Ali Chamenei ([ æˈliː xɔːmenɛˈiː ], officially also Seyyed 'Ali Chamene'i , Persian سيد على خامنه اى, DMG Seyyed 'Alī-ye Ḫāmene'ī , further spelling Ali Khamenei ; * July 17, 1939 in Mashhad ) has been the " Supreme Leader " since 1989, the political and religious head of the predominantly Shiite Iran . In this sense, Khamenei is both “religious leader” and “revolutionary leader” (Rahbar-e enqelāb) . He is the highest spiritual authority with the rank of Ayatollah , the commander in chief of the Iranian armed forces and the head of state of Iran.
Khamenei was born in the city of Mashhad , the second of eight children of the cleric Jawad Hosseini Khamene'i . Ali Khamenei's father was an Azerbaijani from Tabriz and his mother was from Yazd . According to official information from Khamenei, the family lived in very difficult economic circumstances. His younger brother is the Iranian reform politician and dissident journalist Sejjed Hadi Chamene'i . Khamenei's sister Badri Hussein Khamenei is married to the opposition Ayatollah and Khomeini student Ali Tehrani , who was sentenced to 20 years imprisonment in Iran in 1995.
At the age of five he attended elementary school and later the religious seminary in Mashhad. His role models were the assassins Navvab Safavi and Ruhollah Chomeini , whose protégé he became. In 1957 he made a pilgrimage to Najaf to begin his religious studies as a student with the most famous teachers of the time. In 1958 he interrupted his studies at the request of his father and returned from Iraq. Until 1964 he was enrolled in Qom as a student without graduating. With the expulsion of his mentor Ayatollah Khomeini in 1964, his political approach became radicalized. Khamenei was imprisoned six times for his political activities between 1963 and 1978.
Speculation that the roots of his hostility to Israel and the United States date back to this period are attributed to the torture and solitary confinement suffered by Khamenei as a result of the SAVAK's training by the CIA and the Mossad . When he was last arrested in 1977, he was exiled to Iranshahr for three years , but released in mid-1978 during the pre-revolution . In 1977 Khamenei was a founding member of the Association of Warring Clergy and a founding member of the Revolutionary Council and the Islamic Republican Party . He kept in touch with the Tudeh Party of Iran during the Islamic Revolution .
After the revolution, Ruhollah Khomeini was the undisputed ruler and head of state of Iran. Khamenei did not initially belong to the leadership team. Khomeini became aware of the "brilliant speaker with a penetrating voice" and appointed him early in 1980 as the Friday prayer leader in Tehran. After Khomeini issued an order on July 3, 1980 that all ministries should ensure that Islamic clothing was enforced on women, there were nationwide protests against the chador . Khamenei, a relatively unknown mullah at the time , commented publicly:
"I don't want to call them prostitutes, because what a prostitute does affects only herself, but what these women do affects society as a whole."
Up until 1981, some executives around Khomeini fell victim to attacks (e.g. Morteza Motahhari , Mohammad Beheschti , Mohammad Dschawad Bahonar ) or in disgrace with the revolutionary leader (e.g. Abolhassan Banisadr , Mohammad Kazem Schariatmadari ). Khamenei now managed to rise within the mullah government. On October 2, 1981, he became the President elected . His choice came as no surprise after Khomeini settled on him. He received 95% of all votes cast. In addition, after August 30, 1981, he also took over the leadership of the Islamic Republican Party .
On June 23, 1981, an assassination attempt was carried out on Khamenei. A bomb hidden in a tape recorder detonated in the mosque where Khamenei prayed. He has not been able to move his right arm since this attack.
First Gulf War
Khamenei's stance in the First Gulf War was unyielding, the slogan under him as President was: "War, war, until victory." Khamenei's quotes on the war:
- "Iraqis, shoot your officers and officials." (June 4, 1982)
- "The blessing of war is unimaginably great for us." (September 20, 1982)
- "I, the spokesman for the nation, who has the trust of the people, say to you: the war will continue to the last drop of blood." (September 28, 1982)
Ali Akbar Hāschemi Rafsanjāni replaced Khomeini Khamenei as commander-in-chief of the armed forces in 1988 on the instructions of Khomeini , thus making the adoption of UN resolution 598 in the Iraq-Iran war possible.
