The Bahá'í Faith is a cosmopolitan religion with about eight million followers who look to the teachings of the religious founder Baha'ullah appointed (1817-1892) and as for him Bahai are called. In their country of origin, Iran , the Baha'i form the largest religious minority, but are exposed to severe persecution. Main distribution areas today are India , Africa , South and North America .
The universal religion , which originally emerged from Babism , teaches an Abrahamic monotheism of its own, at the center of which is the belief in a transcendent God , the mystical unity of religions and the belief in the unity of humanity in its diversity. The Baha'i advocate action-oriented ethics that are committed to a humanitarian vision of social development and cohesion.
In addition to the work of Bahāʾullāh, which is regarded as the revelation of God , the Baha'i also count the sacred writings of other world religions as part of their common religious heritage. According to the faith of the Baha'i, the founders of religion all draw from the same divine source. The unmistakable differences between the religions are primarily due to historical factors: They are an expression of different needs and cultural influences.
The history of Bahaitums goes to the work of two founder figures back: Seyyed'Alī Muḥammad Širāzī (1819-1850), "the Bab" called (Arabic: "the Gate"), and Mirza Husayn-'Alī Nuri (1817-1892), called " Bahāʾullāh ”(Arabic:“ Glory of God ”). The actual founder is Bahāʾullāh. The Bab is seen by the Baha'i as its pioneer and at the same time as an independent religious founder of Babism .
The Bab was born in Shiraz , Iran , in 1819 . On the evening of May 22, 1844, he first claimed divine revelation. As a title he takes up the Shiite eschatological term "Bab". He reinterprets it as a "gateway to God", d. H. as a claim to a post-Koranic revelation and as a pioneer of another form of revelation. Babism quickly gained supporters from the Shiite environment. However, the Bab's claim to revelation and his interpretation of Islam met with rejection among Shiite scholars and clergy; the Bab particularly questioned the role of religious scholars and advocated women's rights and greater social equality. He was arrested in early 1847.
The formal separation from Islam took place in July 1848 in Badasht on the Caspian Sea . It was the result of a council of the most influential followers of the Bab. One of the spokespersons, Qurrat al-ʿAin , took off her veil in public for the first time as a sign of the emancipation of women.
The increasing missionary activity of the Babi quickly led to resistance from Shiite groups, and soon to (also state) organized persecution of the community. As a counter-reaction, there were isolated revolts against the Iranian government. Shiite ideas of jihad were initially retained among the Babi. On July 9, 1850, the Bab was publicly shot in Tabriz . The persecution lasted until 1853. Thousands of followers of the Bab were killed.
Since 1848, two of the followers of Bab had gained in importance: the sons of a state minister in Tehran, the half-brothers Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri, later called Bahāʾullāh, and Mirza Yahya Nuri, later known as Subh-e Azal . As planned by the Bab, after the death of Bab the nominally nineteen-year-old Subh-e Azal took over the leadership of the Babi congregation; but he was hardly up to the task. On the advice of Bahāʾullāh and others, the Bab had appointed him as trustee in 1849 for the transitional period until the appearance of "He whom God will reveal", the messianic figure expected in Babism .
Bahāʾullāh was imprisoned in the Siyah-Chal ("Black Hole"), a notorious dungeon, in the course of the persecution in Tehran in 1852 . Many of his fellow inmates were executed. An execution of Bahāʾullāhs was refrained from because he enjoyed great public reputation and Western ambassadors stood up for him. The Baha'i view Bahāʾullāh's mystical experiences during this imprisonment as the first beginnings of his prophetic mission.
Baghdad, Edirne and Istanbul
After months of incarceration, the seriously ill Bahāʾullāh was exiled. He chose Baghdad as a place of exile. Subh-e Azal and other followers of the Bab followed him. In Baghdad there were initial tensions between the two half-brothers. As a result, Bahāʾullāh moved as a dervish to the Kurdish mountainous region of Silêmanî province for around two years , where he devoted himself to prayer and meditation, before returning to Baghdad in 1856. Important mystical works by Bahāʾullāh, such as The Seven Valleys or the Hidden Words, date from this time . His first theological work is the Book of Certainty (Kitab-i-Iqan) , published in 1862 , in which Bahāʾullāh explains the concept of Progressive Revelation and the role of Bab as the founder of a new religion after Islam. Back in Baghdad, Bahāʾullāh quickly gained prestige and influence. The Persian consul in Baghdad tried to counteract this and finally, together with some local clergy, caused Bahāʾullāh to be ordered to Istanbul.
Immediately before his forced departure, on April 8, 1863, in the garden of Ridvan , he declared in front of a small circle of his followers that he was the one promised by the Bab, "whom God would reveal". Subh-e Azal was not present at this event, which is now commemorated as the Ridvan Festival . After four months, Bahāʾullāh was banished from the Ottoman capital Istanbul to Edirne . Bahāʾullāh publicly raised his claim from the spring of 1866, for example in letters to the most influential secular and religious leaders of his time. Subhi-i-Azal responded with the counterclaim to be the one promised by the Bab himself. Gradually, the vast majority of the Babi confessed to Bahāʾullāh and now saw themselves as Bahai. The followers of Subh-e Azal (Azali) tried to portray the Baha'i as politically subversive to the Ottoman government and to eliminate Bahāʾullāh. As a result of the conflict, the Ottoman government banished Subh-e Azal to Cyprus in 1868 and Bahāʾullāh to the fortress city of Akkon in present-day Israel . Babism is today absorbed into the new religion of Bahāʾullāh, except for a tiny group of about 2000 members (Azali-Babi).
During the more than two decades in Acre and the surrounding area, the greater part of the extensive literature of Bahāʾullāh in Arabic and Persian was created, in which the basic teachings are further elaborated, in particular the idea of the unity of humanity and the reconciliation of religions. The most important text of the Baha'i is the Kitab-i-Aqdas , the holiest book , from 1873. Through this book the secular laws that the Bab had established in the Bayan were finally abolished. The Arabic text of the Kitab-i-Aqdas is stylistically similar to the classical style of the Koran and forms the basis for Bahāʾullāh's religious law and community order. Bahāʾullāh died on May 29, 1892 in Bahji near Acre in western Galilee. His shrine is the most important place of pilgrimage for the Baha'i today and determines the direction of prayer for the compulsory prayers.
'Abdul-Baha' and the period that followed
In his will, the leadership of the community was passed on to Bahāʾullāh's eldest son ʿAbdul-Baha '(1844–1921). This also implies the authoritative interpretation of his writings. 'Abdul-Baha' remained interned in Acre until the Young Turkish Revolution in 1908. Since 1892 the first Baha'i communities were formed in North America and Europe. 'Abdul-Baha' visited these communities between 1910 and 1913 to promote peace among religions and nations. In the spring of 1913 he also visited Germany. Through his humanitarian commitment, especially during the war years (1914 to 1918) in Haifa, he achieved great public recognition. He died in Haifa in 1921. From 1920, one of the first known German-speaking members of the Baha'i community was the psychiatrist, philosopher and social reformer Auguste Forel .
