Egyptian Arabic

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Egyptian Arabic is a New Arabic dialect spoken by the Egyptians in Egypt . The name of the dialect is al-lugha al-ʿāmmiyya, or al-ʿāmmiyya for short (اللغة العامّية, for example: "general language") or simply maṣrī (مصري ,Egyptian').

Egyptian Arabic is known through films and songs in large parts of the Arab world and is therefore understood by most Arabs. This is mainly due to the fact that Egypt is the most important film- producing nation in the world alongside the USA and India (" Hindi film ") . Egyptian films are shown throughout the Arabic-speaking world, with no dubbing or subtitles. In contrast to news, for example, feature films are often not shot in standard Arabic , the written language of the entire Arab world, but in the respective colloquial language; for most films this is Egyptian-Arabic or the Cairo dialect.

The Cairo dialect (also Kairinisch called) is often regarded as Egyptian Arabic par excellence, although the dialects outside Cairo is clearly different from, more or less. The information below is based on the dialect of Cairo.

Differences to Standard Arabic


  • Pronunciation of High Arabic q as Hamza except in some book words : ʾalb ("heart", high Arabic qalb ), but al-qurʾān ("the Koran ") or qawmiyya ("nationalism")
  • Replacement of Hamza after vowel in the middle of the word by y or lengthening of the preceding vowel: fār ("mouse", high Arabic faʾr ); Frequent omission of Hamza at the end of a word, which can sometimes lead to a shift in emphasis: el-foʾara ("the poor", high Arabic al-fuqarāʾ )
  • Back shift from hocharab. ǧ to g: gamal ['ɡæmæl] ("camel", high Arabic. ǧamal /' (d͡) ʒamal / )
  • Shift of T and D to t and d, at book words mostly to s and z: Talata (. "Three", hocharab Talata ) dahab (. "Gold", hocharab Dahab ), while Sawra ( "Revolution", hocharab. Ṯawra ), zikrollāh ("Mention of God", high Arabic. ḏikru llāh )
  • Monophthonging of diphthongs: ay → ē, aw → ō: bēt ("house", high Arabic. Bayt ), mōzah ("banana", high Arabic. Mawzah )
  • Blending of short unstressed u to i or a: miṭallaʾ (“divorced”, high Arabic muṭallaq ). Sometimes, however, the opposite development can also be observed: ḥomār ("donkey", high arab . Imār )
  • Partial mutual exchange of n and l: fingāl ("cup", high Arabic. Finǧān ), burtuʾān ("orange", burtuqāl )
  • New stress rules that only allow one long vowel per word, which must always be stressed. If a phonemic long vowel is unstressed, it is pronounced like a short vowel. Example:
    hocharab. laymūn ("lemon") → not lēmūn, but lamūn ("a" is shortened "ē", which is a monophthongized "ay")
Standard Arabic phoneme Classic pronunciation of Standard Arabic Pronunciation of Standard Arabic in Egypt Corresponding phoneme in Egyptian hereditary words Corresponding phoneme in loan words from standard Arabic
ء as a radical / ʾ /