Highest representative of the state
On June 4, 1989, one day after Khomeini's death, the expert council surprisingly elected Khamenei as the new leader of the revolution. He thus became the highest spiritual and political authority, commander in chief of the armed forces and head of state of Iran. In order not to violate constitutional provisions with regard to the supreme religious leader, the constitution was subsequently amended and approved by the people in a constitutional referendum on July 28, 1989 . The condition explicitly stated in the constitution that the religious and political leader of Iran must also be the highest legal scholar has been removed and replaced by the declaration that someone who, in addition to Islamic scholarship, has appropriate political, administrative and social skills is suitable for the office have. Since the office was still connected with the spiritual and formal-religious leadership, Khamenei had to experience a "religious upgrading", that is, receive the religious title Ayatollah . Before that, he only held the rank of Hodschatoleslam . The call was accepted reluctantly by the rest of the Shiite clergy.
As before Khomeini, Khamenei stands as the chief legal scholar with unlimited powers over all institutions. He advocates a conservative policy of Islamism that seldom allows for reforms. In doing so, he relies on the Guardian Council , founded on February 20, 1980, which oversees all political processes, parliamentary decisions , laws and censorship of the media and whose composition he determines half himself and decisively influences the other half. He appoints and oversees the Friday preachers and appoints the members of the National Security Council .
In 1990, Khamenei created a special court for the clergy for the first time as the "gray eminence" in order to keep the opposition from religious circles under control. The revolutionary leader usually does not intervene in current day-to-day politics, but has an influence that should not be underestimated due to his office through various control and appointment functions. Losers in presidential elections are usually rewarded with other posts (e.g. Ali Akbar Nateq Nuri in 1997 and Rafsanjani in 2005 ) in order not to give any current the absolute upper hand. Power-politically influential and thus dangerous Ayatollahs were either
- detached from power z. B. Mousavi Ardebili , Mohammed Reza Mahdavi-Kani
- placed under house arrest z. B. Hossein Ali Montazeri
- promoted with the same view z. B. Ahmad Dschannati , Mahmud Haschemi Schahrudi ,
- with special items created for hardliners, e.g. B. Mesbah Yazdi , Ali Meschkini
- or housed in other institutions, e.g. B. Rafsanjani to maintain the balance of power.
After the death of Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Ali Araki in 1994, Chamenei tried to take over his vacant post as Grand Ayatollah. This would have given Khamenei the long-term opportunity to be the highest (political) legal scholar and at the same time the highest religious leader, as under Khomeini. The clergy in Qom were opposed to this application, also because of his lack of study time, until finally Khamenei renounced it with the words “the title is not important to me”.
Liberalization and Response
The 1997 election of Mohammad Chātami as president strengthened the reform movement and led to a certain degree of political and economic liberalization. But while in the parliamentary elections in 2000 about 60% of the MPs came from the reform camp, in 2004 most reformist politicians were stripped of their candidate status by the Guardian Council for “religious reasons”. The Parliament has since, in turn, dominated more than 90% of conservative parties.
2009 presidential election
In the run-up to the 2009 presidential elections , Khamenei had made an election recommendation for incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadineschād . On the evening of the election, before the official final result, he recognized the election victory. On June 13, 2009, he congratulated Ahmadinejad on his victory on Iranian television:
“The fact that 24 million Iranians voted for him is an occasion to celebrate and a confirmation for the republic. [...] The election result is proof that the people are resisting the psychological war of the enemy and that they are remaining independent. He thanked the Ministry of the Interior, the police and everyone who had contributed to the election result. "
Because of the ongoing protests after the 2009 presidential election , Khamenei announced on June 15 that the election would be examined by the Guardian Council . In the eagerly awaited Friday sermon on June 19, Khamenei commented on the presidential election. Before the scheduled election test by the Guardian Council, he declared the election to be legal and stated that the Iranian republic "would never commit treason or manipulate the votes of the people". The legal structures and electoral laws in Iran would not allow electoral fraud. At the same time, he called on all parties to end the violence and admitted that he was closer to the views of the winner Ahmadinejad than those of the other candidates. At a meeting with the re-elected President Ahmadinejad on September 7, 2009, he warned it against overconfidence as saying: "Even if the vote of the people can be a source of pride, any overconfidence should be avoided because it one of the biggest traps of the Devil is . "
Campaign against the humanities
After the presidential elections in 2009 , Khamenei declared in front of selected students and professors: "Most human sciences are based on materialistic philosophies and regard humans as an animal". He was “worried that two million students are enrolled in humanities and social science subjects.” This, according to Chamenei, teaches young people secular thoughts and “sows doubts about Islamic principles and distrust in our values.” First indications of this A new culture war was announced in the show trial after the protests after the Iranian presidential elections . Said Hajjarian had to publicly renounce the philosophers Max Weber , Talcott Parsons and Jürgen Habermas in his confession .