ʿAbdul-Baha 'named his grandson Shoghi Effendi (1897–1957) the “guardian” of the Baha'i community in his will. Shoghi Effendi translated some of the most important writings of Bahāʾullāhs into English and was endowed with the highest teaching competence by virtue of his office. Under his leadership, the Baha'i community spread to almost every country in the world. Since Shoghi Effendi died unexpectedly and did not appoint a successor, the authoritative (binding) interpretation of the writings of Bahāʾullāh was concluded with him. The institution of "guardianship" has since been vacant. This means that the individual belief has taken the place of a binding doctrine. To encourage this, it is desirable that learned Baha'i give their different interpretations of scriptures so that all Baha'i can form their own opinions.
Since the “guardian” was also intended to be the chairman of an international leadership committee of the community, after Shoghi Effendi's unexpected death it was initially disputed whether this committee would even be able to exist without its veto function. After an interregnum lasting more than four years, the committee was finally formed and accepted by a majority of the international community, albeit with reduced competencies. Today the body is best known under its English-language name Universal House of Justice and is based in Haifa, where the shrine of Bab with its gold dome, completed in 1953, is also located. Due to their importance as a place of pilgrimage, the graves of both religious founders in Haifa and Western Galilee have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008 .
Bahá'í International Community (BIC)
The Bahá'í International Community has been recognized by the United Nations as a non-governmental organization since 1948 . Since 1970 she has had advisory status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations , and since 1976 advisory status with the United Nations Children's Fund . She works with the World Health Organization , the Development Program of the United Nations , the United Nations Environment Program , the United Nations Population Fund and the United Nations Development Fund for Women together. In addition, the Bahá'í International Community set up the “Office for the Advancement of Women” in New York in 1992.
The Bahá'í International Community oversees 1,714 social and economic development projects and 348 schools worldwide.
When Shoghi Effendi inherited his grandfather, 'Abdul-Baha', in 1921, the Baha'i faith had already gained a foothold in 35 countries around the world: in two during the lifetime of Bab, in 13 during the lifetime of Bahāʾullāh and in 20 during the lifetime of Abdul-Baha . After Shoghi Effendi's tenure, the belief was widespread in 219 countries.
In 1954 there were around 213,000 Baha'i worldwide, 94 percent of them in Iran and around 10,000 in Europe and North America. From the sixties it became more widespread in some third world countries . In 1968 there were around 1.1 million Baha'i, of which 22 percent lived in Iran and 26 percent in India, and around 30,000 in Europe and North America. In 1988 there were around 4.5 million Baha'i worldwide, 6 percent of them in Iran and 40 percent in India, around 200,000 in Europe and North America. In 2008 there were around 7.8 million Baha'i, of which 2.1 million were in Africa, 3.7 million in Asia, 148,000 in Europe, 851,000 in Latin America, 857,000 in North America and 133,000 in Oceania.
In 2009, around 7.8 to 8.1 million people professed the Baha'i Faith. They live mainly in India , Iran , sub-Saharan Africa , North and South America . The Bahá'í International Community reported around 5 million parishioners in 2008, comprising over 2,100 ethnic groups in 189 states. Around 2.2 million of them lived in the largest Baha'i community in the world: India. The largest number of followers in the western industrialized nations recorded the United States in 2008 with around 670,000 . However, only a fraction of them belong to the official community. It is difficult to estimate the proportion of the Baha'i population in their country of origin, Iran, because of their persecution . Probably more than half have fled abroad since 1979. According to a publication from the year 2000, the number of followers is estimated between 150,000 and 500,000, mostly 300,000 being given - a number that is ultimately not verifiable.
The Baha'i community in Germany (Kdö.R.) was in 2013. According to its own annual report from 6019 registered users. In addition, Brockhaus (2007) assumes a total of around 12,000 Baha'i in Germany. The first European Baha'i temple is located in Hofheim am Taunus (district Langenhain) and has been a Hessian cultural monument since 1987 . The Bahá'í publishing house, which is also located there, publishes, among other things, the revelation texts in the original and in German translation. In total, they have been translated into more than 800 languages. The beginnings of the German community go back to 1905. A decision by the Federal Constitutional Court in February 1991, the Baha'i ruling , made the community well-known in German jurisprudence . In November 2012 the Federal Administrative Court granted the Baha'i community in Germany the status of a corporation under public law .
The Baha'i have their own central source of revelation in the numerous original writings of their founder, Bahāʾullāh. In addition to the Holy Book and the Book of Assurance , the mystical scriptures (such as The Seven Valleys or the Hidden Words ) are of great importance to the believers. The letter to the son of the wolf , in which the founder of the religion also looks back on his life, is referred to as the “summa of the teachings of Bahāʾullāh” .
Image of man
According to the Baha'i faith, man is closest to God of all works of creation because he has been endowed with free will , reason, an immortal soul and the ability to know God and to enter into a covenant with him. Life in this world and in the hereafter is viewed as a continuous mystical journey to God. For the Baha'i, heaven and hell are symbols of proximity or distance to God. A certain "unity" with God can already be achieved during life. Life in this world is destined to develop spiritual skills that are needed for life in the hereafter. Virtues such as charity , gratitude, trustworthiness, trust in God , humility and patience are considered spiritual abilities . Self-mortification , "hermit and harsh asceticism " are rejected, as is a hedonistic life in abundance. Bahāʾullāh recommends keeping “the right proportion” and sees “serving the whole human race” as the criterion of true humanity. Social engagement and social responsibility, the active shaping of the world, are seen as a natural consequence of individual spirituality and cannot be separated from it. Begging and confession are forbidden to the Baha'i; both are considered to be the humiliation of people in front of other people.
Great importance is attached to human reason, even if it alone can lead astray. The essence of man is his immortal soul . The body is called the temple of man , which is also valued, which is shown in the purity and hygiene laws of Bahāʾullāh, but also, for example, in the prohibition of cremation .
Image of God
The Baha'i concept of God is monotheistic . They believe in "the existence and the unity of a personal God who is unknowable, inaccessible, source of all revelation, eternal, omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent".
In its absolute transcendence , the essence of God remains hidden from man. In creation, however, the divine properties are reflected and can be recognized by humans. The manifestations of God play a special role , through which God reveals himself to man to the greatest possible extent. Nevertheless, the complete nature of God remains hidden from man.
The Baha'i consider God the Creator of all things. Everything emerges from God and through God, but with the preservation of the free will of God, the non-withholding of divine substance in creation and the non-rejection of creation out of nothing . The Baha'i are thus close to an emanatic position. Creation is a progressive act of grace of God, motivated by divine love and correlated with the progressive revelation of God.
Understanding of religion
A central principle of the Baha'i is that religion should not contradict reason and science. ʿAbdul-Baha ' described charity as the most important element of religion . Religion that leads to discord fails to serve its purpose and it is better to live without it.