  • أمر / ʾAmar  / 'command'
  • أكل / ʾAkal  / 'eat'
  • سأل / hall  / 'ask'
  • قرأ / qaraʾ  / 'read'
/ ʾ / / ʾ / as 1st and 2nd radical, special case kal and ḫad
/ w / or / y / as 3rd radical
  • ʾAmar [ʾ-mr]
  • kal [ʾ, wkl]
  • hall [s-ʾ-l]
  • ʾAra [ʾ-rw]
/ ʾ /
ء not as a radical / ʾ / / ʾ / / - / / ʾ /
ب / b / / b / / b / / b /
ت / t / / t / / t / / t /
ث / th / / s /, / th / / t / / s /
ج / dsch / /G/ /G/ /G/
ح /H/ /H/ /H/ /H/
خ /H/ /H/ /H/ /H/
د / d / / d / / d / / d /
ذ / dh / / z /, / dh / / d /
* Example: dīl "tail" hereditary word from Hocharab .: ذيل ḏīl
/ z /
* Example: ʿazāb "torment, sorrow" loan word from high-carb .: عذاب ʿaḏāb
ر / r / / r / / r / / r /
ز / z / / z / / z / / z /
س / s / / s / / s / / s /
ش / š / / š / / š / / š /
ص / ṣ / / ṣ / / ṣ / / ṣ /
ض / ḍ / / ḍ / / ḍ / / ḍ /
ط / ṭ / / ṭ / / ṭ / / ṭ /
ظ / emphatic dh / / ẓ / / ḍ /
* Example: ḍahr "back" hereditary word from hocharb .: ظهر ẓahr
/ ẓ /
* Example: ẓarf "envelope" loan word from hocharb .: ظرف ẓarf
ع / ʿ / / ʿ / / ʿ / / ʿ /
غ /G/ /G/ /G/ /G/
ف / f / / f / / f / / f /
ق / q / / q / / ʾ /
* Example: ʾatal "to kill" ُ Hereditary word from Hocharb .: قتل qatal
/ q /, / ʿ /
* Example: qanūn "law", from less educated also ʾānūn loan word from high carb .: قانون qānūn
ك / k / / k / / k / / k /
ل / l, ḷ / / l, ḷ / / l /, / ḷ /
Phonomically divorced, but with a very low frequency. Minimum
waḷḷa "by God"
walla "or"
/ l, ḷ /
م / m / / m / / m / / m /
ن / n / / n / / n / / n /
ه /H/ /H/ /H/ /H/
و / w / / w / / w / / w /
ي / y / / y / / y / / y /
ي / y / / y / / y / / y /
- - as ج written with 3 dots (چ) / dsch /
low frequency phonemes :
ex .: dschība "rock"

This results in two types of "ʾ" in Egyptian.

  • An elidable form, the realization of which depends on the context.
  • A radical form that can never be eluded.

In Egyptian, hereditary words and loanwords from standard Arabic can occur with the same root but different realization. From standard Arabic ṯāniya "second", "second [f.]":

  • Loan word : sanya "second"
  • Hereditary word : tanya "other, second [f.]"

Grammatical Features

  • Almost all case endings and therefore also the nunation are omitted , as is the case with all other Arabic dialects.
  • Frequent use of a progressive form (participle), also with perfective meaning, often ambiguous: ana ʿārif (“I know”, but also “I have recognized it”, high Arabic. Almost exclusively ʾana ʾaʿrif u )
  • Use of modification prefixes for the past tense. The high Arabic modes no longer exist in the dialects because short vowels have been omitted at the end of the word. The unmarked past tense has similar functions as the high Arabic apocopy and subjunctive. The form modified with bi- or b- functions as the “normal” present tense. The form modified with ḥa- or ḥ- as future tense . It probably originated from rāḥ ... ("to go" ...). A modification with ma- denotes a reinforced imperative. Examples:
    • (lazim / mumkin) yiktib he should / must / can / may write (reinforcement through modal particles mumkin - can, lazim - must or should)
    • biyiktib he writes
    • ḥayiktib he will write
    • matiktib So write!
  • Elimination of 'an between auxiliary verb conjugated verb: ana'āyiz aktib ( "I want to write", literally "I want to I-write" hocharab. 'Ana'urīdu'an'aktuba )
  • Elimination of the dual of pronouns and verbs. However, it is productive with nouns.
  • other plural endings of the broken plural: rigāla ("men", high Arabic. riǧāl )
  • The negative of the verb (except in the ḥa form) and of many pseudo- verbs is formed with a bracketing of ma- and , in certain phrases only with ma-. The imperative cannot be negated, instead the jussive is negated. Nominal negation, as well as the negation of the ḥa form and the progressive form, is done with miš:
    • Verbs:
      • maʾultilūš I didn't tell him.
      • mašuftihaš I did not see them.
      • Negation of the imperative: matʾullūš don't tell him!
      • mabitʾullūš You don't tell him. / Don't you tell him?
      • but: miš ḥatʾullu you will not tell him. / Won't you tell him?
    • Pseudo verbs:
      • maʿandakš you don't have it. Don't you have ...? (Negative for "ʿandak"; you have)
    • without -š:
      • ʿUmri maʿultilu I have never told him in my life.
    • Negation of the nominal sentence:
      • huwwa miš hina He is not here.
      • ana miš mitgawwiz I am not married.
      • iḥna miš min Maṣr We are not from Egypt.

Text example

With the help of a short dialogue, it should be made clear how much the Egyptian dialect differs from standard Arabic. (To make this difference clearer, the Arabic script is omitted.)


