidates to the presidential elections. After the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood gained influence in the elections, the course of liberalization was stopped again.

In the period that followed, there were more demonstrations in downtown Cairo, especially in front of the headquarters of the lawyers 'and journalists' association and not far from the party headquarters in al-Ghad, which were already disrupted by thugs in civilian clothes. In the universities, too, students protested despite the bans. The first mass rallies took place in 2008. The illegal resale of flour resulted in bottlenecks in the delivery of state-subsidized bread. Tens of thousands protested in al-Mahalla al-kubra. These bread riots were co-organized by the April 6th youth movement , which supported workers' strikes in March 2008 in the textile factories of Delta City.

The end of 2010 found of electoral fraud dominated parliamentary elections in Egypt instead, where the National Democratic Party of President Hosni Mubarak won 420 of 508 seats. The opposition parties only achieved three percent of the seats in parliament. Only the Muslim Brotherhood has a well-organized membership base; it has so far remained in the background during the protests.

In a September / October 2010 poll by the Gallup Organization , less than a third of those polled believed that their country's elections were fair. In March 2009, 96 percent of those surveyed were of the opinion that freedom of expression should be included in the constitution as a fundamental right.


The reasons for the increased willingness to protest are displeasure with the authoritarian regime with a well-developed security apparatus, the citizens not having a say, the lack of will to reform, corruption in the state, economy and administration. A population growth from 50 to 85 million people within the last 25 years put enormous pressure on the labor market and regional food production and contributed significantly to high unemployment, especially among the younger population, and increasing poverty . In addition, a reorientation of immigration policy, especially on the part of the Gulf states, dwindled the chance of escaping the misery. Frustration to resignation was widespread among the youth: Due to blatant deficits in religious and state educational institutions on the one hand and the often high standards at private schools with school fees that usually exceed the average wage, on the other hand, social status is "passed on". Due to growing economic demands in the run-up to marriage, Egyptian families save huge sums of money for years, which correspond to two and a half times the per capita annual income. That is why six years now pass in cities between the application and the wedding. Through waves of price increases and rigorous social cuts in the neoconservative final phase of Mubarak's rule, fears about the future grew and impoverishment increased. Rising food and energy prices around the world exacerbated the situation, as they increasingly exceeded the economic possibilities of significant parts of the population.

In November 2010, the OECD issued a warning against corruption; the inflation rate was most recently eleven percent. Mubarak has initiated economic reforms, but only the economic elite, who have gained increased influence and supported the presidential family, benefit from them.

In addition to the dissatisfaction with the system, the extent to which modern communication technologies (cell phones, internet, but also the reception of satellite television, especially in connection with the reception of Al Jazeera ) promoted the protests is also discussed . In Egypt, around 17 million people (around 20 percent of the population) have Internet access, while cell phones are more widespread among the poorer population. Blogs and platforms such as B. Twitter an information structure away from the mainstream, which is why there is a consensus that it promoted the protests. However, observers consider this role to be rather supportive and not fundamental (the protests continued unabated even after the internet was switched off), and they point out that the internet is not only suitable for the dissemination of alternative information but also for the camouflaged dissemination of PR by regimes.

Bearer of protest

The Kifaja movement and the independent trade union protests against poor working conditions are seen as important precursors to the protests .

January 25 poster related to Facebook

One of the initiators is the “ April 6th Youth Movement ”. The Facebook group founded by Ahmed Maher and Israa Abdel Fattah consists primarily of young, well-educated Egyptians, many of whom have so far had nothing to do with politics. According to its own description, the movement is "independent of political directions or political trends". Its members are only one “love for our country and the desire to reform it”. Together with the group “We are all Khaled Said ” (launched in summer 2010 by Google's head of marketing for the Middle East, Wael Ghonim ), she called for a “ Day of Wrath ” and organized the first protests mainly on the Internet using Facebook and communication by email and SMS. The protesters' uprising is marked by demands for political reforms, plurality and freedom of expression , as well as guaranteed fundamental rights and democratic elections.

In the course of the protests, other social classes increasingly participate. The protests are carried by a wide-ranging movement that includes various social classes apart from the regime elite, both left and bourgeois, secular as well as Christians and Muslims. The Muslim Brotherhood is passive about the protests and has no leadership role. According to the Norwegian historian Brynjar Lia, the reason for the distance from the more fundamentalist religious is that the protest movements are non-violent, popular, predominantly secular and integrative. On the other hand, several young members of the Muslim Brotherhood support the protests and refrain from some previous fundamentalist positions.

Chronological sequence

Start of the protests

Tuesday January 25th

The mass protests began in the capital, Cairo , near the Supreme Court and continued at Parliament. The police and security forces with up to 30,000 men used water cannons and tear gas to drive the demonstrators away. There were about 500 arrests in Cairo and about 350 other arrests in the rest of the country. There were also demonstrations in the cities of Alexandria , Mansura and Ismailiyya as well as in Aswan , Asyut and al-Mahdiyya .

According to the interior ministry, there are said to have been 500 arrests. According to security sources, 860 demonstrators across the country had been arrested within two days.

During mass protests in the Egyptian port city of Suez , the police opened fire on demonstrators. Two demonstrators were killed in the process. Another 45-year-old protester was hit in the stomach with rubber bullets and died of internal bleeding in a clinic. One policeman died from his injuries.

Wednesday January 26th

After thousands of young protesters apparently met via the social network Facebook and the microblogging network Twitter , both services were blocked in Egypt. 55 demonstrators and 15 police officers were injured by stone throwing during mass protests in the port city of Suez. The angry crowd also set fire to a police station and other government buildings. A building belonging to the ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) in Suez was also set on fire. It was later suspected that these were government contracts.

Thursday January 27th

After share prices on the Egyptian Stock Exchange fell 6.25 percent within 15 minutes, trading was suspended. The stock market index fell to a 6-month low at 5,916.74 points. He had lost over 17 percent since the beginning of the year.

The government broadcasted through the state broadcasting company Egyptian Radio and Television Union (ERTU) that the Egyptian People's Assembly wanted to deal with poverty reduction, the health system and an increase in the state minimum wage on Sunday.

In the evening, Mohammed el-Baradei arrived in Cairo, whose candidacy for the office of Egyptian president had become virtually hopeless due to the constitution changed by Mubarak. El-Baradei offered to lead a peaceful change.

Half an hour before midnight, Egypt was almost completely disconnected from the Internet by order of the government . This was done by deleting the route entries of the Border Gateway Protocol from almost all Egyptian Internet service providers . The only exception to the shutdown of the Internet was Noor Data Networks , a relatively small ISP whose customers include the Egyptian stock exchange. The SMS - and BlackBerry -Communication has been denied. In the course of Friday, the mobile phone networks were also switched off in certain regions. Radio amateurs then use a. Morse code to send messages from the country. Numbers were also exchanged via Twitter in order to dial into the Internet via outdated modem connections with the existing telephone network.

Violent escalation

Friday January 28th

On January 28, 2011, the so-called "Day of Wrath", the most violent protests took place since the beginning of the uprising on January 25, 2011.

The Egyptian government has banned Friday prayers in various places in order to make it more difficult to organize further protests. There were reports that Mohammed el-Baradei had been placed under house arrest . After violent clashes between police and demonstrators, the Egyptian government imposed a night curfew , which the protesters largely ignored. In the early evening, the headquarters of the National Democratic Party (NDP) in Cairo was set on fire. In the evening, army units moved into Cairo in armored vehicles and, according to state television, secured, among other things, the Egyptian Museum directly opposite the burning party headquarters . Protesters had previously protected the museum from the fire and from looting.

The party leader of the Wafd party , al-Sayyid al-Badawi , called for a transitional government and spoke out in favor of new elections and a constitutional amendment.

In a televised address late in the evening, President Mubarak justified the crackdown on the security forces. He announced a government reshuffle for the next day and promised democratic and economic reforms. However, he ruled out his own resignation. After the speech, the protests continued in the night; and the protesters again called for the resignation of the head of state. According to official information, 35 people were killed on this Friday and the following Saturday night in the most serious clashes between demonstrators and security forces. According to media reports, there were almost a hundred dead and thousands injured.

Saturday January 29th

Soldiers watching the protest on January 29, 2011

Throughout Saturday, people continued to protest on the streets. Police and the particularly brutal State Security and Central Security have not been seen on the streets since then.

In an interview with al-Jazeera , Mohammed el-Baradei said he knew nothing about house arrest. The protests would continue until the president resigned. The political system must change before Egypt can move forward. He described Mubarak's televised address the day before as disappointing.

The Cabinet Nazif came as Mubarak had announced in his speech back. Ahmed Ezz , founder of the steel company Al Ezz Industries, has withdrawn from the National Democratic Party . Ezz is considered a close confidante of Gamal Mubarak .

Husni Mubarak appointed a Vice President for the first time during his tenure. According to the Mena news agency, this position will be taken over by the previous head of the Jihaz al-Muchabarat al-Amma intelligence service , Lieutenant General Omar Suleiman . The office of the new prime minister will be held by the former aviation minister Ahmad Schafiq . Meanwhile, protesters continued to call for the overthrow of Mubarak.

Increasingly - as to a lesser extent in the previous days - looters used the chaotic conditions for raids. Even humanitarian organizations such as B. Hospitals were not spared. In some cases there was considerable damage to property. In the Egyptian Museum , mummies and other relics of ancient Egyptian history were destroyed. Among other things, exhibits of the pharaoh Tutankhamun were destroyed. Wafaa el-Saddik , who was chief director of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo until the end of 2010, blamed the guards and police for the looting of the art collection. “They were the guards of the museum, our own people,” said el-Saddik. Another museum in Memphis was completely robbed Saturday morning.

To protect against marauding gangs, residents in several cities formed armed vigilante groups. Many demonstrators suspect that the government wanted the chaos to discredit the resistance. On orders, the police released at least 4,000 criminals. The army tried to get the problem under control, but at times seemed overwhelmed. They tried to cordon off streets and driveways at some strategic points in Cairo. On Saturday, one of their spokespeople turned to the Egyptians in a TV address and warned against “stealing, looting, robbing or spreading fear”.

