Chutba (or Khutba , Arabic خطبة, DMG ḫuṭba ), also called “ Friday sermon ” in German , describes the sermon during the weekly Friday prayer of Muslims or during the festive prayer (Salat al-Eidain) for the Islamic festival of breaking the fast and the festival of sacrifice . It serves for spiritual edification and moral perfection.
The person who holds the chutba is called the chatib . This is usually the prayer leader ( imam ) of the respective mosque . However, the address can also be given by another person, but a certain basic knowledge of Islam is a prerequisite for this. The chatib , standing on the second or third highest level of a prayer pulpit ( minbar ), usually speaks about a topic of his choice or relates to current events.
In Friday prayer, the chutba is held before the actual prayer ( salāt ) and lasts about 20–40 minutes. During the festive prayer, the assembly of the faithful often takes place in an open area that is not walled or roofed over ( Eidgah ); the chutba held on this occasion takes place after the prayer and is usually a little shorter.
Historically, the Friday prayer and official Friday address were held in the main mosque in every city. In the early days, political decisions were (also) announced by the caliph (or his provincial or military leaders). Since the Abbasids gave up the mosques as political centers, there have been several Friday mosques in the cities . The political aspect remained as long as the Chutba was held in the name of the caliph or the respective ruler.
The number of Friday mosques grew rapidly where the Friday service was open. The widespread use of Friday mosques was also noticeable in language usage. Today the Chutba is held in every major mosque, but in the Islamic diaspora (e.g. in Europe) it is also held in very small mosques.
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