A: How are you?

B: Thanks, I'm fine. And you?

A: It works, thanks.

B: What are you doing now?

A: I want to go for a walk now.

Arabic (MSA)

A: Kayfa ḥāluka?

B: Sukran, ana ǧayyid. Wa-kayfa ḥāluka?

A: Al-ḥamdu li-llāh. (Literally "Thank God", but has a similar meaning to "comme ci, comme ça" in French.)

B: Māḏā taʿmilu al-ʾāna?

A: Al-ʾāna ʾurīdu ʾan ʾatamašša qalīlan.

Arabic (Egyptian dialect)

A: Izzayyak?

B: Sukran, ana kuwayyis. Wa- izzayyak inta?

A: Ahō, māšī, al-ḥamdu li-llāh.

B: Inta ʿāmil ʾē dilwaʾti?

A: ʿĀyiz ʾatamašša šuwayya dilwaʾti.


  • Question "How are you?" (MSA: kayfa ḥāluka ?, Egyptian: izzayyak?)
  • Expression "good" (MSA: ǧayyid, Egyptian: kuwayyis)
  • "it works" (in Egyptian-Arabic and other dialects one often says "māšī")
  • "What are you doing?" (MSA: māḏā taʿmilu ?, Egyptian: (inta) ʿāmil ʾē) → Exchange of question words (ʾē instead of māḏā, participle instead of verb)
  • Expression "now" (MSA: al-ʾāna, Egyptian: dilwaʾti)
  • Verb "to want" (MSA: ʾurīdu - 1st p.s. Imperf. From ʾarāda, Egyptian: ʿāyiz - participle from ʿāʾza → in the dialect the participle occurs more often than a conjugated verb in questions, see above)
  • Expression "something" (MSA: qalīlan, Egyptian: šuwayya)


The structural words are also affected by this:

  • naʿam ("yes") → aywa (from ay wallāhi, an oath formula)
  • naḥnu ("we") → iḥna (sound development)
  • ʾAina ("wo") → fēn (from fī ʾaina )
  • al-ʾān ("now") → dil-waʾti (literally "at this time", preceded by the demonstrative pronoun , as it is no longer common in Egypt today)
  • matā ("when") → ʾimtā (sound development)

Over time, the Egyptian-Arabic borrowed words from Turkish and later from French . However, the greatest influence today is English .

  • ʾŌḍa (Turkish oda ), high Arabic. ġurfa ("room")
  • duġri (Turkish doğru ), high arabic. rather ʿalā ṭūl, ("straight ahead")
  • rōbdišambr (French robe de chambre )

The dialects of Central and Upper Egypt differ considerably from the Arabic spoken in Cairo.

Characteristic Egyptian words and phrases

A list of typical speech formulas and words that Egyptians and other Arabs consider characteristic of the Egyptian dialect:

  • أيوه / aywa - "yes" (informal confirmation instead of high Arabic naʿam )
  • ازيك / izzayyak, -ik, -uku, -u? etc. - "How are you ([m./f.], you, him etc.)?"
  • إيه ده؟ / ʾĒ there? - "What is that about?", "Why is that?"
  • خلاص / ḫalāṣ! - "Stop it now!", "Basta!" (Often also used as filler word and adverb)
  • معليش / maʿlīš! - "What the heck!", "So what!"
  • كفاية / kifāya! - "Enough!", "Enough now!"
  • لسة / lissa orبرضو / barḍū - "still" (replaces the high Arabic mā zāla )
  • كمان / kamān - "also" (replaces the high Arabic ayḍan )
  • بقى / baʾa (particle of reinforcement) - "finally" (with imperatives) or "... well ..." (in questions):
    • هاته بقى / hātu baʾa! - "Give it [now] finally!"
    • عامل إيه بقى؟ / ʿĀmil ʾē baʾa? "What has he done now?", Also: "What should I do now?"



In Egyptian nouns have the following properties:


A noun is determined when it is prefixed with il- . The l assimilates in front of the sun letters .

  • bēt - il -bēt "house- the house"
  • šams - -šams "sun - the sun"
  • kalb - il -kalb, also ik -kalb "dog - the dog"

(In contrast to standard Arabic, k and g can also be assimilated in Egyptian .)