In the central Egyptian city of Beni Suef , people attempted to storm police stations in two different parts of the city. Thereupon the security forces opened fire with live ammunition. 17 people died in the incidents.

In a televised address broadcast by al-Jazeera, Yusuf al-Qaradawi , one of the leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood , called on Mubarak to leave the country.

Sunday January 30th

In the morning, the protests started again in Tahrir Square in Cairo. Most of the foreigners who had previously been in the country have now been flown out, including the US ambassador. On Sunday, army units moved into the holiday destination of Sharm El-Sheikh , which had not been directly affected by the unrest, and into the city of Al-Arish .

The Al Jazeera television channel , which had previously been a main source of information for the protests, was now facing increasing reprisals from the state, resulting in a ban and revocation of its license , closure of the Cairo office during the day and the shutdown of the broadcasting frequency , which many continued to do Egyptians could be circumvented. Protests on the part of the broadcaster and allegations of censorship had no effect on the reprisals. China, for its part, tightened domestic Internet censorship to prevent the protests from spreading.

Meanwhile, the Egyptian military deployed Mil Mi-8 military transport helicopters on Tahrir Square to monitor the protests from the air. Two F-16 fighter planes flew low over the demonstrators several times in the city center. With about 40 to 50 combat armor type M1 Abrams military presence in the city has increased. Later that evening, parts of the outdated FidoNet , a predecessor of the Internet via mailboxes ("BBS"), were reactivated in order to bypass the Internet blocks.

Observers reported burned out police stations and stormed courthouses; Hospitals could only maintain emergency care. After these reports, wealthy Egyptians left the country via the airports.

In the meantime, looting took place again. Reports of the looting of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo were confirmed. The nearby and burned-out ruins of the headquarters of the ruling party is now threatening to collapse and fall on the museum building. The head of the Coptic Orthodox Church , Pope Shenuda III. , called for people not to take part in the protests against the Mubarak government.

Monday January 31st

Correspondents reported that Tahrir Square had been moved with barbed wire and closed to the public. Police forces are back in regular use, for example for traffic control.

Mubarak, meanwhile, appointed Mahmoud Wagdy , the previous chief inspector of all national penal institutions, as the new interior minister.

Towards the afternoon, a spokesman for the Egyptian army on state television described the protesters' demands as "legitimate" and announced that they would "not use violence against the Egyptian people". "Freedom of expression in peaceful form is guaranteed for everyone," quoted the official Mena news agency.

There was also a major demonstration in Alexandria and the major trading port remained closed. The army is increasingly used against the numerous looters. Around 450 people were then arrested and are to be tried in a military court.

Tuesday February 1st

In the capital Cairo alone, up to two million people demonstrated in the proclaimed “March of the Millions”, according to information from the Al Jazeera television station. There have been no protests of this magnitude since Mubarak took office.

At the entrances to Tahrir Square, identity checks were carried out, during which holders of an ID card from the Ministry of the Interior were refused entry. Some people were arrested by the military for attempting to bring weapons to the square. These controls made it possible to ensure that the demonstrations were peaceful and had the character of a festival. The army secured the president's palace with barbed wire to deter intruders. The army has promised not to use force against the demonstrators.

In the evening Mubarak announced in a televised address that he did not want to run for another term and that he would seek talks with political groups. This is considered hypocritical for tactical reasons by the participants in the popular uprising against Mubarak. Mubarak caused particular anger with this sentence: "This country is also my home, and in this I will die". The crowd responded with angry shouts. "Get out of here, get out of here!" Or: “That is not enough, that is not enough!” From among the ranks of the opposition, Mohammed El-Baradei, among others, was disappointed after the speech.

At a large intersection near the pyramids (Midan el-Rimaya) , which was occupied by the military at the time of the curfew, as every day, there was a demonstration of around 200 people for the first time long after midnight, shouting "Hosni, Hosni" and pro-government Holding up posters and banners. At an anti-tank barrier they turned around and got lost in the direction of Kafr el-Nassar or Faisalstrasse.

Wednesday February 2nd

The day after Hosni Mubarak announced his resignation, the army pressed for an end to the protests for the first time. The people's message had arrived and their demands were known, said an army spokesman. State media reported that the Egyptian parliament would be suspended pending the review of the December election results . The background to this is the opposition's allegations of fraud in this election.

Internet access has been reopened since lunchtime, while many social networks remained blocked for the time being. The curfew - which only a few adhered to anyway - was postponed to 5 p.m. after it had started at 2 p.m.

In the afternoon there were violent clashes between demonstrators and supporters of the president in Tahrir Square. Men in civilian clothes, some on horses and camels from Nazla el-Saman, intervened on the side of the supporters.

In contrast to the previous day, there were no identity checks by the military at the entrances to Tahrir Square, so that thousands of partially paid supporters of the president and the ruling party managed to attack opposition demonstrators with knives, clubs and stones. Roof tiles and stones were thrown from the roofs of surrounding buildings at the demonstrators. According to Al-Jazeera, over 1,500 people were injured and 13 were killed. The army fired warning shots in the air and tried to separate supporters of the president and those in the opposition. According to reports from the television station Al-Jazeera International, however, the army did not intervene to separate the adversaries, but behaved completely passively. Mohammed el-Baradei called on the army to end the bloody conflict in Tahrir Square.

Thursday February 3rd

As before, since the curfew, which was set at 5 p.m., more and more activists of the democracy movement have gathered in Tahrir Square. During the day, barricades were erected to prevent an attack by Mubarak supporters. Nevertheless, incendiary bombs were thrown again . Since the curfew began, repeated shots have been fired in and around the square. According to eyewitness reports, the protesters were shot by snipers . According to news reports, a foreigner was allegedly beaten to death by Mubarak supporters. In addition, gangs broke into hotels and attacked journalists.

The new Vice President Omar Suleiman announced on state television that he would hold talks with representatives of the opposition . The condition is that the protests stop. Representatives of the democracy movement denied any contacts and insisted that Mubarak had to resign before talks could take place. The new Prime Minister Ahmad Schafiq apologized on state television for the deaths last night and promised that there would be no further violence on Cairo's streets. He will also have the violence investigated and hold the culprits accountable. The demand for an immediate resignation of the president is unacceptable and would be an insult to the nation.

Journalist Shahira Amin from the Egyptian television broadcaster Nile TV (subsidiary of the state-run Egyptian Radio and Television Union (ERTU)) quit her job in protest of obstacles in her journalistic work and because of threats from the security forces.

According to the dpa, by order of the Egyptian authorities, short messages (SMS) with state propaganda for President Mubarak had to be distributed over the cellular network . The company Vodafone is said to have protested against this order, which invokes the emergency powers of the Egyptian telecommunications law. The mobile phone providers Mobinil (subsidiary of France Télécom ) and Etisalat are said to have received identical instructions, according to Vodafone.

Friday February 4th

The eleventh day of protest in a row had the motto "Farewell Day" and was largely peaceful. The organizers of the large demonstration with tens of thousands of participants called for a star march . The army surrounded the square with tanks, armored vehicles and erected barbed wire barriers. Christians and Muslims prayed together for the first time; the Imam Chaled el Marakbi said: "This is an Egyptian movement, all have become Muslims and Christians, they have come to claim their stolen rights". Defense Minister Mohammed Hussein Tantawi visited Tahrir Square and spoke to members of the army. The demonstrators shouted "The army and the people are united".

The secretary general regarded as popular in Egypt, the Arab League , Amr Musa , announced that he was considering to run as successor to the presidency or to play a role in a possible transitional government. According to a report by the official Mena news agency, the General Prosecutor's Office has imposed a travel ban on Trade and Industry Minister Raschid Mohamed Raschid, who was in office until January 2011 , and frozen his bank accounts as an investigation was underway.

Saturday 5th February

General Hassan Al-Rawini, head of the Central Command for Cairo, visited the square and unsuccessfully demanded that the demonstration be broken up and the barricades dismantled. These protesters chanted that they will continue to occupy and demonstrate in Tahrir Square until Mubarak resigns. Interior Ministry spokesman Ismail Othman said, according to CNN : "The army remains neutral and does not take sides, because if we protect one side, we will be considered biased. Our job is to prevent clashes and chaos by separating the two opposing groups. "

According to Al-Arabija , the entire Executive Committee of the ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) resigned. After that, according to the Egyptian state television, Hussam Badrawi, who is considered to be liberal, was appointed the party's new general secretary, who also takes over the post of Gamal Mubarak as chairman of the political committee.

According to the Egyptian State Television, Omar Suleiman met with unspecified independent and opposition figures to discuss how to achieve free and fair presidential elections according to the constitution.

Sunday February 6th

Representatives of the secular opposition parties, independent legal experts, the Coptic entrepreneur Naguib Sawiris , a representative of Mohamed El Baradei and envoys of the Muslim Brotherhood are now named as participants in further talks on February 6th about the upcoming presidential elections . Also present was the new general secretary of the ruling NDP, Hossam Badrawi . According to state television, the result of the talks should be that a committee will be set up to discuss the necessary constitutional reforms.

Monday February 7th

Spiegel Online reports that the obstruction of the press is starting again. Egyptian and foreign reporters were intimidated, some Egyptian reporters and Egyptian employees of the Western media were arrested or interrogated. Reporters' offices were searched and cameras were taken. Access to Tahrir Square would also be difficult for the press. At least 70 reporters have been arrested in Cairo since February 2, according to Reporters Without Borders , and more than 70 reporters have been attacked to date. On February 4, a photographer was killed by a sniper.

The Egyptian government is increasing the salaries and pensions of state employees by 15 percent.

The banks have been open by the hour since Sunday.

The demonstrators, who do not see themselves represented in the government's talks with members of the opposition, want to keep the square occupied, try to prevent the military from pushing the barricades further inwards, and organize the infrastructure (food, toilets and hot showers). They also call for a "week of steadfastness." Larger gatherings are expected again for Tuesday and the coming Friday.