In the course of the protests after the 2009 presidential election, Khamenei severely restricted the freedom of expression and the press , which was practically non-existent, under Article 110 of the Iranian Constitution, “head of all media in Iran” . Internet censorship in Iran has been tightened since 2006 by means of filter software, reducing the transmission speed and blocking various websites such as Facebook . On December 13, 2012, however, Khamenei logged on to Facebook himself, which aroused astonishment among bloggers, as the site was "allowed for him, punishable by the people". From Rohanis took office in August 2013 the situation "Internet activists veritable hunt for bloggers and" deteriorated According to observers, with a further dramatic.
As part of Ruhollah Khomeini's fatwa against Salman Rushdie over his novel The Satanic Verses , Khamenei expressed himself as follows in 1989:
"The black arrow of death is shot and on the way to its goal."
On August 6, 1991, the last Prime Minister of the Shah, Shapur Bakhtiar , was murdered in his apartment in Paris . The contract killing was most likely ordered by the supreme leader of the revolution, as one of the arrested assassins testified at the trial.
After a three-and-a-half-year trial, the Berlin Higher Court sentenced Kazem Darabi and the Lebanese Abbas Rhayel to life imprisonment in the Mykonos trial for murder with particularly serious guilt . The verdict made it clear that the murder order had been issued by the state authorities of Iran and that the religious leader Ali Khamenei and the former President Akbar Hāschemi Rafsanjāni had been informed of the attack in advance (file number: (1) 2 StE 2/93 [19/93] ).
In a letter to the chairman of the expert council , Akbar Hāschemi Rafsanjāni, the Shiite cleric Mohsen Kadivar called for the removal of revolutionary leader Ali Khamenei in August 2010. Kadivar justifies this with the fact that the head of state systematically tried to prevent the Expert Council from fulfilling its duties and tasks. In the open letter, Kadivar described Khamenei as a despot who "blatantly disregarded the laws and the constitution as well as the rights of citizens and contravened the principles of Islam".
Anti-Semitism and Israel
According to Walter Posch, three categories of anti-Jewish prejudice can be identified in Iran :
- Islamic anti-Judaism , which is present in very traditional and conservative classes, but is essentially limited to questions of ritual purity and tends to play a role in the rural population and in small towns;
- adapted European anti-Semitism , as it was widespread in the 19th and 20th centuries, the core of which is revisionism; and
- the rejection of the establishment of the state of Israel .
The first category is obsolete for Khamenei by a fatwa - he declared Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians and the Sabeans to be cultically pure in one of his legal opinions. The second category is mainly used by Khamenei partly with silent toleration or active support in order to counter Western criticism of the human rights situation in Iran. For the third category, some contradicting positions can be identified in Chamenei over the years; the rhetoric ranges from the radical annihilation of the State of Israel to the "dissolution of Israel through a referendum". The following statements from Khamenei:
- 1999: “From an Islamic, human, economic, security and (general) political point of view, the presence of Israel is a huge threat to the peoples and states in the region. [...] And there is only one solution to solve the problem in the Middle East, namely the smashing and destruction of the Zionist state. "
- 2000: "It is the position of Iran, first proclaimed by the Imam [Khomeini] and repeated many times by those responsible, that the cancer called Israel must be torn out of the region."
- 2001: "The foundation of the Islamic regime is opposition to Israel and Iran's ongoing theme is the elimination of Israel in the region."
- 2005: "The Islamic Republic has never threatened and never will threaten a country."
- "The goal of Iran is not the military destruction of the Jewish state or the Jewish population, but the defeat of Zionist ideology and the dissolution of Israel through a referendum."