Nouns are either masculine or feminine. Feminine nouns almost always have the ending -a from high Arabic ة or -ā (t). Some feminine nouns do not have an ending, they are mostly feminine personal names. Nouns with the ending -a from standard Arabic اء or ى are sometimes masculine.

  • Feminine:
    • with ending -a: ḥāg a "thing"; mudarris a "teacher"; ḥam āt "mother-in-law"; ḥay ā "life"
    • without ending: ʾumm "mother"; bint "girl, daughter"; sitt "woman"
  • Masculine:
    • with ending -a: daw a "drug"
    • without ending: bāb "door"


There are three numbers: singular, dual and plural:

The singular is marked by -a for collective and generic names . The unmarked form denotes the collective.

The dual is productive, but mostly only optional. In the case of paired body parts, there is a pseudodual with a plural meaning. It is formed with the ending -ēn. The ending -a ة becomes -itēn, -tēn.

The plural is mostly broken, i.e. H. by changing the vowel structure. The form of education is very diverse. The regular plural usually only occurs with job titles and loan words. It ends in masculine personal names in -īn, in other nouns in -āt (replaces feminine ending -a ). For some times and for the number one thousand and one a special counting plural ti-, tu-, t- for the numbers 3–10.

Singular dual Plural collective Pseudodual Counting plural
on -in mudarris "a teacher" mudarrisēn "two teachers" mudarris īn "teacher"
on āt mudarrisa "a teacher" mudarristēn "two teachers" mudarris āt "teachers"
m. dulāb "a closet" dulabēn "two cupboards" dulab āt "cabinets"
f. ṭarabēza "a table" ṭarabiztēn "two tables" ṭarabiz āt "tables"
with loan word: tilifikyōn "a television" tilifikyunēn "two televisions" tilifikyun āt "television"
broken plural rāgil "a man" raglēn "two men" rigāla "men"
with loan word: film "a film" filmēn "two films" ʾAflām "films"
Mixed plural (rare) ʾAṭr "a train" ʾAṭrēn "two trains" ʾUṭarāt "trains"
Generic name samaka "a fish" samaktēn "two fish" ʾAsmāk "fish" samak "fish"
Generic name tuffāḥa "an apple" tuffaḥtēn "two apples" tuffaḥāt "apples" tuffāḥ "apples"
Example for pseudodual ʿĒn "one eye" ʿAnēn "(two) eyes" ʿAyūn "eyes" u. a. ʿAnē ku “your (literally: two) eyes” instead of ʿayunku
Example for counting plural * for "a month" šahrēn "two months" šuhūr "months" u. a. ḫamas tušhur "five months"

* The counting plural is used with the words šahr - -tušhur "month", ʾilf - talāf "thousand" and yōm - tiyām "day" and almost unrecognizable with the numbers 13–19 ʿašara - -ṭāšar "ten". In šahr and ʿašara number and word merge.

Status constructus

The word possessed in a genitive connection occurs in the status constructus . As in German, it comes before the possessing word. This only differs in the feminine singular on -a ة and -ā (t). The ending becomes -it and -āt. The same applies to personal suffixes.

  • Without change:
    • bāb "door" - bāb il-bēt "front door"
    • on -a: dawwa "drug" - dawwa gidditak "your grandmother's drug" (no change, as not from ة)
  • With change:
    • on -a ة: mudarrisa "teacher" - mudarris it il-walad "the boy's teacher"
    • on -ā: ḥayā "life" - ḥay āt in-nās "the life of the people"
    • on -a, even if from ا: dunya "world" - duny it ak "your world"
  • Further amalgamation of the word with the ending:
    • ḥagāt "things" - ḥagt il-madrasa "school things "
    • ʾŌḍa "room" - ʾutt in-nōm "bedroom"

Personal suffixes

Personal suffixes on nouns have a possessive meaning. Except for the suffix of the 1st Pers.S. they are identical to the personal suffixes of the verb. They change their shape (by connecting vowels, etc.) depending on what the last syllable of the suffixed word is; the last syllable of the suffixed word can also change. The reference word occurs in the status constructus, with the dual the -n and the ending -ēn are omitted . A short vowel is lengthened at the start of the suffix.

