The Badi' calendar or Baha'i calendar is the religious calendar of both the Babism and the Bahaitums . It is a solar calendar with 19 months of 19 days each with an additional four days and a leap day inserted if necessary . The calendar year begins with the day and night are equally long in the spring on the northern hemisphere . The calendar day begins with sunset . The calendar begins with the sunset of March 20, 1844 of the Gregorian calendar . The abbreviation BE ( English Badiʿ Era or Baha'i Era ) thus serves as a distinguishing feature for the calendar system.
The Bab , the founder of Babism, has the Badiʿ ( Arabic ﺑﺪﻳﻊ, DMG Badīʿ 'new, wonderful, unique') is described in the Book of Names . Baha'ullah , the founder of Baha'ity, adopted the calendar with minor modifications in the Most Holy Book .
Days of the week
|Day||Arabic name ( Arabic script , DMG , Baha'i transcription )||German name||Gregorian equivalent|
|1||Jalal (جلال / ǧalāl , Jalál )||Fame||Saturday|
|2||Jamal (جمال / ǧamāl , Jamál )||beauty||Sunday|
|3||Kamal (كمال / kamāl , Kamál )||perfection||Monday|
|4th||Fidal (فضال / fiḍāl , Fiḍál )||grace||Tuesday|
|5||ʿIdal (عدال / ʿIdāl , 'Idál )||justice||Wednesday|
|6th||Istidschlal (استجلال / istiǧlāl , Istijlál )||majesty||Thursday|
|7th||Istiqlal (استقلال / istiqlāl , Istiqlál )||independence||Friday|
|month||Arabic name (Arabic script, DMG, Baha'i transcription)||German name||Gregorian date (2014/15)|
|1||Baha '(بهاء / bahāʾ , Bahá ['] )||glory||March 21st||April 8th|
|2||Jalal (جلال / ǧalāl , Jalál )||Fame||9th April||April 27|
|3||Jamal (جمال / ǧamāl , Jamál )||beauty||April 28||May 16|
|4th||'Azamat (عظمة / ʿAẓamat , 'Aẓamat )||size||17th of May||June 4th|
|5||Just (نور / nūr , núr )||light||June 5th||23rd June|
|6th||Rahmat (رحمة / raḥmat , Raḥmat )||compassion||June 24th||July 12|
|7th||Kalimat (كلمات / kalimāt , Kalimát )||Words||July 13th||July 31|
|8th||Kamal (كمال / kamāl Kamál )||perfection||August 1st||August 19th|
|9||Asma '(أسماء / Asmā' , Asma [ '] )||Names||20th of August||7th of September|
|10||ʿIzzat (عزة / ʿIzzat , 'Izzat )||Power||September 8th||September 26th|
|11||Maschiyyat (مشية / mašīyyat , Ma sh íyyat )||will||September 27th||15th October|
|12||ʿIlm (علم / ʿIlm , 'Ilm )||Knowledge||October, 16th||November 3rd|
|13||Square (قدرة / square , square )||force||November 4th||22nd of November|
|14th||Qawl (قول / qawl , qawl )||language||November 23||11th December|
|15th||Masaʾil (مسائل / masāʾīl , Masá'il )||ask||12th of December||30th of December|
|16||Sharaf (شرف / šaraf , Sh araf )||honor||December 31||January 18th|
|17th||Sultan (سلطان / sulṭān , Sulṭán )||sovereignty||January 19th||February 6th|
|18th||Mulk (ملك / Mulk , Mulk )||Domination||February 7th||February 25|
|Leap days||Aiyam-e Ha '(actually ايام الهاء / aīyām al-hāʾ , but mostly Persian ايام هاء, DMG aīyām-e hāʾ , Ayyám-i-Há )||Days of ha||February 26th||1st March|
|19th||ʿAla '(علاء / ʿAlāʾ , 'Alá ['] )||Grandeur||2nd March||March, 20th|
Holidays, memorial days and Lent
|Festival or memorial day||Date in the Badiʿ calendar||Date in the Gregorian calendar
The inspection begins with the sunset of the previous day and ends with the sunset of the specified day.