In the meantime, video publications about Al-Jazeera are appearing more and more often, in which either street battles between Mubarak supporters and opponents or violence perpetrated by unknown snipers in the form of shooting individual, innocent civilian passers-by, mostly ambushed, by unknown snipers Youngsters and Mubarak opponents.

Tuesday February 8th

The Tahrir Square in Cairo with tents and banners of the protesters on February 8

President Husni Mubarak has set up a committee of eleven judges to review the Egyptian constitution in the coming weeks . In doing so, he fulfills a central demand of the demonstrators. The chair should Sirri Mahmoud Siam accept, the Chairman of the Supreme Court and chairman is the high judicial council. The planned changes include easing the conditions for running for the presidential election and a limited term for the president. Meanwhile, the opposition wants the judiciary to have better control of the elections enshrined in the constitution and to invite international election observers to prevent manipulation.

Over a hundred thousand people protest on Tahrir Square and for the first time there is also a demonstration of around 1000 people at the Egyptian People's Assembly .

Wednesday February 9th

Amr Musa spoke to the Egyptian television broadcaster MENA (Middle East News Agency) that Hosni Mubarak should remain in office until the end of his presidency in autumn. This point of view would find increasing support because it was constitutional. Omar Suleiman also stated that Mubarak's premature resignation was out of the question. Those who were not prepared to meet the demonstrators' demands for democratic reforms within the framework of the offered dialogue would only have a coup , which would mean hectic decisions and a lot of irrationality.

According to Al Jazeera, around 20,000 trade unionists demonstrated on Wednesday.

Mubarak's resignation

Thursday February 10th

In the afternoon it became known that the Egyptian army leadership was meeting for a conference without their Commander-in-Chief Mubarak. In a “Communique No. 1”, the army leadership announces steps to protect the nation and the well-being of the people. In a televised address that evening, Mubarak announced that he would hand over parts of his official business to his Vice President Omar Suleiman , but would remain in office until the end of his term. He also wants to amend the constitution in several articles, with the aim of lifting the state of emergency and thus creating the conditions for free elections.

Friday February 11th

The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, led by Defense Minister Mohammed Hussein Tantawi , met in the morning and announced a statement to the people. In it he essentially confirmed what Mubarak said the day before and what had been said in previous statements. Hussam Badrawi , the ruling party's general secretary appointed just a few days ago, resigned.

Nationwide, more than a million people protested again. Hundreds of thousands of demonstrators gathered on Tahrir Square, in front of the Presidential Palace and in front of the Egyptian Radio and Television Union in downtown Cairo .

In the afternoon it became known that Mubarak and his family had left Cairo for Sharm El Sheikh . In the early evening, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced in a concise statement that Mubarak would step down and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces would take over. The military had previously promised constitutional reforms and free elections. The Egyptian commander in chief Mohammed Hussein Tantawi is chairman of the Supreme Military Council. With the takeover of power, the constitutional legitimacy that Mubarak and Suleiman invoked was broken by the military. According to the Egyptian constitution, the President of Parliament or the Chairman of the Constitutional Court would have to succeed Mubarak.

The news led to a folk festival-like atmosphere, the best-known blogger in Egypt and co-initiator of the first “Day of Anger” Wael Ghonim tweeted “Revolution 2.0: Mission Accomplished”. Mohamed ElBaradei said: “This is the best day of my life.” Jon Alterman from the Center for Strategic and International Studies expressed himself more skeptically : “This is already the end of a beginning [...] Egypt is not moving towards a democracy - it is working towards martial law, and how it will then continue is open. "

Half an hour after Mubarak's resignation, the Swiss Federal Council decided to freeze all possible assets of Mubarak and those around him in Switzerland with immediate effect in order to avoid misappropriation of Egyptian state property. Twelve people are affected: Hosni Mubarak and his wife, their two sons and their wives, the brother of Mubarak's wife and four ex-ministers and a former organizational secretary of Mubarak's NDP party . On February 16, 2011, the list was supplemented by two more people to a total of 14 people.

Attempt to reorganize Egypt politically

After power was handed over to the Military Council, the political opposition resisted the call to stop the demonstrations and, for example, to vacate Tahrir Square. In fact, there were now additional demonstrations by individual professional groups. The political demands were accepted by the military council and met one after another. A new prime minister was appointed on March 3, who in the following days presented a new cabinet. The security police were disbanded and when the burning of files became known, protesters stormed the security police buildings. On March 19, there was a referendum on an amendment to the constitution drawn up by a commission in order to be able to hold democratic parliamentary and presidential elections in a few months. On March 23, the cabinet passed a new right to strike severely punishing demonstrators while emergency law was in effect (at that time, the emergency laws were still in force). In addition, a provisional party law was passed.

Saturday February 12th

After millions of people across the country celebrated the resignation of the president into the wee hours of the morning, the Supreme Military Council announced in its fourth announcement that the current ministers would continue their work until a new government was elected. The army eased the curfew and the state radio promised honest reporting. Furthermore, all regional and international agreements, including the peace treaty with Israel , should be observed. Meanwhile, civilians and members of the army jointly dismantled the barricades on Tahrir Square in Cairo and volunteers cleaned some streets.

Sunday February 13th

The army removed the tents that had remained standing on Tahrir Square and then initiated traffic. There was a fight between military personnel and demonstrators. Hundreds of Egyptians demonstrated in Tahrir Square for the end of the state of emergency and for the dissolution of parliament. There were also strikes and protests on the stock exchange, among textile companies, media organizations, steel companies, the post office, the railway and in the Ministry of Health. Some police officers demonstrated in front of the Interior Ministry for better wages, the restoration of their honor and criminal immunity, and warning shots were fired by the military. The Supreme Military Council suspended the constitution, dissolved both houses of parliament, announced a referendum on a new constitution and announced on state television that elections would take place in September as originally planned.

Monday February 14th

Hundreds of people demonstrated against the police at noon on Tahrir Square and announced a nationwide “Victory March” on Friday. For their part, police forces demonstrated again in front of the Ministry of the Interior and showed the portraits of dead police officers, which they also described as "victims of the regime". The military threatened the demonstrators with arrests. Workers across the country demonstrated for better contracts, as did ambulance drivers and transport workers for better wages and conditions. Wael Ghonim and blogger Amr Salama met with the military leadership. The constitution should therefore be rewritten within ten days, and a referendum should then be held on the new constitution within two months . Strikes in the banking sector resulted in the Egyptian stock exchange remaining closed indefinitely, at least until February 20, 2011. The interim government in Cairo requested in several EU countries and the USA that the accounts of high-ranking officials of the previous government be frozen, after Switzerland had already implemented this measure on February 11th. Some senior police officers responsible for shooting protesters have been sacked.

Friday February 18th

Hundreds of thousands of Egyptians celebrated the fall of Mubarak a week ago in Tahrir Square. A military band played music. The Friday sermon was given for the first time by the radical Islamic preacher Yusuf al-Qaradawi , who had returned to Egypt after 30 years in exile.

Tuesday February 22nd

The Egyptian interim government under Prime Minister Ahmad Shafiq was reshaped by the Supreme Council of the Egyptian Armed Forces . Yehia al-Gamal of the Democratic Front Party became deputy prime minister. The General Secretary of the New Wafd Party, Mounir Fakhry Abdel Nour , has been appointed Minister of Tourism.

In addition, Minister of Science Amr Ezzat Salama , Minister of Education Ahmed Gamal Eddin Moussa , Minister of Communication and Technology Maged Ibrahim Othman , Minister of Health and Population Ashraf Mahmoud Ibrahim Hatem , Minister of Petroleum Mahmoud Latif , Minister of Social Solidarity and Justice Gouda Abdel Khaleq , Minister for Trade and Industry Samir Youssef , Minister for Labor and Emigration al-Sayyed Ismail and Minister for Culture Mohamed Abdel Moneim al-Sawy .

Wednesday February 23

Soldiers of the Egyptian army attacked the Anba Bishoy monastery in the Sketian desert with submachine guns. In the incident, one monk is said to have been shot and another kidnapped. A total of 19 other employees of the Coptic monastery were seriously injured. According to a statement by the Egyptian Military Council, the soldiers "removed a few walls" that had been built on the streets and on land owned by the state. According to Bishop Anba Damian , in the previous weeks the army had asked the monks to build a protective wall around the monastery because the security forces had withdrawn and thousands of prisoners had been released from the prisons there.

Friday February 25th

The Friday demonstrations in Tahrir Square continue regardless of the cabinet reshuffle: many Egyptians doubt the intentions of the transitional government and are therefore trying to maintain the pressure on the government from the street. For the first time, the Egyptian military is using force against the demonstrators.

Saturday February 26th

The Egyptian army apologizes for the violent crackdown on the demonstrators in Tahrir Square on Friday.

The commission, which was supposed to work out proposals for an amendment to the Egyptian constitution , presented them to the military council. A referendum on the adoption of the amendments to the constitution took place on March 19.

Monday February 28th

On February 28, 2011, Mubarak, his wife Suzanne, his two sons Alaa and Gamal and their wives were banned from leaving the country. In addition, the family's assets in Egypt were frozen.

Thursday March 3rd

The Military Council appointed Essam Sharaf as the new Prime Minister and thus the successor to Ahmed Shafik. The Military Council thus responded to an important demand made by the opposition. From July 2004 to December 2005, Sharaf served as Minister of Transport in Prime Minister Ahmad Nazif's cabinet .

Friday March 4th

Prime Minister Essam Sharaf spoke to tens of thousands of Egyptians in Tahrir Square. Towards evening in Alexandria there were violent clashes between the security police and around 1,500 demonstrators who tried to storm the local security police headquarters.