For every possible last syllable of a word there are different series:

Syllable structure: Kv → KV KvK KVK KvKK dual
dawa "drug" maktab "desk" bēt "house" ʾAlb "heart" mudarrisa "teacher" ḥayā "life" ʾŌḍa "room" ʿAnēn "(two) eyes"
Status constructus dawa maktab bēt ʾAlb mudarris it ḥay āt ʾUtt ʿAyn ēn
1.PS my dawā ya maktab i bēt i ʾAlb i mudarrist i ḥayāt i ʾUtt i 'ayn ayya
2.PSm your dawā k maktab ak bēt ak ʾAlb ak mudarrist ak ḥayāt ak ʾUtt ak 'ayn Ek
2.PSf your dawā ki maktab ik bēt ik ʾAlb ik mudarrist ik ḥayāt ik ʾUtt ik 'ayn eki
3. Be PSm daw ā maktab u bēt u ʾAlb u mudarrist u ḥayāt u ʾUtt u ʿAyn ē
3. PSf you dawā ha maktab ha b i t ha ʾAlb aha mudarrisit ha ḥay a t ha ʾUtt aha 'ayn EHA
1.PP our dawā na maktab na b i t na ʾAlb ina mudarrisit na ḥay a t na ʾUtt ina 'ayn Ena
2.PP yours dawā ku maktab ku b i t ku ʾAlb uku mudarrisit ku ḥay a t ku ʾUtt uku 'ayn EKU
3.PP her dawā hum maktab hum b i t hum ʾAlb uhum mudarrisit hum ḥay a t hum ʾUtt uhum 'ayn ēhum


Adjectives are no different from nouns in their form. Attributive adjectives are behind the noun, predicative adjectives form a nominal sentence with a noun (without a verb).

Attributive adjectives congruent with the noun in terms of definition, gender and number, predicative adjectives only in gender and number.


Adjectives are determined in the same way as nouns:

  • ḥalw - il-ḥalw "pretty"

Gender and number

Adjectives come into congruence with the noun they are referring to. They can only take 3 forms:

  • masculine singular
  • feminine singular
  • Plural

F.Sg. is formed by the ending -a . The plural is marked by the ending -īn or by broken formation.

m.Sg. f.Sg. Pl.
"pretty" ḥalw ḥalw a ḥalw īn
"Filled, full" malyān malyān a maly a n īn
"married" mitgawwiz mitgawwiz a mitgawwiz īn
"big" kibīr kibīr a kubār
"insane" magnūn magnūn a maganīn
"rich" ġani ' * ġany a ʾAġniyya
"poor" fair faʾīr a fuʾara

* The -i is not an ending, but part of the stem.

Reference adjectives to -i

Reference adjectives (country adjectives etc.) end in the m.Sg. on -i, in f.Sg. on -iyya and in pl. on -iyyīn. Sometimes broken plural.

m.Sg. f.Sg. Pl.
"Egyptian, Egyptian" maṣr i maṣr iyya maṣr iyyīn
"nationalist" waṭan i waṭan iyya waṭan iyyīn
"Arabic, arabs" ʿArab i 'arab iyya ʿArab
"Turkish, Turk" turk i turk iyya ʾAtrāk

Adjectives of colors and ailments

This particular group of adjectives shows the following pattern of formation:

m.Sg. f.Sg. Pl.
"White" ʾAbyaḍ bēḍa būḍ
"red" ʾAḥmar ḥamra ḥumr
"blind" ʾAʿma ʿAmya ʿUmi


The attributive adjective is always congruent with the noun in definiteness. The predicative is always indefinite.

If the noun is in the singular, the adjective is congruent with it in the gender. In collective, the adjective is in the f.Sg. With the reference adjectives to -i , the congruence is optional and it can also m.Sg. stand for feminine nouns.

If the noun is in the dual or plural, a distinction is made between nouns that refer to people and nouns. Adjectives are also in the plural for personal nouns in the plural. With factual nouns, they are either in the f.Sg. or plural. Congruence is optional for the reference adjectives on -i and Sg can also be used for nouns in the dual or plural.

Some adjectives are immutable e.g. B. bunni "brown".

