It belongs to the period of late antiquity .
Age / Epoch
- The Christianity is the year 380 of Theodosius I the state religion in the Roman Empire declared (edict Cunctos populos ). This development, which in the further course brought power and possession to Christianity, was largely set in motion by Constantine the Great . But this will not stop the rapid decline of the Roman Empire.
- The Huns immigrate from Central Asia to Eastern Europe and found an empire. They displace the peoples previously resident there and set in motion a migration that is the first great people to lead the Goths to southern Europe .
- India's poetry is entering its classical phase.
- Japan , without writing so far, is taking over writing and other aspects of Chinese culture from China .
Events / developments
- An independent Celtic church was created and continued into the 6th century .
- 312 Battle of the Milvian Bridge .
- 313 Edict of Tolerance of Milan ( Constantinian turning point ).
- In the first council of Nicaea ( 325 ) the Arian - Athanasian religious dispute is decided in favor of the Athanasian doctrine of the Trinity and a binding date is set for Easter . At the First Council of Constantinople in 381 the Arian dispute was finally settled.
- The Greek Byzantium was raised by Constantine in 326 under the name of Constantinople to the capital of the Roman Empire and a residence . The relocation of the capital causes a Hellenization of the Roman Empire, the developing Byzantine court ceremony surrounds the emperor with a divine nimbus .
- The Old St. Peter's Church in Rome , the most famous early Christian basilica , is consecrated by Pope Silvester I.
- Bishop Wulfila wrote the Wulfilabibel for the Goths in eastern Central Europe around 360 . This Bible translation is the oldest written tradition of a Germanic language, for which Wulfila developed a new script instead of runes . It is based on Greek and Roman letters - with runes for those Gothic sounds that were not used in either language (e.g. English th). From the Wulfilabibel manuscripts from the 6th century from Italy have survived ( New Testament and parts of the Old Testament). The best known of these copies is the Codex Argenteus , which is now kept in the Uppsala University Library.
- In the battle of Adrianople (378) the Goths destroy the Roman army. Emperor Valens is killed in action, but his successor Theodosius is able to restore the political balance. The Goths colonize today's Bulgaria as autonomous federations.
- Chrocus (about 260-3 ??) was involved in the elevation of Constantine to Caesar (lower emperor) in 306 .
- Constantine (about 280- 337 ), Roman Emperor (from 306 ). Made Byzantium ("Constantinople") the capital of the Roman Empire and thus laid the foundation for the emergence of an independent " Eastern Empire ". Contributed decisively to Christianity becoming the state religion. Passed laws to protect slaves and waged successful wars under the sign of the cross.
- Axid (about 291- 347 ), North African freedom fighters . Created the quasi-communist revolutionary movement of the " Circumcellions " and fought for the exploited slaves, peasants and workers of his country, incorporating Christian ideals. Was defeated by the Roman army
- Ermanarich ( 305 - 370 ), King of the Ostrogoths (Ostrogoths, Greutungen) from 350 . Some of the southern Russian Goths and founders of the empire. Defeated Slavs , Finns and Teutons and also Roman armies, but lost to the Huns .
- Shapur II. ( 309 - 379 ), king of Persia . Fighter of Christianity and promoter of the Persian Zarathustra religion. Successfully fought against Rome and the Huns and was able to enlarge and maintain his empire.
- Wulfila (lat Ulfilas;. About 310- 383 ), the first Bishop Westgoten (Visigoths, Tervingi). He converted them to Arian Christianity . He invented a new script for the Gothic language , which had previously been written in Germanic runes. It was a modification of the Greek script with some Latin letters.
- Martin of Tours (lat. Martinus), (* around 316); † November 8, 397 ), third Bishop of Tours and French national saint. He quit his military service as a Roman officer out of Christian conviction in 356 and was ordained Bishop of Tours in 372 . He is considered the link between Rome and the Franconian Empire .
- Ammianus Marcellinus (* around 330, † around 395), Roman historian. Alongside Prokopios of Caesarea, he was the most important late antique historian.
- Julian ( 331 - 363 ), Roman Emperor from 360 . Fired thousands of redundant officials, cut taxes, and reorganized education. Tried unsuccessfully to stop the advance of Christianity in the Roman Empire.
- Ambrosius ( 339 - April 4, 397 , Doctor of the Church and Bishop of Milan.
- Theodosius , the 'friend of the Goths' ( 347 - 395 ), Roman emperor of Spanish origin ( 379 - 395 ) and the last ruler of a unified Roman Empire. After a serious illness, a devout Christian, he finally enforced the trinity dogma of the divinity of Jesus .
- Balamir (also Balamber, about 350- 404 ), supposedly king of the Huns. Target on the Volga have penetrated and the kingdom of the Alans of the Terek , Kuban and the lower Don have destroyed. He is also said to have conquered Ermanarich's newly founded Ostrogoth empire with his cavalry armies and forced the Goths to military service and tribute . However, its historicity is controversial.
- Gratian (about 359-383), Roman Emperor ( 375 -383). Under the influence of Ambrosius , he renounced the office of "high priest" previously held by the emperor and made Christianity the dominant power in the crumbling empire.
- Stilicho (360 to 408 ), Roman general and statesman. After the death of Theodosius Regent Westroms. Alaric defeated the king of the Visigoths and also invading Germanic and Ostrogoths. With his territorial claim to Ostrom sealed the final division of the Roman Empire.
- Alarich I. (about 374- 410 ), King of Westgoten. Leader of the uprising of 391 , defeated Theodosius . After changing fortunes in war, conquering Rome and death in 410 .
Inventions and discoveries
- In India a technique for extracting cane sugar is being developed; juice is squeezed out of the sugar cane and thickened by boiling.
- Muscle power is being replaced by water power ; Around 363 a sawmill powered by water power was built on the Ruwer , around 390 there were reports of water mills driving a stone sawmill on the Rur ( Belgium ).
- The demotic script in Egypt has been replaced by the Greek script .
- Around 380 , the use of the ship's compass became common in China under the Jin Dynasty .
- Around 385 , Emperor Theodosius introduced the riding saddle, which had long been known in Asia , into Europe.
- Ammianus Marcellinus : The Roman Empire Before Fall , (original title: Res gestae , translated by Otto Veh ), Artemis, Munich / Zurich 1974, ISBN 3-7608-3514-7 (= library of the old world, Roman series ).
- Ingrid Heidrich: Introduction to the History of the Middle Ages - 4th Century ( Memento of July 6, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (revised electronic version of Introduction to the History of the European Middle Ages , HCI, Bad Münstereifel 2003, ISBN 3-00-010998- 6 )