At the center of the Baha'i religious understanding is a threefold unity: the unity of God , the mystical unity of the divine revelators and the unity of humanity .
Theological pivotal point of the Baha'i doctrine is the salvation-historical paradigm of progressive revelation : God does not reveal himself to mankind once, but progressively and cyclically. As mankind is constantly evolving, religion must be renewed in order to be able to provide divine guidance according to the situation. This happens because God sends divine revelators ( manifestation of God ) to humanity in certain periods of time . As a result, the great religions are all divine foundations, each of which reproduces his message in a modified external form. The Baha'i believe that Bahāʾullāh brought the latest of these divine revelations, but not the last. More revealers are expected after him about a thousand years apart. According to the Baha'i faith, Bahāʾullāh was promised by all major religions and embodies the beginning of a new phase in the development of mankind, which will ultimately lead to worldly and spiritual peace. His commandments should form the basis for such a society and lead to the fact that "the body of this world is given a living soul and that this tender child, humanity, reaches the stage of maturity".
In 1912, in his speeches in Paris , Abdul-Baha ’ particularly emphasized twelve ethical principles from the teachings of Bahāʾullāh. These central tenets of the Baha'i dominated the reception of religion in the West until the 1980s, which was primarily perceived as a humanitarian peace movement. The spiritual and philosophical teachings of Bahāʾullāh only received greater interest later.
The Baha'i religion hardly prescribes rites, individual freedom of design is given and inculturation is welcomed. Almost all commandments are addressed to the individual, not the community. The rites do not have an immediately redeeming or salvific character. What counts is the basic mental attitude and not the external form. Establishing cultic traditions beyond the rites prescribed by Bahāʾullāh is rejected due to the danger of the "encrustation of religion".
The Baha'i Temple is the mandatory place of worship for the Baha'i: a nine-sided dome structure with nine entrances. The temple should ideally be surrounded by gardens and social facilities. The services are pure devotions without liturgy or sermon . In addition to the sacred writings of Bab and Bahāʾullāh, writings from all world religions are recited . Sung recitations and prayers, solo improvisations and choral singing serve as musical elements. Musical instruments are not provided as the temples are reserved for the word of God and the human voice.
Lent and prayer are of central importance , especially the compulsory prayers, which are available in three different lengths and shapes. Fasting is 19 days a year (the last month of the Baha'i calendar ). For the Baha'i, fasting means total abstinence from food and drink between sunrise and sunset. Travelers and anyone who should not fast for health reasons are exempt from fasting. Other important commandments of Bahāʾullāh are to read the Holy Scriptures daily and to recite the Greatest Name 95 times a day .
Bahāʾullāh forbids the Baha'i in Kitab-i-Aqdas to consume things that rob them of their minds unless it is medically necessary. As explained elsewhere, this also includes gambling, alcoholic beverages and drugs.
The marriage ceremony, which only has a simple eaves formula, is only possible between a woman and a man and requires the consent of all living parents, which is primarily intended to strengthen the unity within the family. Sexual relationships outside of marriage are rejected.
The Baha'i respect the laws of their respective countries, but abstain from party politics. Engagement in youth groups, peace movements, interreligious initiatives and environmental protection movements and the like outside the Baha'i community, provided that they are politically neutral, is expressly encouraged.
The most important feast days of the Bahai community are Naw-Ruz (New Year on March 21st), Ridvan (the preaching of Bahāʾullāh from April 21st to May 2nd), the preaching of the Bab and the birthday of ʿAbdul-Baha (on May 23rd) , the passing of Bahāʾullāh (on May 29th), the martyrdom of Bab (on July 9th), the birthday of Bab (on October 20th) and the birthday of Bahāʾullāh (on November 12th).
The local congregation meets every nineteen days for its monthly congregation, which the Baha'i call the Nineteen Day Festival . The Bahai calendar divides the year into 19 times 19 days. The Nineteen Day Festival marks the beginning of the month. The festival consists of three parts: a contemplative devotional part, in which the holy scriptures are read, an advisory part, in which the congregation advises on its activities, and a social part, which is accompanied by a feast.
In some places, public devotions are held, which are organized together with the followers of other religious communities. In prayers of the world religions , the representatives of the religions recite and chant prayers from their holy scriptures one after the other. Music serves as a connecting element. Other Baha'i events include a. Prayer meetings, readings from religious scriptures, study courses, children's classes, lectures or conferences.
There is no clergy. Every officially declared Bahai can hold any office from the age of 21. In the event of a violation of an administrative rule or an obvious violation of central religious precepts in public, however, the administrative rights can be temporarily withdrawn. This means that during this time you are excluded from participating in the Nineteen Day Festival and lose your right to vote and be elected in the community. Attempts at division and massive internal attacks that would seriously endanger the life of the community can be determined by the international house of justice as a breach of the covenant . The result is the complete exclusion from the community and the breaking off of all contacts with the federal breaker. There were very few cases of federal breaches in Europe.
The structure of the municipal code is divided into two areas: an elected and an appointed branch. The entire order is based on the advisory principle and free, secret and independent choice.
Decision-makers are the elected bodies with nine members, which lead and coordinate the activities of the community. The appointed branch consists of different levels of advisors who are appointed by the elected bodies, these have no decision-making power.
The local spiritual councils are elected once a year by the entire church. Each country is divided into certain electoral units, where delegates are elected who in turn elect the spiritual councils at national level at an annual meeting . The international council, the Universal House of Justice in Haifa , is elected every five years by the male and female members of all national councils from among all male believers.
Both the choice of committees and the principle of advice are ideal for the Baha'i. A Baha'i election is an act of democratic decision-making; it is general, free, equal and secret, but it also contains a spiritual character. Quality of character is seen as more important than intellectual qualification. No importance should be attached to age, gender or social status. Advocacy, referrals, candidates, parties and election campaigns are prohibited.
The advisory principle is intended to ensure that everyone's experience and knowledge can be used to form a common opinion. Free and unrestricted expression of opinion is essential. “Only when opinions collide”, says ʿAbdul-Baha ', “the spark of truth can sparkle.” When making decisions, it is not published which member voted and how. Party formation and lobbying are to be replaced by solution-oriented work. The prerequisite for this form of decision-making is that all council members are regarded as equal. Opinion contributions for a consultation are not regarded as personal "property", but become common property the moment they are introduced into the discussion, about which everyone agrees. The basis for decision-making is the Holy Scriptures, which the Council - depending on the subject of discussion - must always be reapplied. Any counseling in spiritual counseling begins with prayer.
The community is funded through voluntary and anonymous donations that are only accepted from Baha'i.
A Baha'i rule in the United States that some intellectual Baha'i criticize as internal censorship is that written papers on the Baha'i faith are subject to internal scrutiny prior to publication. This practice, which dates back to the time of Shoghi Effendi , is now a hotly debated practice.
Relationship to other religions
According to the Baha'i teachings, the aim of religion is "to secure the welfare of the human race, to promote its unity and to cultivate the spirit of love and solidarity among men". Religion should "not become a source of disunity and discord, hatred and enmity". Conflicts for religious reasons are therefore not in accordance with the Baha'i teachings.