- 2009: “Participation in al-Quds Day [… is] a clear outcry by Muslims against the destructive Zionist cancer. This cancer that is eating away at the Islamic nation was caused by the occupiers and forces of oppression. "
- 2012: “Soon the world will free itself from the Zionist regime, this cancerous tumor. Iran will help anyone who combats the Zionist regime, as it has helped Hezbollah and Hamas in the past . "
- 2013: Israel is “a mad dog in this region. [...] Its leaders look like animals, you can't call them human. "
- 2014: On November 9, 2014 (the anniversary of the Reichspogromnacht 1938 ), Khamenei had a nine-point plan for the destruction of Israel spread on Twitter .
- 2015: After the nuclear deal was signed , Khamenei said in September 2015 that he had learned that the “Zionists in Palestine” believed that there was no need to worry about Iran for 25 years. He tells them: “You will not see the next 25 years. God willing, there will no longer be something like the Zionist regime in this region. ”The“ Islamic spirit of fighting and heroism and jihad ”will“ not let the Zionists rest for a second ”.
- 2019: For the first time, in June 2019, Khamenei distanced himself from "previous Arab leaders who believed that Jews should be driven into the sea". This is "not the view of the Islamic Republic" of Iran.
- 2020: In May, Khamenei drew criticism with a drawing entitled “Palestine will be free”, which showed the Jerusalem Temple Mount . Above it read: “ The final solution. Resistance to a referendum ”. The picture on Khamenei's website for al-Quds Day showed celebrating soldiers with Palestinian flags and people with flags from the Islamist terrorist organizations Hamas and Hezbollah . Israel's Prime Minister Netanyahu said that Khamenei's threats to implement the "Final Solution" against Israel were "reminiscent of the Nazis' ' Final Solution ' to the annihilation of the Jewish people." Khamenei wrote on Twitter: “We will support any nation or group that opposes and fights against the Zionist regime.” The “extermination of the Zionist regime” does not mean that of the Jews, but rather an “imposed regime” like Netanyahu to abolish. He continued: “Muslim, Christian and Jewish Palestinians should be allowed to choose their own government. This is what is meant by the annihilation of Israel and it will become a reality. "
- 2020 In his New Year sermon on March 22, 2020, Khamenei claimed that the COVID-19 pandemic was due to the interaction of evil spirits ( jinns ) and humans. His website later stated that there was “no doubt” that “Jews and especially Zionists” had a special “relationship with the devil and spirits”.
Khamenei denied the Holocaust , which he calls a fairy tale , and supports other Holocaust deniers. Among other things, he said the following about the Holocaust :
- 2000: "If someone gets up and like the French [= Roger Garaudy ] writes some books against Zionism and describes it as a falsehood that Jews were burned in kilns, they treat him very differently than usual."
- 2001: "The exaggerated statistics on the murder of Jews are themselves instruments to arouse pity among the population."
- 2006: "The freedom of expression that you [ note: the West ] mean does not allow anyone to question the fairy tale of the murder of the Jews, which is also called the Holocaust."
In 2014, Khamenei questioned the reality of the mass extermination of European Jews. On January 27, 2016, International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust , Khamenei published a three-minute video with montages on his website, in which he claimed that it was unclear whether or how the Holocaust occurred. He went on to say that nobody in Europe dares to talk about it and those who express doubts are persecuted and imprisoned by those who, Khamenei said, would claim to be supporters of freedom. At the end of 2019, Chamenei praised the French Holocaust denier Roger Garaudy again and described him as “brave” and “tireless”.
According to Khamenei, in the understanding of the Islamic Republic of Iran and its constitution, the religious leader sees himself not as a dictator, but guided by the law of the prophet and thus by divine mandate. According to Article 109 of the Iranian Constitution, in addition to personal Islamic prerequisites, the religious leader also needs characteristics such as “reasonable political and social foresight, prudence, bravery, administrative skills and adequate leadership skills.” Like Ruhollah Khomeini, Khamenei does not see his task as being in current To interfere with daily politics, there is the office of the president, but he has taken a clear position on foreign policy matters that are important for Iran / Islam, e.g. B. Iraq war , nuclear dispute , Mohammed caricatures , Pope quotation from Regensburg etc. These statements, also by means of fatwa , bind the Iranian president in his political decisions and in the long term determine the direction of Iran's foreign policy.