Saturday 5th March

While the former Interior Minister Habib al-Adli was questioned on corruption charges in court, hundreds of activists broke into at least six buildings of the Mabahith amn ad-daula al-ulya (Amn al-Dawla) security police , the main building being in the Nasr City district of Cairo belonged to. The background to this incident was a rumor that the security police should be disbanded. As a result, officials from this agency began to systematically destroy the secret files of this administration across the country. When the activists got wind of this, they tried to storm the branches of the security police in various places in Egypt in order to prevent the destruction of files and to save as many documents as possible. The storming of the branches, however, only succeeded in six different locations (or a few more) in the country. A significant part of the files classified as "secret" were destroyed before the activists could gain control of the buildings. The security police used live ammunition against the activists, but were unable to prevent the storming of buildings in some parts of the country, such as Cairo and Alexandria.

According to the Arabic-language TV news channel al-Arabiya , official documents were found that spoke of plans to attack Coptic churches. Al-Arabiya also reported that former Interior Minister Habib al-Adli set up a unit in 2004 to carry out false flag operations . This unit is said to include, inter alia, also allegedly involved in the terrorist attack on the Coptic Church on New Year's Day 2011 in Alexandria. Leaked documents from the British secret service are cited as the source for this .

A few days after these documents were rescued, a memo surfaced on the Internet that can be read as saying that the July 2005 terrorist attacks in Sharm El Sheikh were not carried out by the previously unknown split from al-Qaeda that claimed responsibility for the attacks but from a "secret political department" of the Egyptian Ministry of the Interior. However, it has not yet been possible to determine whether this memo is genuine.

According to Al Jazeera, the activists found a room at the headquarters in Cairo in which a file can be found on almost every Egyptian activist.

Sunday March 6th

Police General Mansur al-Essawi is appointed as the new Interior Minister. The new Foreign Minister will be Nabil Elaraby , a former judge at the International Court of Justice . Former Attorney General Mohammed Abdul Aziz al-Gindi is appointed Minister of Justice . The appointment of these people to the new cabinet reflects the completion of steps towards a further step-by-step departure from Mubarak's system of rule on a small scale.

Monday March 7th

For the purpose of questioning in an ongoing investigation , the Egyptian attorney general ordered the military police to detain 47 officers of the security police for 15 days . The officers are accused of burning their own authority files to cover up abuse of citizens by the state and violations of the law. Since the laws of the state of emergency have granted security police employees far-reaching powers - especially against almost any kind of oppositional political activity, the investigations to be carried out are not about covering up the conventional attacks that have taken place by the Egyptian state against its citizens, but rather about covering them up cases of torture and other serious human rights violations , that is, to cover up cases where the limits of the state of emergency laws have been exceeded.

Thousands of Copts demonstrated in Cairo all Monday and also on Tuesday. Prime Minister Essam Sharaf met the demonstrators on Monday and the military council promised to rebuild the church that had been set alight in the days before.

Tuesday March 8th

On International Women's Day there was a demonstration under the slogan “million women march” on Tahrir Square. There were sexual assaults against demonstrators, with individual women being surrounded by a large number of men.

Towards evening, violent clashes began in Cairo in the Mokattam district between Copts and Muslims. There were at least 13 dead and 140 injured.

Wednesday March 9th

March 9, 2011 Egyptian soldiers, military police, paid thugs (destroyed "thugs" ) with extreme brutality a tent camp that of peaceful protesters on the grounds of the Egyptian Museum near the Tahrir Square had been erected. Around 200 young women and men who were in the tent camp were handcuffed and initially abducted to the Egyptian Museum, which at that time was used by the Egyptian secret service as a command center including torture chambers. The arrested people were kicked, beaten with wooden clubs, hoses, electric cables and the like. attacked them, shocked them with electric batons , and insulted the 18 women among those arrested as "prostitutes". Of the 18 women, 17 were subsequently transported to a military prison in Heikstep (northeast of Cairo). (The journalist Rasha Azeb, who was also arrested, was released after a few hours - along with four other male journalists). Body searches were carried out on women in the military prison. They were forced to completely undress while they were photographed by gawking soldiers.

“By allowing men to observe and photograph women during this process, the military wanted to humiliate women. In doing so, they created an additional indirect threat to the women, as they would be exposed to further danger if the photos were published ” ( Amnesty International ). Eventually the married women were separated from the unmarried. The military doctor Ahmed Adel Mohamed el-Mogy then forcibly carried out so-called virginity tests on the 7 unmarried women . Those women who resisted were shocked with electric batons. All 17 women were tried on March 11, 2011 in a military court ( East Cairo Military Court for Military Felonies , East Cairo Military Court for Military Crimes) and charged with assaulting members of the armed forces, destroying private and public property, unauthorized possession of weapons, obstruction to traffic, disregard of the Charged with curfew and other offenses.

Several women were sentenced to one year suspended prison sentences. She was released on March 13th.

In view of the largely unchanged rulership and social structures even after the fall of Mubarak, only one of the women affected showed their great courage with the support of human rights organizations (including Human Rights Watch , Hisham Mubarak Law Center , Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights , Nadeem Center for Rehabilitation of Victims of Violence and Nazra Association for Feminist Studies ) to bring the demeaning treatment of military personnel to court.

Samira Ibrahim filed several complaints: She sued the military court that the army doctor Ahmed Adel Mohamed el-Mogy, who was responsible for the above mentioned on her and the other women. "Virginity tests" should be held accountable.

And she sued the State Council Administrative Court against "virginity tests" being carried out in military facilities and against being tried in military tribunal as a civilian.

Samira Ibrahim was able to achieve an initial success at the end of December 2011 in the proceedings before the Supreme Administrative Court: The court approved of her rights and banned “virginity tests” on female inmates in military prisons.

In its judgment, the court stated: “These acts are aimed at the deliberate humiliation and willful humiliation of women who have participated in protests ... They [the virginity tests] are a violation [especially] of human rights and freedoms, which are among the most outstanding of the rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution ”. The court called the conduct of the "virginity tests" a criminal act .

At the beginning of March 2012 Samira Ibrahim then suffered a defeat in a military court with her lawsuit against the army doctor Ahmed Adel Mohamed el-Mogy. In the run-up to the hearing, the military prosecutor had dropped the original charge of “sexual assault” and downgraded it to “causing public nuisance” and “disobeying military orders”. In the end, the military court acquitted the army doctor. The reasoning of the court read: Due to the contradicting testimonies one could not have established whether the "virginity tests" had taken place at all.

Friday March 11th

Four interior ministry chiefs were arrested for the killings during the revolution in Egypt.

Saturday March 12th

The military announced that it would quickly allow political parties.

At first it was unclear whether these are parties that already existed under Mubarak or whether they are about the establishment of new parties.

Two men were arrested for instigating the violent clash on February 2. You were a member of the National Democratic Party in Al-Jiza Governorate .

For the first time since 1952, free trade unions (independent of the state government apparatus) are permitted in Egypt. While the rights of the trade unions had been expanded under Nasser, his successors Sadat and Mubarak gradually narrowed workers' rights and exercised increasingly overwhelming state control. The vehicle for this was the ETUF ( Egyptian Trade Union Federation ) established in 1961 , which was increasingly subordinate to the MOMM ( Ministry of Manpower and Migration), with close personal ties to the all-dominant governing party, the NDP. With the "Trade Union Law" ("Union Act") of 1976 ( Law 35 of 1976 + Amendments: Law 1/1981, Law 12/1995 ) a hierarchical, centralized organizational structure was established. Since then, the ETUF has functioned as the only officially recognized umbrella organization of the 23 individual trade unions, which are organized according to economic sectors and which were compulsory to belong to. Employees who organized outside the ETUF could be fired. The “Trade Union Law” gave the ETUF or the MOMM the right to admit newly formed unions or to prohibit their formation. The ETUF had extensive powers over the nomination and election procedures for union offices. Trade unionists were no longer allowed to be politically active.

With the so-called "Unified Labor Law" (for example: "Law of the United Labor [er]" ) of 2003 ( Law 12 of 2003 ), the then remaining employee rights were almost completely dismantled: Among other things, authorities or employers have since been allowed to the content and unilaterally cancel, amend or expand the scope of collective agreements; In addition, the law limited strikes so severely that they were practically impossible, expanded temporary employment contracts and allowed dismissals without a reason.

The newly appointed Minister for Labor and Immigration, Ahmed Hassan El-Borai , declared on March 12, 2011 that these untenable conditions would be changed immediately and national (constitution) and international obligations (such as agreements with the ILO / 87 of 1948 and 96 of 1949) which Egypt had signed but ignored for five decades would be respected again. El-Borai declared the previous trade union laws (see above) to be repealed. A new law should be drawn up in cooperation with the Center for Trade Union and Workers' Services (CTUWS). The following principles should be observed: The right of all workers to found and shape their own associations and to join trade unions of their [own] choice. The complete independence and autonomy of the trade unions in all internal affairs, the drafting of their statutes, their financial affairs and the free and fair choice of their leadership. Any control by the MOMM (Ministry of Labor and Migration) should be excluded. The right of all trade unions to form their own associations and to join international associations.

Monday March 14th

During the night, the Egyptian military forcibly ended a demonstration carried out by Copts . They are demonstrating against the destruction of a church that has taken place over the past few weeks, and for legal equality with Muslims. Fifteen people were injured as a result of the violent intervention by the military.

Tuesday March 15th

The current Egyptian Interior Minister Mansour El-Essawy (or the currently ruling military council) announces the dissolution of the State Security Investigations Service (SSIS) ( Mabahith amn ad-daula al-ulya ). In all provinces of the country, all offices and administrative units of the authority are to be dissolved immediately. The authority under the Ministry of the Interior, the mainstay of the former Mubarak regime, had more than 100,000 employees nationwide and an extensive network of informants. In addition, the approximately 350,000-strong paramilitary Central Security Forces (CSF) (see Wiki) were available.

The authority, which was deeply hated by the population, had a free hand to take action against opposition groups such as Islamists, Christians, students, trade unionists, judges and artists who were spied on. She is accused of torturing prisoners and falsifying elections. The military council or the current interior minister is thus fulfilling a central demand of the protest movement. At the same time, the formation of a new authority called “National Security” was announced, which is to be responsible for maintaining the security of Egypt and countering terrorism.