Personal noun Definitely Indefinitely m.Sg. f.Sg. m.Du. f.Du. m.Pl. f.Pl.
Predicative adjective
  • Indefinitely
  • Indefinitely
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • Pl.
  • Pl.
  • Pl.
Attributive adjective
  • Definitely
  • Indefinitely
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • Pl.
  • Pl.
  • Pl.
Reference adjective to -i
  • In- / Definite
  • Indefinitely
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • m.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
Factual noun Definitely Indefinitely m.Sg. f.Sg. m.Du. f.Du. m.Pl. f.Pl. collective
Predicative adjective
  • Indefinitely
  • Indefinitely
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • f.Sg.
Attributive adjective
  • Definitely
  • Indefinitely
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • f.Sg.
Reference adjective to -i
  • In- / Definite
  • Indefinitely
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • m.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • Pl.
  • m.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • f.Sg.
  • m.Sg.


Like Standard Arabic, Egyptian Arabic also has the two aspects of perfect and imperfect.


The perfect tense denotes a completed action and is formed by adding suffixes to the root of a verb. The suffixes differ in part from the suffixes of the standard Arabic verbs:

Example verb: katab - to write

(huwa) katab - he wrote

(hiya) katab -IT - she wrote

(inta) katab -T - you (m.) wrote

(inti) katab -TI - you (f.) wrote

(ana) katab -T - I wrote

(huma) katab -U - they (m./f.) wrote

(intu) katab -TU - you (male / female) wrote

(erna) katab -NA - we wrote

The main differences between MSA and Egyptian-Arabic are the abbreviation of the endings (one does not say "huwa katabA", but "huwa katab"; not "anta katabtA", but "inta katabt" and not "antum katabtUM", but "intu katabtU").

The negation of the perfect occurs (as already described above) through the particle mā ...- š. The "š" is possibly derived from the word "šayʾ" (something). Please also note that the endings are pronounced longer if they end in a vowel and an auxiliary vowel ("i") is added if the verb ends in two consonants:

Examples: (huma) ma - katabūš - they did not write

(ana) ma - katabtiš - I did not write

Past tense

The characteristics of the imperfect are prefixes and shortened endings. Compared to Standard Arabic, the past tense of the verbs usually begins with the prefixes yi-, ti-, a- and ni-:

Example verb: katab - to write

(huwa) YI -ktib - he (should) write

(hiya) TI -ktib - she (should) write

(inta) TI -ktib - you (m.) (should) write

(inti) TI -ktib -I - you (f.) (should) write

(ana) A -ktib - I (should) write

(huma) YI -ktib -U - they (m./f.) (should) write

(intu) TI -ktib -U - you (m./f.) (should) write

(hima) NI -ktib - we (should) write

In contrast, the prefixes ya- or yu- appear less frequently. This is e.g. This is the case, for example, with borrowings from Standard Arabic (e.g. the IV. Tribe, which occurs less frequently in the dialect).

Another difference to Standard Arabic is the lack of a division into the indicative, subjunctive and apocopy modes. Instead, the past tense (see above) is divided into three different groups:

  1. modal past tense - contains no additional prefix and expresses compositions (he (should / can / must) write).
  2. bi - past tense - is formed with the prefix bi - and expresses the present tense.
  3. ha - past tense - is formed with the prefix ha - and expresses the future tense.

Example verb: katab - to write

(huwa) HA - YI -ktib - he will write

(hiya) HA - TI -ktib - she will write

(inta) HA - TI -ktib - you (m.) will write

(inti) HA - TI -ktib -I - you (f.) will write

(ana) HA -ktib - I will write

(huma) HA -YI -ktib -U - they (m./f.) will write

(intu) HA -TI -ktib -U - you (male / female) will write

(hima) HA -NI -ktib - we will write

With both the bi- and ha-imperfect tense, it should be noted that the prefixes bi- and ha- merge with the 1st person Sg. So you don't say "ana biaktib", but "ana baktib" (I write) and not "ana" haaktib ", but" ana haktib "(I will write).

In the case of weak verbs (e.g. kān / yikūn-sein or ʾāl / yi --ūl - say) it can also happen that the prefixes "yi, ti and" ni "are shortened. The" i "of the prefix is ​​dropped.


  • (huwa) ha - yikūn → (huwa) haykun
  • (huwa) ha - yiʾūl → (huwa) hayʾul


  • Renate Malina: On the written use of the Kairin dialect based on selected texts by Saʿddadīn Wahba . Islamic Studies Vol. 11; Berlin: Klaus Schwarz Verlag, 1987; ISBN 3-922968-59-7 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Malina 1987, p. 5 f.