In October 2003 by Khamenei, in accordance with the religious leaders in Qom religious principles of Islam, the development and use of weapons of mass destruction in terms prohibited. On June 24, 2004, Khamenei spoke on Iranian television: “We have no need for an atomic bomb. We have overcome our enemies, even without an atomic bomb. ”On November 5, 2004, Khamenei underlined this sentence during the Friday sermon at the University of Tehran:“ We do not think about nuclear weapons. I've said this many times. Our nuclear weapon is this people. "
In August 2005, Khamenei issued a fatwa (and notified to the IAEA ) banning the manufacture and use of nuclear weapons. In January 2006, Khamenei took another public position on the nuclear dispute: “We don't want nuclear weapons, the West knows that.” According to Khamenei, possession of nuclear weapons contradicts the country's political and economic interests and is against Islamic teachings. At the same time, he emphasized that Iran wanted to expand the nuclear program.
On May 4, 2008, Khamenei said that the western states' new offer of talks in the nuclear dispute with Iran said that threats would not induce Iran to withdraw.
On September 11, 2009, Khamenei declared in his Friday sermon in Tehran: If Iran were to renounce its rights, be they nuclear or otherwise, this would mean the "decline of the Islamic Republic". For more than 200 years, says Khamenei, there has been "insidious behavior by the American and British governments" towards Iran. “So what's the point. You can no longer intimidate us. "
On February 16, 2013, Khamenei once again took a stand on the nuclear dispute: "We are not planning any nuclear weapons, not because of US discomfort, but because we are convinced that nuclear weapons are a crime against humanity." If Iran had the intention to build nuclear weapons According to Khamenei, nobody will be able to prevent this.
On May 6, 2004, Khamenei spoke about the Iraq war : “The Americans are stuck in Iraq and have no way out. You are like a wolf whose tail has been caught in a trap […] You are deep in the swamp. ”On the first Friday of the Islamic holy month of Ramadan , September 14, 2007, Chamenei compared US President George W. Bush with Adolf Hitler and Saddam Hussein , who will be brought to a court martial and brought to justice. “Why does a rich country like Iraq have no water, no electricity, no hospitals and no schools? The only thing the Americans have brought to Iraq is terrorism. "
While talks with the US about the situation in Iraq do not pose any problems for Khamenei - after his speech of March 21, 2006 - (“If Iranian representatives can ensure that the US understands some issues in Iraq, then there is no problem with negotiations . ”), According to Iranian television on June 27, 2006, Khamenei refused direct negotiations with the USA in the nuclear dispute with the words“ Negotiating with America does not bring us any advantages and we do not need such negotiations ”.
In a speech on January 3, 2008, according to the news agency Mehr, Khamenei commented on relations with the USA: "The break in relations with the USA has so far been one of the foundations of Iranian politics. But we never said that this interruption was forever ”. There would be no better relationship with the administration of George W. Bush .
On March 21, 2009, Khamenei commented on the new American President Barack Obama's video message to the Iranian people and the Iranian leadership on the occasion of the New Year celebrations : “The USA is hated in the world and must stop interfering in the internal affairs of other countries . "At the same time he emphasized:" We have no experience with the new American administration and the new American president. We will watch and judge them. If you change your stance, we will change our stance. ”“ If there is an iron fist hidden under that velvet glove, the gesture is of no value. ”According to the New York Times , Obama intended “ to ban direct contact between US diplomats and to pick up Iranian representatives all over the world ”and also to seek direct communication with Khamenei.
On March 21, 2010, Khamenei accused the American President Barack Obama of plotting against the Islamic Republic. “They wrote letters and sent messages saying they wanted to normalize relations with the Islamic Republic. But in practice they did the opposite. ”During the unrest following the presidential election in June 2009, the US had already taken the“ worst possible position ”by calling rioters civil rights activists. On April 17, 2010, in a message of greeting at the opening of a nuclear summit in Tehran, he said: “The only nuclear criminal in the world falsely claims to be in the fight against the proliferation of nuclear weapons [...] but definitely does not take any serious action on the issue. "
Regarding the cartoon controversy, Khamenei commented on Iranian television, “The anger among Muslims is justified and even sacred. However, it does not turn against the Christians worldwide, but against some diabolical forces that are involved in this diabolical affair. […] The cartoon affair is a Zionist conspiracy to create tension between Muslims and Christians ”.
Pope quote from Regensburg
The Pope quote from Regensburg described Chamenei as the "last link in a plot for a crusade."
In December 2004, Khamenei paid tribute to the late Yasser Arafat for "his outstanding role in the struggle for the rights of his people and against Israel." The successors of the Palestinian president should not forget that the continuation of the intifada and resistance are a strategic decision of the people.