Saturday 19th March

A referendum was held on the amendment to the Egyptian constitution drawn up by a commission. The new constitution was adopted in a referendum with a majority of around 77 percent of the electorate.

Wednesday March 23rd

The Egyptian Stock Exchange started trading again since it closed on January 27th. The stock exchange index EGX 30 initially fell by the maximum permitted 10 percent, was then briefly suspended from trading, in order to close with a minus of almost 9 percent at the end of trading hours. The broader stock market indices EGX70 and EGX100 were able to go out of trading on the following day with price gains. The EGX30 ended the trading session with a loss of almost 4 percent, with the index meanwhile almost 7 percent in the red.

Wednesday March 30th

General Mamduh Shahin published a transitional constitution on behalf of the incumbent military council , which is valid until the presidential and parliamentary elections to be held. The interim constitution builds on the previous constitution. The result of the constitutional referendum on March 19 was taken into account; In addition, the military consolidated its power, since the civil prime minister and his ministers only have an advisory role.

The Military Council gave itself additional powers; he determined that a people's assembly and a new president should be elected. In the transitional constitution, however, no precise voting mode was written into it. The elections are planned for autumn 2011. Islamic law, the Sharia , has been established as the main source of nationwide jurisprudence.

Monday April 4th

More than 800 people were killed and 6,400 injured in the 18-day protests in Egypt that led to the overthrow of President Hosni Mubarak in February, according to a report released today by the Egyptian Ministry of Health. In previously published reports, the authorities had spoken of "only" 365 deaths. Human rights groups put the number of victims even higher and assume 1500 people were killed during the period of protests and riots.

Tuesday April 5th

On April 5, it was announced that assigned to the Ministry of Justice Illicit Gains Authority ( about: Authority [the investigation] illegal [r] assets ), the assets of the former Minister of Housing Mohammed Ibrahim Suleiman , the former speaker of the Egyptian People's Assembly , Ahmed Fathi Sorour , of the former head of the staff of Husni Mubarak, Zakaria Azmi , as well as the former general secretary of the NDP and spokesman for the Shura council Safwat al-Sherif has "frozen". Possibly secret assets, secret money transactions of these four politicians and their family members would be examined or investigated. The fortunes of the four suspects have grown so rapidly that there is suspicion that they have used their political positions for personal gain.

Protest flares up / Mubarak family arrested

Friday April 8th

Hundreds of thousands of demonstrators in Tahrir Square demanded a quick trial of ex-President Mubarak, his family and his followers, who had been forced to resign under the motto “Friday of the purification and judgment”. For the first time, the departure of Field Marshal Mohammed Hussein Tantawi , the chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces , was called for. The people are increasingly disappointed because Mubarak's old guard is still ruling with new people, but according to the old principles. The freedom of assembly had previously been further restricted by changes in the law on March 23.

Saturday April 9th

Up until now, large parts of the Egyptian population enjoyed a high reputation for the military; When Mubarak was overthrown on February 11, there was often fraternization between demonstrators and members of the army.

On April 9, however, as on the previous day, there were mass demonstrations calling for the overthrow of the military government under Mohammed Hussein Tantawi and real reforms. The military council blatantly threatened violence against the demonstrators. For the first time since the fall of Mubarak, protesters were killed in clashes between civilians and military police.

"I've been waiting to see the other face of the army," said one demonstrator. "If she continues like this, she will see the other face of the people."

Sunday April 10th

For the first time since his overthrow, ex-President Mubarak expressed himself in an audio message from the Dubai , UAE- based news channel al-Arabiya . Mubarak is currently under house arrest in his summer residence in the luxury seaside resort of Sharm el-Sheikh . He denied the allegations made against him of having enriched himself through corrupt machinations and shifting funds abroad and swore the unity of the Egyptian people. He said he did not have any bank accounts, real estate or other assets overseas. "For the last few weeks I've been waiting for the truth to reach the chief prosecutor from all over the world," said Mubarak.

Shortly thereafter, the military government announced that Hosni Mubarak and his sons Gamal Mubarak and Alaa Mubarak would be summoned for questioning by the Egyptian public prosecutor. Many demonstrators, mostly young people, who remain on Tahrir Square, consider this to be a deception and continue to call for the replacement of the military government, which had betrayed the goals of the revolution.

Monday April 11th

According to the motto "The dictator is gone, but the dictatorship is not", the Egyptian army is fighting for its new position of power. The blogger Maikel Nabil Sanad , who is extremely controversial in Egypt because he believes peaceful Arab-Israeli coexistence is possible and verifiably reported in his blog that the Egyptian army deliberately fueled conflicts between Christians and Muslims in order to make political capital out of them Sentenced by a military tribunal to three years in prison for deterrence.

The military and police had previously cracked down on freedom of expression on the Internet; the blogger Chaled Mohammed Said , tortured to death by Egyptian secret police , became a symbol of the revolution. The start of the trial against his alleged murderer has so far been postponed.

Tuesday April 12th

Ex-President Mubarak was questioned by the public prosecutor in the city of Et-Tor. Mubarak was then taken to a hospital in Sharm El Sheikh because he had a heart attack during the questioning. However, the former president was able to walk unaided and was accommodated in the clinic's presidential suite. The director of the hospital described his health as "more or less" stable.

Wednesday April 13th

Hosni Mubarak and his sons Gamal and Alaa were officially in custody taken - for many Egyptians, this is a reason to celebrate.

The Egyptian prosecutor announced on their Facebook page that they had ordered Hosni Mubarak and his sons to be detained for 15 days. The ex-president was still in a local hospital that had been cleared especially for him, while his two sons were taken to Cairo in a military plane and interned there in Torah prison; it is the same prison in which Hosni Mubarak had his opponents locked up during his presidency. Overall, the ex-president is accused of high treason.

The arrests came after public pressure and are considered by intellectual Egyptians to be a diversionary maneuver for the military government . The mostly young people in the Egyptian opposition pointed out that the incumbent military junta itself was involved in corruption. From in Europe literally-condensed statement of Pierre Vergniaud in connection with the French Revolution "the revolution eats its own children" country-specific and time-relevant conclusions are drawn, to avoid mistakes; further demonstrations are announced.

The Egyptian ex-president faces the death penalty .

Thursday April 14th

According to the treating Egyptian doctors, Hosni Mubarak does not suffer from physical, but from mental illness. He denies all allegations made against him: he has nothing to do with the thugs on horses and camels who beat his opponents on February 2, 2011; He also rejected the allegations of corruption and abuse of office. The investigation was expanded to include Mubarak's wider personal and business environment.

There were clashes between Mubarak opponents and Mubarak supporters.

Friday April 15th

The Egyptian public prosecutor's office ordered Mubarak to be transferred to an unnamed military prison.

Mubarak's former interior minister Habib el-Adli weighed heavily on his former head of government.

Saturday April 16

The National Democratic Party of Egypt , the former ruling party of the Egyptian ex-president, was dissolved by the Supreme Administrative Court of Egypt. The entire party assets will be nationalized according to this judgment; thus the party's possessions fall indirectly to the current military government.

The court justified its decision inter alia. as follows: Since the “head”, i.e. Mubarak, has already fallen, it is only logical that his main tool should now also fall - according to the chairman of the court, Mohammed Agaty. The national democratic party had undermined the rights and freedoms guaranteed in the Egyptian constitution; Their actions have led to social and political corruption and a monopoly of power, for B. weakening opposition movements and parties, imprisoning activists with different political views and dividing the Egyptian people through intrigues. The NDP used the government's security apparatus to hold down political opposition and freedom movements.

Vice-President Omar Suleiman , who has gone into hiding, is accused of assisting himself in torture.

Tuesday April 19th

On April 19, various media reports that the unrest that led to the overthrow of Mubarak was more brutal than previously known. While 365 people had died so far, the Military Council officially confirmed on April 20 that at least 846 Egyptians had been killed. During operations on the night of January 29th, and especially on February 2nd, police officers often fired live ammunition in the head or chest of demonstrators. A number of demonstrators went blind as a result of the police violence. A total of 6,467 people were injured.

The secretary of the commission of inquiry, Omar Marwan, blamed ex-president Mubarak personally for the events during a press conference: "The order to shoot demonstrators was only possible with his consent," said Marwan. Another main accused is ex-interior minister Habib al-Adli . The Commission presented a 400-page report; Allegedly, more than 17,000 police officers and demonstrators were interviewed and 800 video clips and amateur photos were evaluated.

Saturday April 23

The Egyptian public prosecutor extended the pre-trial detention ordered against Mubarak for another 15 days; he is in a military hospital 40 kilometers east of Cairo.

Further political and social development under the military government

Wednesday April 27th

An attack on a pipeline near the gas terminal in the village of as-Sabil took place on the Sinai Peninsula . This gas terminal is located in the north of the peninsula and supplies both Israel and Jordan with natural gas. It took a total of about four hours for the fire brigade to put out the fire. Two such attacks on the pipeline had already taken place in the past. The attacks are aimed at supplying natural gas to Israel, as many Egyptians refuse to do business with the Israeli state. The last attacks or attempted attacks had previously taken place in February and March 2011, respectively. Israel's infrastructure ministry drew its conclusions from the two current attacks: Due to the uncertain situation in the Middle East, Israel is now trying to become more independent of Arab oil and gas. To this end, investments should also be made in alternative energy generation.