|Time of inspection||Work stoppage|
|Nouruz||1 Baha '||March 20th (2017) or March 21st (2018)||-||Yes.|
|Ridwan||13 Jalal - 5 Jamal||April 20 - May 1, 2017 / April 21 - May 2, 2018||4 p.m. on the first day.||Yes, on the first, ninth and twelfth days. No, on all other days.|
|Explanation of the Bab||8 'Azamat||23/24 May||Two hours after sunset (on May 23).||Yes.|
|The passing of Baha'ullah||13 'Azamat||28/29 May||4 o'clock.||Yes.|
|Martyrdom of Bab||17 Rahmat||9/10 July||Noon (1 p.m.).||Yes.|
|Twin birthdays of the Bab and Baha'ullah||10-11 square||October 21-22, 2017 and November 9-10, 2018||-||Yes.|
|Covenant day||4 Qawl||25./26. November||-||No.|
|The passing of ʿAbdul-Baha's||6 Qawl||27./28. November||1 O 'clock.||No.|
|Aiyam-e Ha '||Aiyam-e Ha '||February 25 - February 28 (2017) or February 25 - March 1 (2018)||-||No.|
|Fasting month ʿAla '(علاء / ʿAlāʾ / 'sublimity', 'Alá ['] )||ʿAla '||March 1st to 19th (2017) or March 2nd to March 20th (2018)||Abstention from food and drink from sunrise to sunset. Breaking the fast after sunset.||No.|
Thus, the Baha'i calendar has nine holidays and memorial days on which to stop work.
Nouruz ( Persian نوروز, DMG Norūz , lit. New day, New Year ', Baha'i transcription Naw-Rúz ) is the New Year celebration of the Badiʿ calendar. It is the first day of a new year from which all other days of the year are determined. At the end of Lent and (in the northern hemisphere) at the beginning of spring, it is a festival of rebirth and is celebrated with joy, but also accompanied by prayers. The festival has its roots in the Iranian cultural area and is celebrated as New Year there, without any reference to Babism or Bahaitum. Many Baha'i of Persian origin allow these cultural elements to flow into the Nouruz festival, but they are not part of the Baha'i religion as such.
The Ridwan Festival ( Arabic ﺭﺿﻭﺍﻥ, DMG Riḍwān 'Well-pleased [God's], (Paradise) Garden', Persian , Baha'i transcription Riḍván ) celebrates Baha'ullah's twelve-day stay in April / May 1863 in the garden he called Ridwan on the banks of the Tigris in exile in Baghdad . The arrival of Baha'ullah on the first day, the arrival of his family on the ninth day and his departure on the twelfth day are specially celebrated. During this time Baha'ullah made his claim, the messianic figure of Babism ( The one who will reveal the God ) to be compared to a small group of followers publicly before - at the instigation of the Persian government - in the further banishment to Constantinople Opel departed . Here he also presented the first elements of his teaching, including the prohibition of all religiously motivated violence and the revelation that he was the only manifestation of God for this age, i.e. the next thousand years. In addition to the gathering to celebrate the Ridwan festival, the elections within the Baha'i community also take place during this time. In addition, the Universal House of Justice sent messages to Baha'i all over the world during the Ridwan period, a practice that Shoghi Effendi had already done .
19 and 361 year cycles
In the Badiʿ calendar there is a cycle of 19 years with the name Vahid (Arabic for "unity", symbolizing the unity of God, whereby the word Vahid has the numerical value 19 according to the Abdschad system ) and a super cycle with 361 (19 × 19 ) Years called Kull-i-Shay (Arabic for "all things", numerical value 361 according to Abdschad). The ninth Vahid in the first Kull-i-Shay began in 1996. The second Kull-i-Shay begins in 2205. The 19 years correspond to the Metonic cycle , according to which 235 lunar months correspond to almost exactly 19 solar years.