In connection with the arrest of 15 British marines on March 23, 2007 in the Shatt al-Arab area on the border with Iran, there was a letter contact between Pope Benedict XVI. and the Ayatollah Khamenei. Both sides were anxious to ease the situation with a gesture of goodwill in the face of the important holidays of Christian Easter and the birthday of the Islamic prophet Mohammed.
Khamenei has four sons:
- Modschtaba (* 1969 in Mashhad ) is married to the daughter of the former Iranian parliament president Gholam Ali Haddad-Adel ,
- Mostafa is married to the daughter of Mohammad-Hossein Choschwaght, Minister under Mohammad Chātami .
and two daughters,
- Boschra and
The sister of Khamenei is married to the dissident Sheikh Ali Tehrani . His son, Mahmud Tehrani, lives in exile in Paris and suspects his uncle to be the plaything of the Revolutionary Guards , Mahmud Ahmadinejad or Mesbah Yazdi .
Political-religious texts, from 1963
- 1. Islamic Thoughts in the Koran (An Overview)
- 2. The depth of prayer
- 3. A discourse on patience
- 4. The principles of the four books of traditions in relation to the biography of the narrator
- 5. Guardianship (Wilayah)
- 6. A general report from the Islamic Seminary of Mashhad
- 7. Imam as-Sadiq
- 8. Unity and political parties
- 9. Personal views on art
- 10. Correct understanding of religion
- 11. Battle of the Shiite Imams
- 12. The essence of the oneness of God
- 13. The need to return to the Koran
- 14. Imam al-Sadschad
- 15. Imam Reza and his appointment as Crown Prince.
- 16. The cultural invasion (collection of speeches)
- 17. Collections of speeches and contributions (9 volumes)
Khamenei translated from Arabic into Persian:
- 1. The peace treaty of Imam Hasan , by Raazi Aal-Yasseen
- 2. The future of the Islamic religion ( al-Mustaqbal li-hadha'l-Din ), by Sayyid Qutb
- 3. Muslims in the Liberal Movement of India, by Abdulmunaim Nassri
- 4. An indictment against Western civilization, better known as Signs on the Way ( Ma'alim fi t-tariq ), by Sayyid Qutb
- Hans-Peter Drögemüller : Iranian diary. 5 years of revolution. Hamburg 1983. ISBN 3-922611-51-6
- Official website of Ali Chamenei
- Official website of the Supreme Leader
- Website of German-speaking followers of Chameneis (self-description)
- Florian Rötzer: Islamic rule density . Telepolis , October 15, 2006.
- Extensive photo documentation from the time before, during and after the revolution in Iran ( memento from December 1, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) with several photos by Ali Chamenei, including one with a bayonet rifle 1 , 2
- Video of the election of Chamenei as head of state by the Expert Council in 1989 on YouTube
- ↑ Sejjed Ali Khamenei in the Munzinger archive ( beginning of article freely accessible)
- ↑ Constitution of Iran, Article 108
- ↑ a b c leader.ir/de/content/14163/Biographie ( Memento from May 24, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 24, 2016
- ↑ a b CIA World Fact Book, IRAN. UPDATED ON MAY 7, 2013. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
- ↑ Majd, Hooman: Change Comes to Iran. In: The Daily Beast . February 19, 2009, accessed on November 13, 2010 (English): "Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, [...], while ethnically Turkic is also half Yazdi, but he seems not to have inherited the timidity gene from his mother."
- ↑ Iran-Iran: Azeris unhappy at being butt of national jokes. IRINnews, May 25, 2006, accessed June 21, 2013 .
- ^ Sister of Iran's President Flees to Husband in Iraq . nytimes.com, May 3, 1985; Retrieved February 1, 2013
- ↑ Khamenei himself cites his father's illness because of which he dropped out of his studies; however, his political activity began in 1963.
- ↑ a b c Karim Sadjadpour: Reading Khamenei . (PDF; 2.4 MB) Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2008
- ↑ from this period Khamenei is with the religious title Hujjat al-Islam considered
- ↑ "Whoever does not fight will be shot" . In: Der Spiegel . No. 23 , 1984, pp. 116 ( online - Spiegel interview).