Wednesday May 4th

Justice Minister Mohammed Abdul Aziz al-Gindi led 4 May 2011 the resignation of the head of the forensic ( forensic ) investigation authority Dr. el-Sebai Ahmed el-Sebai and appointed Dr. Ihsan Kemeel Georgy as his successor. In a talk show on ONTV, in which El-Sebai took part, cases of corruption were raised in the forensic investigation authority. When asked about the autopsies carried out on Chalid Muhammad Saʿid by this authority , El-Sebai continued to insist that Chalid Muhammad Saʿid had been choked to death by swallowing a packet of drugs and that he had never been murdered by police officers. In the course of the TV show, El-Sebai was further accused of manipulating autopsies of the victims killed during the anti-Mubarak protests. El-Sebai alleged that these people were killed by bullets that were not used by the Egyptian police. When protests formed, Prime Minister Sharaf instructed Justice Minister al-Gindi to set up a commission of inquiry to question El-Sebai into the allegations made against him on the ONTV show.

Thursday May 5th

Former Interior Minister Habib al-Adli was sentenced to twelve years in prison. He was found guilty of embezzlement, money laundering and personal gain in a Cairo court. Other violations of the law accused of him, e.g. B. the use of physical and psychological violence against members of the opposition, including demonstrations, as well as operations by secret service units under false flags were not negotiated. Al-Adli is accused of ordering brutal police crackdown on demonstrators during the Mubarak protests; because of these allegations he will have to answer in a further process which is in preparation.

Saturday May 7th

In Imbaba, a suburb to the west of the metropolitan area of ​​Cairo, rumors broke out into street fighting between Coptic Christians and ultra-conservative Muslims. A Muslim man claimed that his bride, who had recently converted to Islam - who was already married to another Coptic Christian man without the bridegroom's knowledge - was being held in a church against her will. Angry Muslims who believed the rumor believed it was their religious duty to free the woman and therefore attacked the Christian church in order to gain entry to the building by force. Shots rang out during the argument; There was also shooting from surrounding roofs. In the course of the violent clash, the violence also spread to the surrounding area; the front facade of the church and several surrounding houses were set on fire. The military and police tried to defuse the riots. A total of 15 people were killed and more than 200 people injured.

Marriages between Copts and Muslims are generally taboo in Egypt. If a Coptic Christian marries a Muslim, she is expelled from the Coptic Church. Because divorces similar to z. B. are largely forbidden in the Catholic Church, convert some Coptic women willing to separate to Islam in order to find a way out of an unhappy marriage for themselves. The woman, who was considered to be the trigger for the violent clashes in Egyptian judicial circles, was arrested; she is accused of polyandry .

Tuesday May 10th

Former Egyptian tourism minister Soheir Garranah has been sentenced to five years in prison by a Cairo court for wasting public money. The court found it proven that the ex-politician had sold valuable state-owned land well below market price to influential business people, including land on which oil wells were located. The three people involved have also been fined and have to return the land.

Thursday May 12th

The Supreme Military Council announced that the emergency law (“Law Number 162” from 1958), which was in force uninterrupted under Mubarak, will remain in force until after the presidential and parliamentary elections that are still outstanding. However, it should “only” be used in disputes with a denominational background, violent crimes, willful destruction of public or private property, the blocking of roads and attacks on police or military forces.

Saturday May 14th

On May 14, 2011, the Justice Ministry ordered Suzanne Mubarak, the wife of the ousted President Husni Mubarak, to be detained for 15 days. The judiciary is investigating them for illegal enrichment and suspected misappropriation of state funds. The public prosecutor in Cairo is investigating embezzlement, illegal enrichment and corruption. Among other things, it is about amounts in the millions that should benefit the national prestige object of the library of Alexandria.

Tuesday 17th May

On May 17, 2011, Suzanne Mubarak was released from custody after deciding to authorize the head of the judiciary to withdraw money from two of her bank accounts (at Ahly National Bank and Société Générale) for 24 Withdraw millions of Egyptian pounds (around 2.8 million euros) and sell a luxury villa belonging to her in Masr Al-Gedida ( Heliopolis , Cairo). Nevertheless, the investigation continues against them. A government spokesman said the case was not closed with the handover of her property.

Wednesday May 18th

Egypt is bringing charges against the former housing minister. Egypt's attorney general has indicted former housing minister Mohammed Ibrahim Suleiman and four of his deputies for misappropriating public funds. With Suleiman, the second housing minister is now called to account by the judiciary. ( Ahmed al-Maghrabi , housing minister in the former Nazif cabinet , had previously been charged with illegal property deals). Suleiman was Housing Minister from 1996 to 2005 ( Cabinet Ganzuri I , Cabinet Abaid unwound and the first Nazif Cabinet) and has several questionable land deals involving construction / real estate companies. So he should inter alia. SODIC, Egypt's third largest construction company, gave state-owned land at a price well below market value. In this context, Magdy Hussein Rasekh, former CEO of SODIC and father-in-law of Alaa Mubarak, is also charged. The investigations had shown that Suleiman and his co-defendant deputies had enabled Rasekh to make illegal profits of LE 907 million (= 114.6 million euros).

Saturday 4th June

Egypt's ex-finance minister Youssef Boutros Ghali has been sentenced in absentia to 30 years in prison and 70 million Egyptian pounds in damages and a fine for abuse of office and misappropriation of public funds. He was sentenced to 15 years in prison for appropriating luxury cars that had previously been confiscated by customs and using them privately or for passing them on to other people. Another 15 years, because in the parliamentary election campaign in 2010 he had computers and printers from the Ministry of Finance transported to his election office in order to use them to produce material for his own election campaign. Youssef Boutros Ghali is wanted by Interpol . Shortly before Mubarak resigned under pressure from the mass protests on February 11, 2011, he fled abroad. According to media reports, the last time he was in the Lebanese capital Beirut.

Friday July 8th

A few hundred Egyptian opposition members have pitched tents again on al-Tahrir Square in protest against the actions of the High Military Council - similar to what happened once before in February - in order to continue their protests until the Military Council complies with their demands.

Sunday 17th July

The government is largely reshaped following demonstrations. While the interior and justice ministers and some other ministers keep their posts, 14 ministerial posts will be filled: Hasim al-Beblawi , a liberal economist, becomes finance minister, replacing Samir Radwan in this post ; Ali Mohamed Al-Selmy becomes Deputy Prime Minister for Political Development and Democratic Transition; Mohamed Abdel Qader Salim becomes Minister for Communication and Information Technology; Mahmoud Abdel Al-Rahman Eissa becomes Minister for Trade and Industry; Mohamed Kamel Amr becomes foreign minister, replacing Nabil El-Arabi in this office ; Loutfy Moustafa Kamal Tawfik becomes Minister of Aviation; Mohamed Abdel Fadil El-Qousy becomes Minister for Religious Foundations; Mohamed Ahmed Atiya Ibrahim becomes Minister for Regional Development; Moataz Mohamed Khorshid becomes Minister for Research, Science and Technology; Ali Ibrahim Sabry becomes Minister of State for Military Production, replacing Sayed Meschaal in this role ; Amr Mohamed Helmy becomes Minister for Health and Population; Ali Zein Al-Abdeen Salim becomes Minister of Transport; Salah al-Sayed Farag becomes Minister of Agriculture and Hisham Kandil becomes Minister of Water Resources and Irrigation. The Ministry of Antiquities Management was no longer filled with a new minister at its top position, but rather downgraded to the level of an ordinary authority.

In essence, the reshuffle of the cabinet was a test of strength between the military council and the reform-oriented forces in the country who are trying to push ahead with the restructuring. Striving to find a balance between the two sides, the Prime Minister found himself in a mediator position. To a large extent, the demands that came from Tahrir Square in Cairo and “from the street” have not been taken into account, which will allow the disillusionment and defiance of the reform forces with regard to the policy of the Military Council to persist the assessment of observers.

Thursday July 21st

The new ministers in the Sharaf cabinet are sworn in.

Saturday 23rd July

A serious street battle in front of the Ministry of Defense between protesters and armed thugs left hundreds of people injured. Slogans such as “Down with military rule” and “The people want the field marshal's overthrow” were shouted.

Sunday July 24th

After the High Election Commission was appointed on July 19, it announced that the parliamentary elections would take place in November. An exact date was not given.

Friday July 29th

For the first time, several hundred thousand Salafists demonstrate on Tahrir Square for a God state.

Monday 1st August

The protest camp on Tahrir Square was evacuated by units of the riot police, which were equipped with armored vehicles. The police used batons against the demonstrators and tore down the tents. There have been violent clashes.

Wednesday 3rd August

The process of Hosni Mubarak begins. The courthouse is a converted lecture hall of a police academy in Cairo. After a few hours the hearing was adjourned to August 15th.

Monday 15th August

The trial in the Hosni Mubarak case is ongoing. After a few hours of trial, it was adjourned to September 5th. The official Egyptian side says that the court hearings will henceforth take place in camera.

Saturday 20th August

Eight Israelis die in an attack on a tourist bus near the seaside resort of Elat by strangers. In the wake of the incident, an Israeli helicopter opened fire on Egyptian border guards, killing five of them. It is later stated that it was an oversight. After the incident became known to the Egyptian public, a demonstration took place in front of the Israeli embassy in Cairo that same evening. This demonstration lasted for several days.

Sunday 21st August

The State of Israel's apology is declared insufficient by the Egyptian government. A special session of the Arab League is called on the same day .

Wednesday September 7th

On 7 September 2011, the published Hisham Mubarak Law Center (HMLC) , together with the "No to Military Trials for Civilians" campaign ( "No civilians before military courts") a report entitled Diaries Under Military Rule (diary under military rule) , in which it was established that in the - so far - relatively short rule of the Supreme Military Council in Egypt far more civilians were tried and tried in military courts than in the entire 30-year rule of Mubarak. During its seven-month rule, the Supreme Military Council had around 12,000 civilians tried in military courts. In the entire - 30-year - rule of Mubarak, however, "only" 2,000 civilians were tried by military courts.

Two days earlier, on September 5, 2011, General Adel al-Morsy, head of the Egyptian military justice system, had confirmed these figures - in advance - in a press conference. Adel al-Morsy said that from January 28 to August 29, 2011, a total of 3,863 trials against civilians had taken place in military courts. Charges were brought against a total of 11,879 civilians. 795 defendants were acquitted, 6,235 people were sentenced to prison terms and a further 1,836 were sentenced to probation. Another 1,225 civilians were also sentenced to prison terms. However, these judgments have not yet been confirmed. 281 civilians are still pending proceedings.