The Baha'i not only have a good relationship with other religions because of these calls, but also because they see God as the “Lord of all religions”. So apply inter alia Adam , Abraham , Moses , Zoroaster , Krishna , Siddhartha Gautama , Jesus Christ , Muhammad , the Bab and Baha'ullah as manifestations of God .
According to the words of Bahāʾullāh, "Commune with followers of all religions in a spirit of benevolence and brotherhood", Baha'i participate in interreligious and intercultural dialogue . You have been a member of the Germany-wide Round Table of Religions since 1998 and are represented in the Abrahamic Forum in Germany. In numerous German cities, Baha'i are members of the existing councils of religion . a. in Frankfurt, Hanover, Munich, Cologne, Nuremberg and Stuttgart. In the worldwide campaign alliance Religions for Peace , they are involved at local, national and international level.
The history of persecution of the Baha'i in their country of origin Iran begins with the beginnings of their religion. As early as the 1850s, numerous followers of Bab were massacred in a religious biocide , some sources speak of over 20,000. The Bab himself was publicly executed in 1850. The founder of the religion Bahāʾullāh was an exile and a prisoner in today's Israel until the end of his life . Theologically apply Baha'is in orthodox Islam as apostates . Their religion is rooted in Shiite Islam, but has broken away from it. Contrary to the opinion of the Islamic clergy, the Baha'i do not regard Mohammed as the last prophet. In contrast to Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians , the Baha'i are not recognized as a protected religious minority in Iran. This legitimizes and legalizes repression. In the struggle for influence and power within Iran, the Baha'i, stylized as archenemies of Shia and national pride, repeatedly served as scapegoats that are instrumentalized in order to gain the emotional support of the masses. The Iranian public justifies the persecution with alleged "endangering national security". The Baha'i in Iran represent a religious community that, according to the teachings of their faith, does not interfere in Iranian politics and practices the principle of non-violence .
Since the Islamic Revolution , the situation of the Baha'i in Iran has deteriorated again. Since 1981 the Baha'i have been refused admission to educational institutions, public service employees without social security and pensions have been dismissed, salaries and training costs have had to be repaid under threat of imprisonment. Baha'i property was expropriated, business dealings with Baha'i nationals prohibited, shops and businesses closed, business and personal accounts blocked. There were repeated pogroms : shops, offices and factories were looted, cattle slaughtered, the harvest expropriated or stolen. Residential houses were raided and set on fire, residents were massacred, burned alive or forcibly forced to convert to Islam. By 1985, virtually all of the elected Baha'i leadership had been wiped out with 210 executions. At least 10,000 believers are believed to have fled into exile.
A secret paper of the Supreme Islamic Revolutionary Culture Council published by the United Nations in early 1993 showed that Baha'i should be discriminated against at all levels in order to prevent their progress and development. This means, among other things, that they should be kept at a low level of education and livelihood and that fear of imprisonment and torture should be fueled. For the Baha'i abroad, too, “a plan must be developed to attack and destroy their cultural roots outside the country”. The memorandum was intended to signal a change of course: away from the bloody persecutions of the past, which had contributed to the international isolation of Iran, to hidden economic, social and cultural human rights violations by the Iranian Baha'i, which should take place below the international threshold of attention. However, this strategy did not really work, as shown, among other things, by the reactions of the international community of states, including the United Nations.
The Baha'i in Iran are affected by various human rights violations. The international Baha'i community has reported a significant increase in arbitrary detentions, horrific bail payments, torture, confiscation, harassment and harassment of children and young people. Attacks on Baha'i, which go unpunished, are fueled by targeted hate campaigns. In 2004, several sacred sites associated with early Baha'i history in Iran, including the house where Bahāʾullāh was born, were destroyed. Baha'i cemeteries have recently been destroyed in some cities, most recently in Isfahan in 2018. As before, the Baha'i are excluded from further education and university attendance. They are denied employment in public institutions. Shops are regularly sealed by authorities when they are closed on Baha'i Holidays.
The systematic and state-ordered persecution of the Baha'i must be distinguished from various forms of discrimination such as local hostility or the restriction of religious activities by Baha'i in some other Islamic countries. In Yemen, however, the Baha'i are facing a situation of persecution that is in many ways analogous to that of Iran. The persecution of the Baha'i by the Houthi militia in Yemen since 2013 follows a pattern similar to that in Iran. The hate speech transmitted in the media by Houthi leader Abdul-Malik al-Huthi is comparable to that of Supreme Leader Khamenei. The imprisonments and arbitrary judgments are justified with espionage for Israel but also with apostasy and are an expression of far-reaching religious prejudices. Iran's influence over the National Security Agency and the Houthi Special Court Prosecutor has been confirmed by journalists, human rights organizations and independent experts in the region, such as the UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief , Ahmed Shaheed . In a statement on May 22, 2017, he describes the striking similarity between the recent persecution of the Baha'i in Yemen and that of the Baha'i in Iran as follows: “The recent escalation in the persistent pattern of persecution in the Baha'i community in Sana'a reflects the persecution of those in Iran living Baha'i. "He added that" the harassment of the Baha'i religious minority appears to be continuing, if not to an even worse extent, as a religious persecution in Yemen. "
On September 26, 2018, the Federal Government Commissioner for Human Rights Policy and Humanitarian Aid Bärbel Kofler commented on the persecution of the Baha'i in Yemen and demanded their release. Most recently, in a press release on January 31, 2020, she called on Iran to stop “massive discrimination against the Baha'i”.
Reception in German-speaking countries
In religious studies research, the Baha'itum is viewed as an Abrahamic monotheism of its own and as an independent universal religion.
In older research, this picture still looked different in some cases , as the early descriptions of Baha'i in German-speaking countries were predominantly written by Christian apologists . One of the most common misjudgments was the classification as an “Islamic sect”, which can be traced back to the fact that the Baha'i'm originated in an Islamic cultural area. This was facilitated by the uncritical, unscientific and partly apologetic use of the word sect . It was not recognized that the Baha'i'um is based on its own holy texts, has its own universal claim and the Islamic religious law within the new community was repealed as early as 1848. During the general sect debate that began in Germany in the 1970s, the German Baha'i community had to defend itself against stigmatization as a sect. A publication by the Evangelical Central Office for Weltanschauungsfragen (EZW) made a significant contribution to this . The Bahá'í community in Germany countered this with the publication of a comprehensive reply, which the religious scholar Manfred Hutter described as an important contribution to the critical research of the Baha'i religion despite its apologetic character. The authenticity of various Baha'i scriptures was confirmed and the incorrect presentation of theological, legal and ethical aspects of Baha'i was corrected. In addition, historical, legal and theological issues that have not been dealt with so far were also examined by the authors. A more appropriate basis for discussion thus arose in the 1990s under changed framework conditions. As a result, a collaboration characterized by interreligious dialogue developed between the EZW and the Baha'i community. The "unity paradigm" represented by the Baha'i community - the unity of humanity in its cultural and religious diversity - continued to encounter critical questions about compatibility with pluralistic ideas about religion and society. This is to be understood above all against the background of an authoritarian-led community and the tensions that result from it. Representatives of the Federation for Free Christianity see in this context contradictions between the - by its nature liberal, science-affirming and progressive - Baha'i community and its hierarchically organized world community, which obliges its members to obedience to their religious authorities and so tries to achieve "unity" within theirs to secure previously manageable membership. Visionary strength stands here alongside illusory weakness.
