The Friday , according to the European Standard EN 28601 and the international standard ISO 8601 , the fifth day of the week , according to the Jewish, Christian and Islamic counting - in the week with the Sunday begins - the sixth.
The name goes back to the Roman day name dies Veneris , i.e. day of Venus (goddess of love) , and this in turn goes back to the Babylonian weekday name. When the southern Germanic peoples took over the seven-day week from the Romans, they translated it with their perceived goddess Frija, who was called Frigg in the north (cf. Old High German frîatac , Old English frīgedeag ). In the Icelandic Edda, she was more likely the patroness of marriage and motherhood. After that one would rather expect the North Germanic goddess of love Freya at this point, who is therefore often mentioned as the namesake of Friday. However, her name, which would have been urnordisch * fraujōn (mistress), cannot have led to frîatag . However, the assignment is not clearly clarified. In Old Norse there were both the terms Freyjudagr and Frjádagr as names for Friday, once referring to Freya and the other time to Frigg. Presumably, Frija's role was originally more similar to Venus than it was later in Icelandic literature of the Middle Ages . In Scandinavia, however, the name was not formed from the local form of name Frigg , but only the South Germanic name was adopted (cf. Swedish / Danish / Norwegian fredag).
Meaning in the Abrahamic religions
In Christianity , on Fridays the faithful commemorate the suffering and crucifixion of Christ in a special way . According to old tradition, Christians forego meat on Fridays (see also Friday offerings ). The Good Friday in the Paschal Triduum is one of the important holidays of the church year .
The saying “Friday after one, everyone does his own thing” refers to the early evening on the last working day of the week, which is particularly widespread in authorities . The existing Thank God it's Friday in English expresses the anticipation of the generally non-working weekend in a similar way.
Friday as "New Saturday"
Over the past 20 years, Friday has increasingly become an additional day off for some of the working population. A particularly high percentage of the part-time employees make use of this, in some sectors, such as construction , up to half of the full-time employees. A study from Switzerland, where the proportion of part-time work is relatively high, describes this effect as the “new Saturday”.
- Hans Zirker : "Day of the meeting". The Islamic Friday in the context of the Sabbath and Sunday. Duisburg-Essen Publications online (DuEPublico)
- Rudolf Simek : Lexicon of Germanic Mythology (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 368). 3rd, completely revised edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-520-36803-X , pp. 118-119.
- EC Polomé: Freyja . In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde 2nd ed. Volume 9, Berlin 1995, pp. 584-587.
- Rudolf Simek: Lexicon of Germanic Mythology (= Kröner's pocket edition. Volume 368). 3rd, completely revised edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-520-36803-X , p. 118.
- Friday becomes the new Saturday (Switzerland News July 2014)