Friday September 9th / Saturday September 10th

The protests in front of the Israeli embassy in Cairo, which lasted almost two weeks, reached a temporary high point: the building of the Israeli embassy in Cairo was stormed. The embassy staff present there is evacuated from a distressed situation by Egyptian security forces and is then allowed to fly to Israel. In the night from Friday to Saturday, a street battle between the demonstrators and the security forces developed in front of the embassy, ​​resulting in three dead and more than a thousand injured.

Wednesday September 28th

On September 28, 2011, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces announced the dates for the parliamentary elections ( Egyptian People's Assembly and Shura Council ) and presidential elections that were still outstanding .

After that, the election for the Egyptian People's Assembly  - after the candidates have to be named by October 12, 2011 - will take place on three dates (for different areas of Egypt): November 28, 2011, December 14, 2011 and January 3, 2012. The The opening session is scheduled for March 17, 2012.

The election to the Shura Council is to be held on January 29, 2012 - after the candidates have to be named by October 12, 2011, too. The opening session is planned for March 24, 2012.

At the end of March / beginning of April 2012, a joint meeting of the People's Assembly and the Shura Council will take place, at which 100 people will be (selected) who will work out a new constitution for Egypt. A referendum is to be held on the new constitution. After the result of the referendum is known, candidates for the office of president can be nominated. A new president should then be elected within 45 to 60 days.

Before the elections begin, Egypt's Emergency Law / Law No. 162 of 1958, which has been in force since Husni Mubarak's inauguration in 1981 and which suspended almost all fundamental rights guaranteed by the constitution, is to be suspended will.

Saturday 8th October

The Supreme Military Council ( Supreme Council of the Armed Forces ), which is de facto ruling in Egypt , on October 8, 2011 the pressure of the parties united in electoral alliances ( National Democratic Alliance for Egypt  - with the Freedom and Justice Party of the Muslim Brotherhood and the New Wafd Party + Egyptian Bloc  - an alliance of secular, liberal and socialist parties - Free Egyptian Party , Democratic Front Party , Egyptian Social Democratic Party , Egyptian Socialist Party , Egyptian Communist Party , National Association for Change and the Peasant Union ), which threatened to boycott the upcoming parliamentary elections had given in and announced an amendment to the electoral law. The controversial Article 5 of the Electoral Act is to be deleted. The parties criticized the fact that, according to Article 5 of the electoral law, according to a “mixed system”, only two thirds of the parliamentary seats should be elected via party lists (party-list-based candidacies), while one third should be reserved for independent candidates (individual candidacy system) . It was feared that members of the now disbanded and banned National Democratic Party (NDP) could return to parliament as “independent” individual candidates, and it was demanded that all members of parliament should be elected exclusively through party lists.

Furthermore, new regulations for the election campaign are to be introduced: Exerting violent pressure on voters, bribery, religious slogans as well as sexual and ethnic discrimination are to be punished with imprisonment and fines (Art. 50). Egyptians who register themselves on the electoral roll and then do not vote should also be punished (Art. 40)

In order to generally rule out that Mubarak's supporters move into parliament again, a law on treason from 1952/1953 is to be introduced. (Treachery Law 344/1952, amended / modified by Law 173/1953) to be reactivated. This law would make it possible to prosecute ministers, members of parliament and civil servants for corruption and abuse of political power, to dismiss them from their offices and to deprive them of the right to vote and stand for election in parliament and other elections for at least five years.

Sunday October 9th

A demonstration of around 10,000 Copts and opponents of the military government was attacked in front of the state television building by paid thugs and the military. According to the Ministry of Health, after hours of street fighting, 25 people were killed and 200 injured, and two independent television stations were stormed by the military. The operation of a large daily newspaper was also interrupted. A curfew has been imposed.

Parliamentary and presidential elections

Tuesday November 1st

Vice Prime Minister Ali al-Selmi publishes guidelines (English: Supra-Constitutional Principles) for the Constituent Assembly . Among other things, they provide for the military to take precedence over parliament and for the army to be guaranteed extensive autonomy. Under political pressure, some guidelines will be changed in the following days.

Friday 18th November

Fifty to one hundred thousand people demonstrated against the guidelines published by Ali al-Selmi, as Islamist, Salafist , liberal and left groups oppose them.

Saturday 19th November

The military tried to break up demonstrations and the first newly built tents on Tahrir Square . As a result, demonstrations and unrest in Cairo and elsewhere escalated. On Tahrir Square, for example, B. the number of demonstrators from about 100 people to 5000 people at sunset. The aim of the demonstrations is that the military council should give up its power. As of Sunday, four people had died in Tahrir Square and nearly 700 were injured.

Monday November 21

The demonstrations and street battles continued since Saturday. There are suspicions that at least 33 people were killed and over 1000 people injured. The Egyptian cabinet has offered to resign; the military council has yet to agree. It became known that, according to Human Rights Watch, around 12,000 Egyptians have been tried before military tribunals since February.

Wednesday November 23

Uninterrupted demonstrations and street battles since November 18. The Military Council confirmed November 28th as election day for parliament and named July 2012 for the first time as the date by which the Egyptian President would be elected. So far, at least 36 people have died and around 2,000 people have been injured.

Thursday November 24th

The military council has accepted the resignation of the government and appointed a new prime minister , Kamal El-Ganzouri . El-Ganzouri was prime minister in the Mubarak era. Following the appointment of El-Ganzouri, a new government cabinet was put together in the following days , which could finally be sworn in on December 7th. According to plans, the interim government should hold official business until at least June 2012. The street battles paused on the same day because a “ceasefire” had been agreed from 6 a.m. The demonstrations continued.

Monday November 28th

The parliamentary elections for the People's Assembly began. There will be three ballots and only citizens in some provinces of the country will vote on the same day. They each cast three votes: one vote for a party list and two votes for direct candidates. One direct candidate must be a worker or farmer, the other direct candidate has no professional requirements. In other provinces, elections will take place on December 14th and January 3rd. The demonstrations, for example in Tahrir Square, continue.

Thursday December 8th

The final outcome of the election in the first provinces has not yet been determined. Of the 168 mandates to be awarded so far (out of a total of 498 mandates), 80 mandates will go to the Islamist Freedom and Justice Party , 33 to the Salafist Party of Light , 33 to the center-left parties and party alliances and 22 further mandates go to other parties and independent candidates.

Wednesday December 14th

The second stage of the parliamentary elections, in which 180 seats out of a total of 498 seats will be awarded, begins.

Friday December 16

The recently established 30-member civil advisory board of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces has suspended its work in protest of the violent actions (with several deaths) by the military against a demonstration.

Saturday 17th December

The protests continue. In the two days, 10 people were killed and over 400 injured. In addition, the library with the originals of Napoleon's writings had fallen into flames.

Tuesday December 27th

So far, several female protesters have been examined by a doctor after their arrest to determine whether they are still virgins. An Egyptian administrative court has now banned the Egyptian army from carrying out these “virgin tests”.

Tuesday 3rd January

The third and final stage of the parliamentary elections begin.

Friday 20th January

The official final result of the parliamentary election shows that the Islamic Freedom and Justice Party achieved 45.7 percent, the Salafist Party of Light achieved 24.6 percent, the liberal New Wafd Party and the liberal alliance of the Egyptian Bloc reached 8.4 percent and 6.6 percent. The party alliance The Revolution Continues scoring 2 percent.

Monday 23 January

In the first session of parliament, Saad al-Katatni , General Secretary of the Freedom and Justice Party, was appointed President of the Egyptian Parliament. An important task of parliament is to form a constituent assembly to draft a new constitution for Egypt.

Wednesday January 25th

On the anniversary of the revolution, the emergency laws were largely repealed; they should only continue to apply to “violent crimes”. What is meant by this is unclear. In addition, over 1,950 prisoners are released from the military justice system.

Sunday January 29th

The first round of the Shura elections began.

Monday January 30th

The protests in front of the Maspero building in Cairo, which houses the headquarters of the Egyptian Radio and Television Union (ERTU), continue. The street's protest is directed against the state-controlled reporting as it is distributed in state-owned radio and television stations. The state media work largely for the interests of the military council , which means that the protesters do not find their concerns adequately represented. Meanwhile, they wait for days in a so-called "sit-in" in front of the Maspero building. Individuals from the group of demonstrators were interviewed by the press and state television in the course of the protest.

Friday 3rd February 2012

Street battles following the Port Said stadium disaster .

Monday February 6, 2012

Despite the threat of a cut in US military aid, the Egyptian Justice Department is indicting 43 employees of foreign organizations. In addition to the Konrad Adenauer Foundation , four US organizations in particular are affected : the National Democratic Institute (NDI), the International Republican Institute (IRI), Freedom House and the International Center for Journalists (ICJ). The employees are accused of jeopardizing the security of the country, working without a permit and receiving foreign funds.

Sunday February 26, 2012

On February 26, 2012, a court in Helwan Kamal Abbas sentenced the chief coordinator of the Center for Trade Union and Workers Services - CTUWS, to six months in prison - "for insulting a public official." Abbas was charged and convicted for speaking to Ismail Ibrahim Fahmy, chairman of the Egyptian Trade Union Federation (ETUF), which was still part of the Mubarak regime and was completely dominated by the then government, during a speech at a conference of the International Labor Organization  - ILO had interrupted on June 9, 2011 in Geneva. Abbas had forbidden the interests of the Egyptian workers to be represented by Fahmy or the ETUF:

"Enough! ... all these years! ... Enough of the crime! ... you participated in the privatization deals! You made the blatant attacks on the rights of the workers possible and justified! ... You defended the Mubarak regime with all its corruption, repression and tyranny with impunity and tried [on top of that] to cover up the murder of the revolutionaries on Tahrir Square! "

In a press release dated February 29, 2012, the CTUWS announced that there was no legal basis for this conviction and that it was a political act directed against the new trade union movement. Commenting on the verdict, Kamal Abbas said: “This is an attack by counterrevolutionary forces against activists. Against activists who stand up for workers' rights or against political activists. The whole thing is nothing more than a continuation of the [known] practices of the overthrown regime. ”As a result, numerous international trade union federations - such as the International Trade Union Confederation  - expressed solidarity with Kamal Abbas and demanded the immediate reversal of the verdict.