- ↑ Picture of Chamene'i at a sermon with a G3 assault rifle ( Memento from January 19, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Kasra Naji: Ahmadinejad. The secret history of Iran's radical leader . University of California Press, Berkeley 2008, ISBN 978-0-520-25663-7 , p. 260
- ^ Tehran Times , July 12, 1980
- ↑ Iran-Iraq. War propaganda and everyday life in Iran. Hamburg 1987, p. 90.
- ↑ Hans-Peter Drögemüller: Iranisches Tagebuch
- ↑ Wilfried Buchta: A quarter of a century Islamic Republic of Iran . (PDF; 649 kB) In: From Politics and Current Affairs , February 23, 2004, Federal Agency for Civic Education ; accessed March 11, 2012;
- ↑ Katajun Amirpur: The depoliticization of Islam, Ergon-Verlag, 2003. Page 54
- ↑ Protest against Ahmadineschad: "Lug und Trug" FAZ of June 14, 2009
- ↑ Hundreds of thousands on the streets of Tehran ( Memento from June 18, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Tagesschau from June 15, 2009
- ↑ Spiritual leader declares election in Iran to be legal ( memento of September 7, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ) AFP of June 19, 2009
- ↑ Chamenei disappoints the opposition ( memento from November 5, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) taz.de from June 19, 2009
- ↑ Khamenei supports Ahmadinejad Die ZEIT online from June 19, 2009
- ↑ Khamenei supports Ahmadineschad FAZ of June 19, 2009
- ↑ Khamenei criticizes Ahmadinejad greenpeace-magazin.de of September 7, 2009
- ↑ Ali Chamenei announces a campaign against the humanities at tagesspiegel.de on September 10, 2009
- ↑ Chamenei now on facebook . dw.de; Retrieved December 19, 2012.
- ^ Matthias Lauer: Iran: For Facebook posts on death row. In: publikative.org. January 26, 2015, archived from the original on March 16, 2015 ; accessed on March 17, 2015 .
- ↑ "Each of us wants all the power" . In: Der Spiegel . No. 24 , 1989, pp. 166 ( online ).
- ^ Judgment of the Kammergericht Berlin ( Memento from May 25, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Bahman Nirumand : Removal of the revolutionary leader required . Iran Report , Böll Foundation , August 2010
- ↑ David Jewish culture magazine ( Memento from May 12, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Issue 84, 4/2010
- ↑ Udo Wolter: Example Al-Quds-Tag . ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Islamist networks and ideologies among migrants in Germany and possibilities for civil society intervention . November 2004, p. 4f., Al-Quds Day 1999 in Tehran
- ↑ Friday sermon on December 15, 2000
- ↑ Joshua Teitelbaum : Jerusalem Center from July 3, 2008 ( Memento from September 22, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ Israel Must Be Eradicated From The Annals of History ”- text on the Shihab-3 missile launcher. (PDF) Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Center for Special Studies (CSS), November 2003, July 16, 2013, archived from the original on January 31, 2012 ; Retrieved November 24, 2013 . January 15, 2001
- ^ Guardian , April 5, 2007
- ↑ Khamenei's anti-Semitic speech. n-tv.de, September 20, 2009
- ↑ Chamenei: Zionist cancer is eating away at Islam . n24.de, September 20, 2009, state television on September 20, 2009
- ↑ Jedi'ot Acharonot newspaper , February 3, 2012; the quote “cancerous ulcer” also with Micha Brumlik : Don't hear the signals . In: taz , April 3, 2012, p. 17.
- ↑ Wiesenthal Center Lists Top 10 Anti-Jewish Slurs Of 2013. thejewishweek. com, Jan 2, 2014
- ↑ Stephan Grigat: "From delegitimization to eliminatory anti-Zionism." In: Samuel Salzborn (Ed.): Antisemitism since 9/11. Events, debates, controversies. Nomos, Baden-Baden 2019, p. 336
- ↑ Raz Zehmen: 'Little Satan' is still there. Israel in the current discourse of the Iranian regime . In: Stephan Grigat : Iran - Israel - Germany. Anti-Semitism, Foreign Trade, and the Nuclear Program. Hentrich & Hentrich, Berlin 2017, p. 139 f.
