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Day of the week heptagram with the corresponding astronomical symbols ; Clockwise, starting at the top: Sun, Fri, Wed, Mon, Sat, Thu, Tue

As week one calls a day of the week , which the whole in a recurring appointment and consistent order Year of the civil calendar over occurs, namely the Monday , Tuesday , Wednesday , Thursday , Friday , Saturday or Saturday and Sunday .

Designation of the days of the week

The seven days of the Babylonian week were named after the planets of the geocentric worldview visible to the naked eye ( sun , moon , Mars , Mercury , Jupiter , Venus , Saturn ), which at the time of naming were themselves considered to be gods. When the Teutons got to know these names in the 4th century , they renamed them after the names of the Germanic deities roughly corresponding to the Roman gods . In the course of Christianization , attempts were made at a later point in time to push back these pagan names, but this only succeeded in German-speaking countries on Wednesdays and Saturdays.

German weekday names

Origin of the weekday names

The weekday names in German go back to the Germanic names of the weekdays. The names of the days of the week are loan translations from Latin , with the Germanic equivalents used for the Roman gods ( Wodan for Mercurius , Thor for Jupiter , etc.). The Latin names for their part go back to the original Babylonian god names:

German / Old High German English Dutch Bern German meaning
Monday / lunar day Monday Maandag Mänti / Mändi Day of the moon ( mani )
Tuesday / Tiusdag Tuesday Dinsdag Zyschti Day of the Tiu / Ziu / Tyr
Wednesday / Wednesday Wednesday Wednesday Midwife (s) Day of Odin / Wotan / Wodan
Thursday / Thursday Thursday Thursday Donschti / Thonschti / Thunschti Day of Thor / Donar / Thunar
Friday / Friday Friday Vrijdag Fryti Day of Frija / Frigg / Frigga
Saturday / Saturday / Sambaztac Saturday Zaterdag Samschti Day of Saturn / Sabbath (= day of rest)
Sunday / Sunday Sunday Zondag Sunti / Sundi Day of the Sun ( Sol )

During the Christianization of the (Old High) German-speaking area, the missionaries tried to enforce weekday names that were not reminiscent of pagan (Roman or Germanic) gods. This becomes clear on the one hand on Wednesday , where the name of the day in the course of the week, which is actually to be expected, Wotan (see Wednesday) was bypassed. The other example is the naming of the day before Sunday: The Satertag, borrowed from Latin ( Saturni dies), extends into English (Saturday), but is more and more replaced in the German-speaking area by two other terms - a neutral Saturday and a Christian Saturday . Satertag / Saterdag is only preserved in the Low German area and today only in dialect .

Saturday is the common name in north-east Germany and describes the whole day before Sunday (like Christmas Eve in the north-east means the whole day before Christmas Day).

In terms of language history, Saturday emerged from the name for the Sabbath . This expression spread, with phonetic modification, from the Orient via Greece , up the Danube , into the Romance-speaking area ( French samedi, Italian sabato) and the German dioceses of Mainz and Trier . In the meantime this name is moving further north and seems to be gradually displacing "Saturday".

In some dialects, the namesake for Tuesday is the Greek god of war Ares. The "Arestag" is then yes depending on the area z. B. to Ertag, Irta or similar.

Thursday used to be the fifth day of the week, and this explains the “Pfinsda” or something similar that still exists in some places.

Names of days in the seven-day week

The following table provides an overview of the names of the days of the week in some European and Asian languages.

de Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
en Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
nl maandag (maan ("moon")) dinsdag woensdag donderdag vrijdag zaterdag (Saturnus (planet "Saturn")) zondag (zon ("sun"))
sv måndag tisdag onsdag (Odin's day) torsdag fredag lördag (bathing / washing day) sunday
da / no mandag tirsdag onsdag torsdag fredag lørdag søndag
br dilun dimeurzh dimerc'her diriaou digwener disadorn disul
la dies lunae
( day of the moon )
dies martis
( day of mars )
dies mercurii
( day of mercury )
dies iovis
( day of Jupiter )
dies veneris
( day of venus )
dies saturni
( day of saturn ) (or sabbata )
dies solis
( day of the sun ) (or Dominica )
it lunedì martedì mercoledì giovedì venerdì sabato domenica
fr lundi mardi mercredi jeudi vendredi samedi (from Sabbath ) dimanche (from dies dominica ,
day of the lord)
it lunes martes miércoles jueves four sábado domingo
approx dilluns dimarts dimecres dijous divendres dissabte tight
eu astelehen, ilen astearte, martitzena asteazken, eguaztena Ostegun, eguena, ortzeguna ostiral, barikua, barixakua, egubakoitza, ortziralea larunbat, zapatua, neskeneguna, ebiakoitza igande, jaia, domeka
gl luns martes mércores xoves venres sábado domingo
pt segunda-feira
( "second day" )
( "third day" )
( "fourth day" )
( "fifth day" )
( "sixth day" )
sábado domingo
ro Luni Marti Miercuri Joi Vineri Sâmbătă Duminica
el Δευτέρα
( deftéra, "second day" )
( tríti, "third day" )
( tetárti, "fourth day" )
( pémpti, "fifth day" )
( paraskeví, "day of preparation (for the Sabbath)" )
( sávvato, "Sabbath" )
( kiriakí, "Lord's Day" )
bg Понеделник
(after non-work)
ru Понедельник
( Ponedjelnik )
( Wtornik, "second" )
( Sreda, "middle" )
( Tschetwerg, "fourth" )
( Pyatnitsa, "Fifth" )
( Subbota, "Sabbath" )
( Воскресение / Woskresenije, the "resurrection" )
pl Poniedziałek
( after Sunday )
( second [after Sunday] )
( middle )
( fourth [after Sunday] )
( fifth [after Sunday] )
( Sabat )
(from not working )
cs pondělí úterý středa čtvrtek pátek sobota neděle
tr Pazartesi
(= pazar ertesi, the day after Pazar)
(probably from the Arabic word for Tuesday)
(= Persian "fourth day of the week")
(= Persian "fifth day of the week")
(= Arabic "day of the mosque assembly")
(= cuma ertesi, the day after Dschumaa)
(= Persian "bazaar")
fi maanantai tiistai keskiviikko
( mid-week )
torstai perjantai lauantai sunnuntai
hu hétfő
( week head or seven head )
( from Hungarian kettő = 2 )
( Slavic origin - middle )
( Slavic origin - Fourth day )
(of Slavic origin - five days )
( sabbath )
( market day )
ar يوم الاثنين
Yawm al-iṯnayn ("Second day")
يوم الثلاثاء
Yawmu ṯ-ṯalāṯāʾi ("Third Day")
يوم الأربعاء
Yawm al-ʾarbaʿāʾ ("Fourth Day")
يوم الخميس
Yawm al-ḵamīs ("Fifth day")
يوم الجمعة
Yawmul-jumʿati (" Al-Jumʿa ")
يوم السبت
Yawmu s-sabti (" Sabbath ")
يوم الأحد
Yawm al-ʾaḥad ("first day")
arc ܫܒܬܐ ܚܕ ܒܫܒܐ ܬܪܝܢ ܒܫܒܐ ܬܠܬܐ ܒܫܒܐ ܐܪܒܥܐ ܒܫܒܐ ܚܡܫܐ ܒܫܒܐ ܥܪܘܒܬܐ
hey יום שני
( jomscheni, "second day" )
יום שלישי
( jom schlischi, "third day" )
יום רביעי
( jom revi'i, "fourth day" )
יום חמישי
( jom chamischi, "fifth day" )
יום ששי
( yom shishi, "sixth day" )
( Shabbat , "rest" )
יום ראשון
( jom rishon, "first day" )
zh 星期一
xīngqīyī ("first day of the week")
xīngqīèr ("second day of the week")
xīngqīsān ("third day of the week")
xīngqīsì ("fourth day of the week")
xīngqīwǔ ("fifth day of the week")
xīngqīliù ("sixth day of the week")
xīngqīrì ("weekday of the sun")
Yes 月曜日
getsuyōbi ("weekday of the moon")
kayōbi ("weekday of fire / Mars'")
水 曜 日 
suiyōbi ("day of the week of water / Mercury")
木 曜 日 
mokuyōbi ("weekday of wood / Jupiter")
kin'yōbi ("weekday of gold / Venus") 
土 曜 日
doyōbi ("weekday of the earth / of Saturn")
日 曜 日
nichiyōbi ("weekday of the sun")
ko 월요일
Woryoil ("weekday of the moon")
Hwayoil ("weekday of fire / Mars'")
Suyoil ("weekday of water / Mercury")
Mogyoil ("weekday of wood / Jupiter")
Geumyoil ("weekday of gold / Venus") 
Toyoil ("Weekday of Earth / Saturn")
Iryoil ("weekday of the sun")
lad. lunesc merdi mierculdi juebia vënderdi sada dumënia
bair. Moda Irda Migga Pfindsda Freida Såmsda Sunda
fa دوشنبه

do shank

سه شنبه

se schänbe


Tschahar Schänbe


pändj schänbe






jek schänbe

Counting the days of the week

Until the end of 1975, Sunday was the first day of the week in the Federal Republic of Germany. This regulation has been replaced by DIN 1355-1 , which is no longer valid , which made Monday the first day of the week. A comparable change came into force in the GDR as early as 1969. Today's ISO 8601 also defines Monday as the first day of the week. Sunday is still the first day of the week in England , North America and many other parts of the world, according to the Jewish and Christian counts.

Since 1978, by resolution of the UN, Monday has been the first day of the week internationally; Sunday is counted together with Saturday as the weekend .

The days Monday to Saturday are considered working days , Sunday as a specially protected day off.

Symbols for the days of the week

Since the Middle Ages, the planetary symbols common in astronomy and astrology have also been used for the days of the week. For the working days this can be found in church registers up to the 18th century. For Sunday, however, the sun symbol was not used there, but "Dom." Or "dies dominica".

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Moon symbol crescent Mars symbol Mercury symbol Jupiter symbol Venus symbol Saturn symbol Sun symbol
moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Sun
Italian bangles depicting the days of the week by the Olympic gods : Diana as the moon for Monday, Mars for Tuesday, Mercury for Wednesday, Jupiter for Thursday, Venus for Friday, Saturn for Saturday and Apollo as the sun for Sunday ( Walters Art Museum )


There are several methods of calculating the day of the week for a given date. These are presented in their own main articles:


  • Tomislav Talanga: German weekday names . In: Zagreb German Studies. No. 9, 2000, ISSN  1330-0946 , pp. 141-157, ( online ).

Web links

Wiktionary: weekday  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Notes and individual references

  1. ^ Johann Jakob Herzog, Real Encyclopedia for Protestant Theology and Church , Volume 17, 1863, p. 256
  2. http://www.bairische-sprache.at/Index/Remaraweng%20Boarisch%20-%20Lehren/Mahda%20bis%20Sunda%20.htm Monday to Sunday in Bavarian
  3. the day after Sunday, the "Неделя" - because that used to be the actual name of Sunday.
  4. "Неделя" также может означать воскресный день (Old Slavonic "Недѣля"; Ukrainian: "неділя"; Polish: "niedziela") in Russian [today] is Неделя , the real "non-working" used for our notion of the week.
  5. Variant from the Upper Bavarian Oberland
  6. DIN 1355 (ISO / R 2015-1971) (German)