Important current contributions in the religious studies research on Bahaitum, which is still slowly emerging in the German-speaking area, are above all the Bahāʾī handbook by the Bonn religious scholar Manfred Hutter and his contribution to the lecture series “World Religions: Understanding. Understanding. Responsibility ”of the 10th Johannes Gutenberg Endowed Professorship at the University of Mainz, as well as a comprehensive introduction to Bahāʾullāh's letter to the son of the wolf in the commented translation by the Frankfurt orientalist Armin Eschraghi.
- Stephan A. Towfigh; Wafa Enayati: The Bahá'í Religion. An overview . 5th edition. Lau, Reinbek 2014, ISBN 978-3-95768-121-8 ( table of contents at DNB - popular short introduction with a special focus on the community).
- John Ebenezer Esslemont : Bahá'u'lláh and the New Age . 8th edition. Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 1986, ISBN 3-87037-184-6 .
- Moojan Momen: The Baha'i Faith. A beginner's guide . Oneworld Publications, Oxford 2008, ISBN 1-931847-27-4 .
- William S. Hatcher , J. Douglas Martin: The Bahá'í Faith. The Emerging Global Religion . 3. Edition. Bahá'í Publishing Trust, Wilmette (Illinois) 2002, ISBN 1-931847-06-1 .
Introductions and monographs
- Manfred Hutter : Handbook Bahā'ī. History - theology - relation to society . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-17-019421-2 ( table of contents , publisher's report ).
- Manfred Hutter: Holy Scriptures of the Bahā'ī . In: Udo Tworuschka (ed.): Holy Scriptures. An introduction . Verlag der Weltreligionen, Frankfurt am Main, Leipzig 2008, ISBN 978-3-458-72007-2 , p. 364-381 .
- Manfred Hutter: The Bahā'ī Religion in a Global Context. Your teaching on the progressive revelation as the basis for ethical and social engagement in a world of diverse cultures . In: Karl Cardinal Lehmann (Ed.): World religions: Understanding. Understanding. Responsibility . Verlag der Weltreligionen, Frankfurt am Main, Leipzig 2009, ISBN 978-3-458-71025-7 , p. 205-228 .
- Armin Eschraghi: Introduction. The Life of Baha'ullah - The Holy Scriptures of the Baha'i - Central Doctrinal Statements . In: Armin Eschraghi (ed.): Baha'ullah, letter to the son of the wolf (Lauḥ-i Ibn-i Dhi'b) . Verlag der Weltreligionen, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-458-70029-6 , p. 145-353 .
- Ulrike Elsdörfer : Global Religions. A reader on interreligious conversation: Bahá'i, Christianity, Islam . Ulrike Helmer Verlag, Königstein 2008, ISBN 978-3-89741-261-3 , p. 15-68 .
- Peter Smith: An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith . Cambridge University Press, New York, Cambridge 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-68107-0 .
- Fereydun Vahman: Baha'ism . In: Gerhard Krause, Gerhard Müller (Hrsg.): Theologische Realenzyklopädie . tape 5 . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 1980, ISBN 3-11-007739-6 , pp. 115-132 .
- Manfred Hutter: Bahā'īs . In: Lindsay Jones, et al. (Ed.): Encyclopedia of Religion . 2nd, completely new edition. tape 2 . Macmillan Reference USA, Thomson Gale, New York, u. a. 2005, ISBN 0-02-865735-7 , pp. 737-740 .
- John Walbridge: Baha'i Faith . In: Richard C. Martin, et al. (Ed.): Encyclopaedia of Islam and the Muslim World . tape 1 . Macmillan Reference USA, Thomson Gale, New York, u. a. 2004, ISBN 0-02-865604-0 , pp. 100-101 .
- Juan Ricardo I. Cole : Baha'i . In: David Levinson, Karen Christensen, et al. (Ed.): Encyclopedia of modern Asia . tape 1 . Charles Scribner's Sons, Thomson Gale, New York, et al. a. 2002, ISBN 0-684-31242-5 , pp. 217-220 .
- Todd Lawson: Bahā'ī . In: John L. Esposito, et al. (Ed.): The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World . tape 1 . Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford 1995, ISBN 0-19-509612-6 , pp. 177-182 .
- Robert Stockman: Bahá'í Faith . In: Thomas Riggs, et al. (Ed.): Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices . tape 1 . Thomson Gale, Detroit, et al. a. 2006, ISBN 0-7876-6612-2 , pp. 23-45 .
- Ulrike Elsdörfer : Images of Human Human Rights. Controversies in Bahá'i, Christianity and Islam . Ulrike Helmer Verlag, Sulzbach 2009, ISBN 978-3-89741-291-0 , p. 95-103, 111-133 .
- Peter Smith: A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith . Oneworld Publications, Oxford 2008, ISBN 978-1-85168-184-6 .
- Hugh C. Adamson: Historical Dictionary of the Bahá'í Faith . Scarecrow Press, Lanham (Maryland) 2007, ISBN 978-0-8108-5096-5 .
- Wendi Momen: A Basic Bahá'í Dictionary . George Ronald Press, Oxford 1989, ISBN 0-85398-231-7 .
- Babak Farrokhzad: The Flow of Truth. Expectations of the end of days and proofs of truth of Christianity and Islam in Bahá'u'llás Kitáb-i-Íqán . Studies on Bahá'ítum. tape 4 . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2004, ISBN 3-87037-409-8 .
- Udo Schaefer : Salvation History and Paradigm Shift. Two contributions to Bahá'í theology (= Studies on Bahá'ítum . Volume 1 ). 2nd revised and expanded edition. Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2002, ISBN 3-87037-389-X .
- Nader Saiedi : Logos and Civilization. Spirit, History and Order in the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh . University Press of Maryland, Bethesda 2000, ISBN 1-883053-63-3 .
- Moojan Momen: Relativism, A Theological and Cognitive Basis for Bahá'í. Ideas about God and the Spiritual World (= Lights of 'Irfán . Band 12 ). 2011, p. 367–399 ( irfancolloquia.org [PDF; 312 kB ]).
- Johann Christoph Bürgel, Isabel Schayani (Ed.): Iran in the 19th century and the emergence of the Bahā'ī religion . Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim, Zurich, New York 1998, ISBN 3-487-10727-9 ( books.google.de - preview).
- Moojan Momen: Bahá'u'lláh - a short biography . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2013, ISBN 978-3-87037-499-0 .