Wednesday February 29, 2012

The dates for the first presidential elections in Egypt (after the resignation of Hosni Mubarak) were announced by the Chairman of the Higher Committee for Presidential Elections (HCPE), Farouk Sultan: Candidates can register between March 10 and April 8 to let. Admission criteria include a minimum age of 40 years, Egyptian citizenship, 30,000 declarations of support distributed across the country or the signatures of 30 members of parliament. The official election campaign is scheduled to run from April 30th to May 20th. On May 23 and 24, 2012, the Egyptians are supposed to vote. If none of the candidates receives more than 50 percent straight away, a run-off vote between the two best-placed candidates is planned on June 16 and 17. Egyptians living abroad can cast their votes from May 11th to 17th (or June 3rd to 9th). The official final result will be announced on June 21st.

The current ruling military council has promised to hand over power to a civilian government after the election of a president.

Saturday 3rd March 2012

On Saturday, March 3rd, 2012, at a joint meeting of the People's Assembly and the Shura Council, a 30-member committee was elected to determine the final criteria and procedures for the election of the 100-member constitutional committee. According to Article 60 of the Constitutional Declaration of the SCAF of March 30, 2011, the members of the People's Assembly and the Shura Council are to elect a committee of 100 members at a joint assembly within six months of their election to draft a new constitution should work out. The Egyptian population should then - after the draft constitution has been publicly displayed for inspection for 15 days - decide by referendum on the acceptance or rejection of the (new) constitution. The Constitutional Proclamation (interim / transitional constitution) was published by the SCAF after it dissolved the parliament ( National Assembly and Shura Council ) elected with massive electoral fraud - still under Mubarak - on February 13, 2011 and the constitution that had been in force until then would have.

The committee that has now been formed will receive proposals regarding the composition of the 100-member committee until March 8th. On March 17th, these proposals are to be discussed by the joint assembly of the two houses, and on March 24th, 2012, the constituent assembly is to be finally elected.

Friday 4th May 2012

Less than three weeks before the presidential election, thousands of Egyptians, mostly young people, demonstrated against the military council in Cairo and Alexandria. They demanded an immediate transfer of power to a civil government. In front of the Ministry of Defense, in the streets adjacent to the Cairo district of El-Abbassiyah, there were street battles with the security forces on standby for hours. Water cannons, batons, tear gas and live ammunition were used against the demonstrators. Armored personnel carriers were posted around the Ministry of Defense and a barbed wire barrier was built. The violence escalated when protesters tried to clear the barbed wire. The preliminary result of this dispute is: two dead and 130 injured. In the first week of May in Egypt alone, nine people died in the political clashes. In the run-up to the presidential election, the military council promised the people that it would stay out of political events after the election, but with its actions so far it has strengthened the impression that it would do the exact opposite.

May 23 and 24, 2012

For the run-off election for the president (June 16 and 17), voters have chosen Ahmad Schafiq (Air Force officer who was appointed Prime Minister by Husni Mubarak in January 2011) and Mohammed Morsi (first chairman of the Islamist and economically liberal Freedom and Justice Party ).

Mursi achieved 24.9 percent, Schafik 24.4 percent. Hamdin Sabahi (chairman of the left-wing and Nassist Party of Dignity ) came third with 21.1 percent and Abdel Moneim Abul Futuh (former Muslim Brother) came fourth with 17.8 percent.

Thursday May 31, 2012

The state of emergency has been lifted. It was imposed in 1981 after the assassination of the then President Anwar as-Sadat .

Thursday June 14th, 2012

The Egyptian Constitutional Court ruled that Ahmad Schafiq's admission to the presidential election was admissible and that many of the non-party candidates were only apparently independent - many joined a parliamentary group immediately after being elected - so that their election is therefore invalid.

Saturday June 16th, 2012

The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces dissolves the People's Assembly . The MPs are denied entry.

Sunday June 18, 2012

The military council changed the transitional constitution so that it can take over the legislative and budgetary rights of the people's assembly. Furthermore, he grants himself a veto right over the content of a new constitution. New elections to the people's assembly should only take place after a constitution has been drawn up, which has to be approved by the people by referendum.

Sunday 8th July 2012

President Morsi reinstated parliament by decree and asked it to convene again.

Tuesday 10th July 2012

The MPs of the People's Assembly met briefly in the morning, although the Constitutional Court once again declared the dissolution and their decision binding the day before, and decided to appeal to a court of appeal. The opening speech by Parliament Speaker Saad al-Katatni was televised. Among other things, he said that he did not question the court's decision. Most of the liberal and left-wing members of the People's Chamber, however, stayed away from the meeting. In the evening, the Constitutional Court overturned President Morsi's decree reinstating parliament.

Revolution in Egypt 2013

The Egyptian coup in 2013 occurred when, after ongoing mass protests in Egypt, the elected President Mohammed Morsi and his Muslim Brotherhood- backed government were ousted by the Egyptian military under the leadership of Military Councilor Abd al-Fattah as-Sisi on July 3, 2013 . The upheaval was justified with the increasing dissatisfaction in the population due to political and economic grievances.

After the US government refused to qualify the takeover of power by the army leadership as a coup and subsequently accepted it as a "step to restore democracy", the conceptual classification of the military coup remained unclear.

International reactions (until mid-2012)

The US-American President Barack Obama and the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called for an end to the violence and warned that civil rights should be respected - in particular the right to freedom of expression as well as freedom of information and assembly . According to a report in the New York Times , the US government discussed several options for a change of power with Egyptian officials after Mubarak's immediate resignation.

The German Chancellor Angela Merkel , French President Nicolas Sarkozy and British Prime Minister David Cameron had asked Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in a joint statement to initiate a change in his country. A “transformation process” must be reflected in a government that is based on a broad base, as well as in free and fair elections.

The President of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy, called for an end to the violence against demonstrators and the release of all political prisoners. The heads of state of the European Union behaved cautiously on the question of a possible change of power, Silvio Berlusconi even supports Mubarak remaining in power: “I hope that there can be a transition in Egypt to a more democratic system without overthrow, with a president like Mubarak ".

Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov expressed the hope that “the Egyptian leadership and society as a whole will show a high sense of national responsibility and will do whatever is necessary to stabilize the situation and secure civil peace, which is essential for progress and the fulfillment of the expectations of the People is necessary ”.

The reactions from Israel were cautious. The Israeli politician and Brigadier General Benjamin Ben Eliezer , known as an expert on Israeli-Arab relations and as a friend of Omar Suleiman's , who was appointed Egyptian Vice-President by Hosni Mubarak, said: “I consider a revolution in Egypt to be impossible, the situation there will calm down ”. The Israeli Foreign Ministry said it was about the internal affairs of a neighboring country.

Ayatollah Ali Khamenei , the spiritual head of Iran , compared the uprising, which he sees as a "sign of the Islamic awakening", with the Iranian Revolution in 1979 and called on the Egyptian people to stand up for a "people's regime based on the Islamic religion" . Mubarak is a "servant of the Zionists and the USA".

On February 3, 2011, the organization Reporters Without Borders (ROG) condemned the violence against international media representatives by supporters of Mubarak and the numerous arrests of journalists. "The list of abuse of journalists by supporters of President Hosni Mubarak is getting longer by the hour," said ROG General Secretary Jean-François Julliard .

The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Navanethem Pillay called on February 4, 2011 at a press conference in Geneva for an impartial and transparent investigation into the current unrest in Egypt. “A transparent and impartial investigation is required to determine whether this unrest was planned and, if so, by whom”. "A regime that deprives its people of fundamental rights and relies on a ruthless apparatus to suppress their will is doomed to failure in the long term," said Pillay.

According to the human rights organization Human Rights Watch (HRW) on February 7, 2011, 232 people are said to have died in the course of the first days of the unrest (from January 26 to February 3) in Cairo, including 217 people in days to as of January 30, 2011. Another 15 people died on February 2 and 3, 2011 in clashes between supporters and opponents of the government in Tahrir Square. 52 fatalities were reported in Alexandria and 13 in Suez. If you add the dead of Beni Suef, you get 314 dead. This does not include the days following February 3rd.

Amnesty International pointed out that following the evacuation of Tahrir Square in Cairo on March 9, Egyptian soldiers forcibly carried out so-called "virginity tests" on protesters. An Egyptian general confirmed and defended this practice.

Draft constitution and renewed protests in November 2012

At the end of November 2012, there will again be large-scale demonstrations in Cairo on Tahrir Square. The trigger was an expansion of the powers of President Mohammed Morsi , with which he severely restricted the control of the judiciary over decrees decreed by Morsi and over the parliamentary chambers dominated by the Muslim Brotherhood and Islamic forces and the Constituent Assembly of Egypt . In particular, pending legal proceedings were prevented, which were supposed to clarify whether the Constituent Assembly was lawfully established.

On November 29, the Constituent Assembly voted on a draft constitution, which is to be decided in a referendum. Members of liberal, left and secular parties stayed away from the vote in protest. You criticize inter alia. clear religious references (according to the draft, “the principles of Sharia , ie Islamic law, should be the main source of legislation”) and a lack of freedom of the press. In the days that followed, there were demonstrations and violent clashes with injuries and deaths.

Despite heavy protests, a referendum was held on December 15th. The new constitution was adopted with 63.8% of the vote.

See also


On the causes of the revolution

Articles and analyzes

On the role of traditional and new media in the course of the revolution

Web links

Commons : Revolution in Egypt 2011  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
 Wikinews: Portal: Egypt  - in the news

Individual evidence

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