- ↑ Khamenei condemns the US Middle East peace plan as a "great fraud". (No longer available online.) In: afp.com. Formerly in the original ; accessed on June 12, 2019 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- ↑ Iran publishes picture of the “Final Solution” www.juedische-allgemeine.de, May 21, 2020
- ↑ Kersten Knipp: [ https://www.dw.com/de/iran-virus-und-glaube/a-53148636 Corona pandemic: Iran: Virus and Faith }. dw.com , April 16, 2020, accessed August 25, 2020.
- ↑ Stephan Grigat : Of Djinns and Jews. In: taz of August 24, 2020, p. 15.
- ↑ Khamenei airs holocaust denial video on international Remembrance Day. Times of Israel , January 28, 2016
- ↑ Khamenei again denies the Holocaust in video. heute.at , January 28, 2016
- ^ Camilla Turner: Supreme leader of Iran marks Holocaust Memorial Day by publishing Holocaust denying video. The Daily Telegraph , Jan. 28, 2016
- ↑ Friday prayer on May 12, 2000 spme.net Wahied Wahdat-Hagh : Iran: Hate Propaganda ..., accessed on February 13, 2013
- ^ Wulf Schmiese : New tactics, old hatred . In: Cicero , February 12, 2014
- ↑ Wolfram Weimer: He admires contract killers www.n-tv.de, January 7, 2020
- ↑ Stephan Grigat: "From delegitimization to eliminatory anti-Zionism." In: Samuel Salzborn (Ed.): Antisemitism since 9/11. Events, debates, controversies. Nomos, Baden-Baden 2019, p. 335.
- ↑ Ashley Cowburn: Iran's Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei questioned historical authenticity of Holocaust in Video on his official website www.independent.co.uk, January 28, 2016
- ↑ Rachel Wolf: Iran's Khamenei praises French Holocaust denier. www.jpost.com, December 17, 2019
- ↑ Position of the leader from the point of view of Imam Khomeini. leader.ir, accessed June 21, 2013 .
- ↑ Leadership from the perspective of the law. leader.ir, accessed June 21, 2013 .
- ^ San Francisco Chronicle , October 31, 2003
- ↑ MEMRI 136
- ↑ MEMRI 326
- ↑ Helmut Schmidt: Nuclear weapons dispute. Atomic facts. America should focus on negotiations with Iran . In: Die Zeit , No. 18/2006
- ^ Nuclear dispute. Khamenei: Nobody can dissuade Iran from its plans . FAZ.net
- ↑ Reuters, May 5, 2008 ( Memento of May 6, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Demonstration of Power . Tagesspiegel, September 12, 2009
- ↑ Bahman Nirumand : boell.de ( Memento from May 17, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 275 kB) Iran Report 03/2013; Retrieved March 5, 2013
- ↑ MEMRI 59
- ↑ Iran. Ayatollah compares Bush to Hitler and Saddam . Spiegel Online , September 14, 2007
- ↑ Chamenei for talks with the USA . German wave
- ^ Nuclear dispute. Ayatollah Khamenei rejects talks with the USA . ( Memento from June 25, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Handelsblatt , June 27, 2006.
- ^ On Nowruz, President Obama Speaks to the Iranian People. The White House, accessed June 21, 2013 .
- ^ Spiegel online, March 20, 2009
- ^ Spiegel online, March 21, 2009
- ^ TAZ, March 22, 2009
- ↑ Tagesspiegel, March 21, 2009
- ↑ Article. Zeit Online , March 21, 2009
- ^ Ayatollah Khamenei attacks US President Obama . Spiegel Online , March 21, 2010
- ↑ Leader: US only nuclear criminal . Press TV , April 17, 2010
- ↑ Afghans attack Norwegians . Abendblatt.de, February 8, 2006.
- ↑ Islam statements. Khamenei sees the Pope as a crusader . Spiegel Online , September 18, 2006
- ↑ iran-report No. 12/2004 ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 184 kB) Heinrich Böll Foundation
- ↑ Vatican / Iran: Pope wrote to Ayatollah . ( Memento of September 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Vatican Radio , April 7, 2007
- ↑ Pope mediated the release of British soldiers . Welt Online , April 7, 2007
- ↑ Khamenei's Nephew: President, Revolutionary Guard "Running The Show" . Radio Free Europe , September 10, 2009
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Chāmene'ī, Alī; Khamenei, Ali; آیت الله سید علی خامنهای (Persian)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||political and religious leader of Iran|
|DATE OF BIRTH||July 17, 1939|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Mashhad , Iran|