- G. Cameron, W. Momen: A Basic Bahá'í Chronology . George Ronald, Oxford 1996, ISBN 0-85398-404-2 .
- Peter Smith: The Bahá'í Faith. A short history . Oneworld Publications, Oxford 1999, ISBN 1-85168-208-2 .
- Peter Smith: The Babi and Baha'i Religions. From messianic Shi'ism to a World Religion . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2008, ISBN 978-0-521-31755-9 .
- National Spiritual Council of Bahá'ís in Germany (Ed.): 100 Years of the German Bahá'í Congregation. 1905-2005 . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2005, ISBN 3-87037-436-5 .
- National Spiritual Council of the Bahá'ís in Germany (Ed.): The Bahá'ís in Iran. Documentation of the persecution of a religious minority . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 1985, ISBN 3-87037-170-6 .
- Rudolf Fischer: Religious diversity in the Middle East: an overview of the religious communities in the Middle East. Ed. Piscator, Oberdorf, Switzerland 1988, ISBN 3-906090-20-5 , Babismus / Bahaismus, p. 54–55 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
- Kai Merten: Among each other, not next to each other: The coexistence of religious and cultural groups in the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century . tape 6 of Marburg's contributions to the history of religion. LIT Verlag , Münster 2014, ISBN 978-3-643-12359-6 , 14. The Bābī / Bahā'ī in the Ottoman Empire, p. 358–372 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Tajan Tober: A New Ius Divinum? On the theology of the law of the Bahá'ís (= writings on state church law . Volume 40 ). Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-631-56235-2 .
- Emanuel V. Towfigh : The legal constitution of religious communities. A study using the example of the Baha'i (= Ius Ecclesiasticum. Contributions to Protestant Church Law and State Church Law . Volume 80 ). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2006, ISBN 3-16-148847-4 ( books.google.de - preview).
- Udo Schaefer: Fundamentals of the Bahá'í Municipal Code (= Studies on Bahá'ítum . Volume 3 ). Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2003, ISBN 3-87037-404-7 .
- Society for Bahá'í Studies for German-speaking Europe (Hrsg.): Series of publications by the Society for Bahá'í Studies . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim (2003-2006).
- Society for Bahá'í Studies for German-speaking Europe (ed.): Journal for Bahá'í Studies . Bahá'í Publishing House, ISSN 1865-5955 (2007-2012).
- Association for Bahá'í Studies - North America (Ed.): The Journal of Bahá'í Studies . ( bahai-studies.ca - from 1988, table of contents and online article).
- Association for Bahá'í Studies for UK (Ed.): Bahá'í Studies Review . ( intellectbooks.co.uk - from 1991, table of contents).
- Christopher Buck; Ismael Valesco (Ed.): Online Journal of Bahá'í Studies . ( oj.bahaistudies.net - 2007–2008, table of contents and all articles online).
- 'Irfán Colloquium (Ed.): Contributions to the' Irfán Colloquium. 'Irfán Studies on Bahá'í Literature . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim (from 2004).
- 'Irfán Colloquia (Ed.): Lights of' Irfán. Papers Presented at the 'Irfán Colloquia and Seminars . Bahá'í Distribution Service, Wilmette (from 2000).
- Frank Aheimer: The twin revelation in the Baha'i religion: From the Báb to Baha'u'llah. Deutschlandfunk , February 26, 2020, accessed on February 26, 2020 .
- “The core of all religions is the same”, Liva Gollmer in conversation with Antje Schrupp. Evangelisches Frankfurt, December 2010, accessed on January 22, 2019 .
- “Being a Bahai is the essence of my life”, Hiltrud Oehlkers in conversation with Mario Neumann. Bremen Zwei ( Radio Bremen ), March 8, 2019, accessed on March 9, 2019 .
- Frederik Obermaier : Too progressive for the mullah state. Article on the situation of the persecuted Baha'i minority in Iran. Süddeutsche Zeitung, March 6, 2013, accessed on March 9, 2013 .
- Bahá'i Holy Places in Haifa and the Western Galilee. Retrieved May 29, 2012 .
- In the current specialist literature, in addition to Bahaitum , the term Bahāʾī religion can be found, especially where a distinction is made between Bahaitum as a superordinate cultural phenomenon and the religion of the Baha'i as part of it (analogous to Judaism and the Jewish religion ); the Duden also knows the outdated term Bahaism ; Arabic البهائية al-bahā'iyya , English Bahá'í Faith, Bahaism .
- Exceptions are the Vatican and (presumably) North Korea . See Peter Smith: An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2008, pp. 95 .
- Classification of religions: Conclusion . In: Encyclopedia Britannica . ( britannica.com [accessed December 5, 2016]).
- German spelling based on Duden, Persian بهائی bahāʾī , Bahai transcription Bahá'í , in German: from Baha, belonging to Baha, where Baha stands for the religious title of the founder of the religion and in Germanmeans glory .
- Christopher Buck: Islam and Minorities: The Case of the Bahá'ís . In: Studies in Contemporary Islam . tape 5 , no. 1–2 , 2003, pp. 83-106 ( christopherbuck.com [PDF]).
- Frank Aheimer: The twin revelation in the Baha'i religion: From the Báb to Baha'u'llah. Deutschlandfunk , February 26, 2020, accessed on February 26, 2020 .
- See for example Armin Eschraghi: The claim of Bab in his early writings . In: Contributions from the Irfan Colloquium 2004 . Hofheim 2005, ISBN 3-87037-437-3 , p. 47-81 .
- Todd Lawson, The Terms 'Remembrance' and 'Gate' in the Bab's Commentary of the Sura of Joseph . In: Momen (Ed.): Studies in the Babi and Baha'i Religions . tape 5 . Los Angeles 1988, p. 1 ff .
- See Abbas Amanat: Resurrection and Renewal. The Making of the Babi Movement in Iran, 1844-1850 . Cornell University Press, Ithaca / London 1989, ISBN 0-8014-2098-9 .
- Keyword ( Memento of December 30, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) in Encyclopædia Iranica .
- Abbas Amanat: Qurrat al-'Ayn: The Remover of the Veil . In: Resurrection and Renewal. The Making of the Babi Movement in Iran, 1844–1850 . Cape. 7th
- Manfred Hutter: The world religions . 2nd Edition. C. H. Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-406-50865-3 , p. 106 .
- Gunnar Heinsohn : Lexicon of Genocides . Rowohlt, 1998, ISBN 3-499-22338-4 , pp. 87 .
- Theologische Realenzyklopädie , Volume 5, keyword Baha'ism , p. 117; on the whole: Nicola Towfigh: Some aspects of the Babi and Baha'i history . In: Udo Schaefer et al. (Ed.): Disinformation as a method. The Bahā ʾ īsmus monograph by F. Ficicchia (= texts and studies on religious studies . Volume 6 ). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1995, ISBN 3-487-10041-X , p. 478 ff, 503 ff .
- Kent Beveridge: Early Encounters of Central Europe with Baha'i History (= publication series of the Society for Bahá'í Studies . Volume 1 ). Hofheim 1995, ISBN 3-87037-311-3 , p. 9 f .