The years in the Vahid:
|No.||Arabic name (Arabic script, DMG, Baha'i transcription)||German equivalent||Numerical value according to Abdschad|
|1||Alif (أﻟﻒ / alif, Alif)||A (letter name)||1|
|2||Ba '(باء / bā', Bá ')||B (letter name)||2|
|3||Ab (أب / ab, Ab)||father||1 + 2|
|4th||Dal (دﺍﻝ / dāl, Dál)||D (letter name)||4th|
|5||Bab (باب / bāb, Báb)||goal||2 + 1 + 2|
|6th||Vav (وﺍو / wāw, Váv)||V (letter name)||6th|
|7th||Abad (أبد / abad, Abad)||eternity||1 + 2 + 4|
|8th||Jad (جاد / ǧād, Jád)||gallantry||3 + 1 + 4|
|9||Baha (بهاء / bahā ', Bahá)||Splendor||2 + 5 + 1 + 1|
|10||Hubb (حب / ḥubb, Ḥubb)||love||8 + 2|
|11||Bahhaj (بهاج / bahhāǧ, Bahháj)||Adorable||2 + 5 + 1 + 3|
|12||Jawab (جواب / ǧawāb, Javáb)||answer||3 + 6 + 1 + 2|
|13||Ahad (احد / aḥad, Aḥad)||Only||1 + 8 + 4|
|14th||Vahhab (وﻫﺎب / wahhāb, Vahháb)||Charitable||6 + 5 + 1 + 2|
|15th||Vidad (وداد / widād, Vidád)||affection||6 + 4 + 1 + 4|
|16||Badi '(بديء / badī', Badíʿ)||Beginning||2 + 4 + 10|
|17th||Bahi (بهي / bahī, Bahí)||Radiant||2 + 5 + 10|
|18th||Abha (ابهى / abha, Abhá)||Extremely radiant||1 + 2 + 5 + 10|
|19th||Vahid (واحد / wāḥid, Váḥid)||unit||6 + 1 + 8 + 4|
The calendar reform that will apply from 2015 is not yet taken into account in the literature.
- Gerald Keil: The Time in the Baha'i Age. A study of the Badī ʿ calendar (= publication series of the Society for Bahá'í Studies . Special volume). Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2005, ISBN 3-87037-425-X .
- Peter Smith: An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith . Cambridge University Press, New York, Cambridge 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-68107-0 , pp. 188-191 .
- Peter Smith: Art. Calendar & holy days . In: A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith . Oneworld Publications, Oxford 2008, ISBN 978-1-85168-184-6 , pp. 98-100 & 182-183 .
- John Walbridge: Sacred Acts, Sacred Space, Sacred Time (= Bahá'í Studies . Volume 1 ). George Ronald, Oxford 1996, ISBN 0-85398-406-9 , pp. 171-247 .
- Bahá'í Publishing House. German-language Badiʿ calendars are printed here.
- Letter from the Universal House of Justice in English, which carried out a calendar reform effective from 2015.
- Introduction to the Badiʿ calendar on the Wilmette Institute website in English.
- Bahá'í Dates 172 to 221 BE Calculation of the dates of the Badiʿ calendar for the years 2015-2064 on the website of the Wilmette Institute in English.
- Badi-Calendar.com. Interactive website in English for location-based determination of calendar dates taking into account local solar times.
- The dates given here refer to the year 171 BE and thus correspond to the period from March 21, 2014 to March 20, 2015. The year 172 BE begins on March 21, 2015.
- Due to the astronomical calculation of New Year's Day and the recurring slight, temporary asynchronicity of the Badiʿ calendar with the Gregorian calendar, the month of Baha '(and thus the entire year) can take place on March 20 and 21. Correspondingly, from the point of view of the Gregorian calendar, the entire year can always move back and forth by one day.
- Although the leap days in the Badiʿ calendar and the Gregorian calendar are in the same period of the year, there are different leap years. This leads to a slight asynchronicity of both calendar systems, which occurs again and again temporarily.
- Nouruz is on the day on which the sun enters the zodiac sign Aries , starting from Tehran, the birthplace of Baha'ullah, as the reference point. This will always happen on March 20th or 21st of the Gregorian calendar for the next few decades.
- From 172 BE (2015/16) the birthdays of Bab and Baha'ullah are celebrated together. Up to 171 BE (2014/15) they were already known as twin birthdays, celebrated together in the Islamic world , as they fall on two consecutive days in the Islamic lunar calendar , the first and second Muharram . In the rest of the world, however, they were celebrated on October 20th and November 12th. According to a regulation of July 10, 2014 of the Universal House of Justice , the birthdays of Bab and Baha'ullah are celebrated together as twin birthdays around the world . But it is no longer calculated according to the Islamic lunar calendar. Instead, the birthday of Bab is celebrated on the day after the eighth new moon after Nouruz (the Badiʿ calendar) and the birthday of Baha'ullah on the following day.
- The Persian government was concerned about the growing influence that Baha'ullah exercised over the Babi in Persia. As early as 1853, Baha'ullah, as one of the important personalities of the Babi community, was banished from Persia and expropriated for life. He then chose Baghdad (Ottoman Empire), which was not far from the Persian border and was visited by many Persians, as his exile. From 1861 efforts were made to extradite it or at least move it far away from the Persian-Ottoman border. Finally, on March 24, 1863, the Ottoman government asked Baha'ullah to go to distant Constantinople.