- Alessandro Bausani : Keyword Bahā Allāh . In: Encyclopaedia of Islam . tape 1 . Brill, Leyden / London 1960, pp. 911 .
- Manfred Hutter: Holy Scriptures of the Baha'i . In: Udo Tworuschka (Ed.): Holy Scriptures, An Introduction . S. 261 f .
- Article Bahāʾ-Allāh ( Memento of December 30, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) In: Encyclopædia Iranica . P. 426 of the printed edition (Volume 3); see in particular Baha'u'llah: Súratu'l-Mulúk and the Súratu'l-Haykal . In: Claim and Annunciation. Letters from Edirne and 'Akká . Hofheim 2007, ISBN 978-3-87037-419-8 .
- Paula Hartz: Baha'i Faith. World Religion Series . Second edition. Facts On File, New York 2006, ISBN 0-8160-6608-6 , pp. 44 .
- On the whole: Stephan A. Towfigh, Wafa Enayati: The Baha'i religion. An overview . Munich 2005, ISBN 3-7892-8163-8 , pp. 43 . ; see. Udo Schaefer , et al .: Disinformation as a method. The Bahā ʾ īsmus monograph by F. Ficicchia (= texts and studies on religious studies . Volume 6 ). Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1995, ISBN 3-487-10041-X , p. 492 ff, 534 ff .
- Monika Gronke : History of Iran. From Islamization to the present . Second edition. Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-48021-7 , pp. 94 f .
- Manfred Hutter: Holy Scriptures of the Baha'i . In: Udo Tworuschka (Ed.): Holy Scriptures, An Introduction . S. 264 ff . ; see also article Kitab-i-Aqdas
- cf. Bahāʾullāh, Kitab-i-Ahd , in messages from Akka , Hofheim 1982; see also Manfred Hutter: Holy Scriptures of the Baha'i . In: Udo Tworuschka (Ed.): Holy Scriptures, An Introduction . S. 266 f .
- His speeches on these trips are collected in several books, cf. Article ʿAbdul-Baha '
- Keyword expansion . In: Peter Smith (Ed.): A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith . Oxford 2000, ISBN 1-85168-184-1 .
- Manfred Hutter: Holy Scriptures of the Baha'i . In: Udo Tworuschka (Ed.): Holy Scriptures, An Introduction . S. 268 f .
- Bahá'í International Community: The Bahá'í International Community and the United Nations ( Memento of February 28, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Bahá'í International Community: Advancement of Women ( Memento August 9, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Bahá'í International Community: Bahá'í Development Projects: A Global Process of Learning ( Memento of October 18, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Ministry of the Custodians, paragraph 13
- Manfred Hutter: The Bahá'ís. History and teaching of a post-Islamic world religion . In: Religion in the Present. Introduction to religious studies . tape 2 . Religious Studies Media and Information Service eV, Marburg 2006, ISBN 3-9802994-5-7 , p. 30 .
- The World Almanac and Book of Facts . World Almanac Books, New York 2008, ISBN 1-60057-072-0 , pp. 711 .
- CIA (Ed.): The World Fact Book 2009 . ( CIA World Factbook: Online ). 0.12% of 6.790 billion world population.
- Bahá'í International Community (Ed.): The Bahá'í World Community . 2008 ( online ). Online ( Memento from December 18, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of India (Ed.): Welcome to the Official Website of the Bahá'ís of India . 2008 ( online ).
- The World Almanac and Book of Facts . World Almanac Books, New York 2008, ISBN 1-60057-072-0 , pp. 710 .
- The National Spiritual Council of Bahá'ís in the USA, which only counts the members of its own congregation, reports a membership of 175,000 in 2014: Statistics of the National Spiritual Council of Bahá'ís in the USA from 2014 ( Memento from 11 June 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Eliz Sanasarian: Religious Minorities in Iran. Cambridge 2000, p. 53
- Bahá'i community in Germany can become a corporation under public law. Press release by the Federal Administrative Court, November 28, 2012
- Manfred Hutter: The world religions . 2nd Edition. C. H. Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-406-50865-3 , p. 110 .
- Theological Real Encyclopedia, Study Edition Part 1, Volume. V. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1993, ISBN 3-11-013898-0 , p. 122. See also: Michael Paul Gollmer: Your name is my healing. When a Baha'i dies . In: Angelika Daiker, Anton Seeberger (ed.): Angels may guide you to paradise. Farewell rituals . Schwabenverlag, Ostfildern 2007, ISBN 978-3-7966-1321-0 , p. 169 f .
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Note 61
- Baha'u'llah, Shoghi Effendi: Gleaning. A selection from the writings of Baha'u'llah, compiled and translated into English by Shoghi Effendi . 5th edition. Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2003, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Verse 117
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Chapter 147
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Chapter 34
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Note 34
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Chapter 155
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Note 149
- Shoghi Effendi: God is passing . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2001, 8:26.
- Moojan Momen: Relativism, A Theological and Cognitive Basis for Bahá'í Ideas about God and the Spiritual World . In: Lights of 'Irfán . tape 12 , 2011, p. 367-397 .
- Brockhaus Encyclopedia, Volume 3. 21st edition. FA Brockhaus, Leipzig / Mannheim 2006, ISBN 978-3-7653-4103-8 , pp. 125–126
- 'Abdu'l-Bahá: Speeches in Paris . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 1983, ISBN 3-87037-062-9 . Verse 39.17
- Manfred Hutter: The world religions . 2nd Edition. C. H. Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-406-50865-3 , p. 108 .
- Manfred Hutter: The world religions . 2nd Edition. CH Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-406-50865-3 , p. 108-110 .
- Theological Real Encyclopedia, Study Edition, Part 1, Volume V. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1993, ISBN 3-11-013898-0 , p. 115
- Abdu'l Baha: Letters and Messages 16: 5
- Theological Real Encyclopedia, Study Edition, Part 1, Volume V. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1993, ISBN 3-11-013898-0 , p. 126.
- You can choose between the long compulsory prayer (once every 24 hours), the middle compulsory prayer (between sunrise and sunset, between noon and sunset and between sunset and two hours later) and the short compulsory prayer (between noon and sunset).
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Chapter 119
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Note 144
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Questions & Answers 3
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Chapter 63
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Chapter 65
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Chapter 19; Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Explanation 134
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Table of contents D, 1, m
- Shoghi Effendi: The Coming of Divine Justice . Bahá'í-Verlag, Frankfurt a. M. 1969. Verse 9: 6
- Theological Real Encyclopedia, Study Edition, Part 1, Volume V. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1993, ISBN 3-11-013898-0 , p. 130
- Theological Real Encyclopedia, Study Edition, Part 1, Volume V. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1993, ISBN 3-11-013898-0 , pp. 129–130
- Theological Real Encyclopedia, Study Edition, Part 1, Volume V. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1993, ISBN 3-11-013898-0 , pp. 128f.
- Theological Real Encyclopedia, Study Edition, Part 1, Volume V. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1993, ISBN 3-11-013898-0 , pp. 128–129
- Bahai.de ( Memento of March 29, 2015 in the Internet Archive ): Frequently asked questions How do the Bahá'ís finance themselves?
- Barney Leith: Baha'i Review - Should the “red flag” law be repealed?
- Baha'u'llah, Shoghi Effendi: harvest of grain. A selection from the writings of Baha'u'llah, compiled and translated into English by Shoghi Effendi . 5th edition. Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2003, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Verse 110
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Chapter 31
- Baha'u'llah: Kitab-i-Aqdas. The holiest book . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2000, ISBN 3-87037-379-2 . Chapter 36
- Peter Smith: Art. Manifestations of God . ISBN 978-1-85168-184-6 , pp. 231 . in: Peter Smith: A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith . Oneworld-Publications, Oxford 1999,
- Baha'u'llah: Gleaning . Bahá'í-Verlag, Hofheim 2003, ISBN 3-87037-406-3 . Verse 43: 6
- Interreligious Dialogue ( Memento from April 16, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) bahai.de
- Gunnar Heinsohn: Lexicon of Genocides. Rowohlt, 1998, ISBN 3-499-22338-4 , p. 87
- Isabel Schayani: Deadly Faith. In: Der Tagesspiegel, April 21, 2008
- Report of the International League for Human Rights from 1995, pp. 10ff.
- Nikki Keddie: Roots of Revolution. An Interpretive History of Modern Iran. New Haven 1981, p. 53
- Mehrzad Boroujerdi: Iranian Intellectuals and the West. A Tormented Triumph of Nativism. New York 1996, p. 96
- cf. Nafisa Tehrani: The Wrong Religion. taz, May 17, 2006
- Susanne Schaup : The earth is only one country. The Baha'i Faith knows the vision of a united humanity and a lifestyle that does not harm anyone. In Gott und die Welt - Deutsches Allgemeine Sonntagsblatt, leading article from December 31, 1993
- cf. Harald Vocke: Persia, you splendid, you terrible ... In the Islamic republic of Ayatollah Khomeini, the followers of the Baha'i religion are fair game. Die Welt, January 3, 1981, title article "Spiritual World"
- See Iran relies on tourism ( Memento from June 16, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Dr. Seyyed Muhammad Golpaygani, Secretary of the Supreme Revolutionary Culture Council: Memorandum on the "Baha'i Question". February 25, 1991, accessed February 10, 2020 .
- UN resolution on the human rights situation in Iran. October 30, 2019, accessed February 10, 2020 .
- See bahai.org
- Philipp Wittrock: How the mullahs harass those of different faiths , Der Spiegel, June 5, 2006
- Manfred Hutter: The world religions. CH Beck Wissen, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-50865-0 , p. 118
- Yemen must stop persecution of Bahá'í community, urges UN expert on freedom of religion. United Nations, High Commissioner for Human Rights, May 22, 2017, accessed on February 10, 2020 .
- Human Rights Commissioner Kofler on the persecution of the Baha'i in Yemen. Federal Foreign Office, September 26, 2018, accessed on October 2, 2020 .
- Human rights commissioner Kofler on discrimination against Baha'i and other unrecognized religions in Iran. Federal Foreign Office, January 31, 2020, accessed on February 10, 2020 .
- See Gerhard Müller et al. (Ed.): Theological real encyclopedia . Study edition, part 1, volume V. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1993, ISBN 3-11-013898-0 , p. 130 f . Manfred Hutter: The world religions . S. 105 (see references). Religion Past and Present . tape 1 . Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 1998, ISBN 3-16-146941-0 , p. 1061 f . Evangelical Church Lexicon . First volume. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1986, ISBN 3-525-50128-5 , pp. 352 ff . The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition, Volume IE J. Brill, Leiden (Netherlands) 1986, ISBN 90-04-08114-3 , pp. 911, 915 ff . Metzler Lexicon Religion . tape 1 . Verlag JB Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 1999, ISBN 3-476-01551-3 , p. 122 ff . The Encyclopedia of Religion . tape 2 . Macmillan Publishing Company, New York / London 1987, ISBN 0-02-909710-X , pp. 40 ff .
- Gerhard Müller et al. (Ed.): Theological real encyclopedia . Study edition, part 1, volume V. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1993, ISBN 3-11-013898-0 , p. 130 f .
- Francesco Ficicchia: Bahā'ism - World Religion of the Future? History, teaching and organization in critical inquiry . Ed .: A publication of the Evangelical Central Office for Weltanschauungsfragen. Quell Verlag, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-7918-6009-7 (out of print). Ficicchia later revised many of his theses at the time.
- Udo Schaefer , Nicola Towfigh, Ulrich Gollmer : Disinformation as a method. The Bahā ʾ īsmus monograph by F. Ficicchia . In: Religious Studies Texts and Studies . tape 6 . Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1995, ISBN 3-487-10041-X .
- Cf. Manfred Hutter : Review of “Disinformation as a method” ; in: Journal of Contemporary Religion 12.3 (1997); Pp. 437–439 (PDF; 83 kB), p. 439
- Cf. Christian Cannuyer: Review of “Disinformation as a Method” ; in: Mélanges de Science Religieuse, T 54/1, 1997, online (PDF; 96 kB), p. 2
- Cf. Manfred Hutter : Review of “Disinformation as a method” ; in: Journal of Contemporary Religion 12.3 (1997); Pp. 437–439 (PDF; 83 kB), p. 438
- Ulrich Dehn in "Material Service of the Evangelical Central Office for Weltanschauungsfragen (EZW)", 1/1997, pp. 14-17: "Baha'i und EZW"; this was also reflected at a conference of the Hanoverian regional church in 2013 on the subject of "The Bahai religion - religion of the future for a multi-religious world?": Conference proceedings by Friedmann Eißler and Jürgen Schnase (ed.): Bahai. Religion, Politics and Society in an Interreligious Context, EZW-Texte 233, Berlin 2014
- Cf. Christian Cannuyer: Review of “Disinformation as a Method” ; in: Mélanges de Science Religieuse, T 54/1, 1997, online (PDF; 96 kB), p. 3
- Cf. Andreas Rössler: Review of Wolfgang Pfüller's “One God, One Religion, One Humanity. Visions and Illusions of a Modern World Religion " , online on the publisher's website (bautz.de)
- Manfred Hutter: Handbook Baha'i. History - theology - relation to society . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-17-019421-2 .
- Karl Cardinal Lehmann (ed.): World religions: Understanding. Understanding. Responsibility . World Religions Publishing House, Frankfurt 2009.
- Armin Eschraghi: Introduction. The Life of Baha'ullah - The Holy Scriptures of the Baha'i - Central Doctrinal Statements . In: Armin Eschraghi (ed.): Baha'ullah, letter to the son of the wolf (Lauḥ-i Ibn-i Dhi'b) . Verlag der Weltreligionen, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-458-70029-6 , p. 145-353 .