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2nd century BC Chr. |
1st century BC Chr. |
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The 1st century began on January 1, 1 and ended on December 31, 100 .
Age / Epoch
The 1st century belongs to the ancient era in the Mediterranean .
- In Judea begins Jesus of Nazareth with his work.
- Rome , equipped with ever more magnificent marble buildings, is home to over a million inhabitants for the first time. The Roman Empire now includes all countries bordering the Mediterranean in Europe , North Africa and the Middle East ; Also Germania and the British Isles are partly conquered.
- The Shatavahana reign in India for four centuries, from about 230 BC. BC to around 220 AD, over the central Indian highlands of the Deccan. In the northwest, the Empire was Kushan ; It was an empire in Central Asia and Northern India , which at its greatest extent - between 100 and 250 AD from the area of today's state of Tajikistan to the Caspian Sea and from the area of today's Afghanistan down to the Indus Valley and the Ganges - Yamuna - Mesopotamia was enough.
- China's power fell under Wang Mang's Xin Dynasty . Liu Xiu declares himself emperor of the Han Dynasty and reunites China. He and his successors are pushing China's western neighbors back to the Caspian Sea . Through this offensive expansion policy, the young, unstable empire is significantly weakened to the outside world. Under Emperor Guangwu's successors, the increasing influence of the eunuch and empress clans is noticeable.
- In South America the Moche culture emerges , which has a highly developed craft with metal processing ( copper , gold , silver ) and ceramics with many erotic motifs. The Mochica farm with extensive irrigation networks and guano fertilization ( maize , beans ). The Mochica culture also includes bloody sacrificial rituals .
Events / developments
- Varus Battle ( 9 )
- Battle of Idistaviso ( 16 )
- Britanni shear War ( 43 - 50 ), Roman armies wear despite the fierce resistance of the people in Britain the victory and penetrate to the River Humber ago.
- The Jews dare to completely hopeless struggle for independence from Judea ( 66 - 70 ). The uprising is suppressed by the Roman occupiers and ends with the total destruction of Jerusalem .
- Batavian Rebellion ( 69 -70), revolt of the Germanic Batavians and other Germanic and Celtic tribes against Roman rule in Lower Germany
- Chinese Huns War ( 73 - 91 ), successful defensive war of the Chinese against the increasingly aggressive Huns advancing into Inner Asia
- The majority of the New Testament books of the Bible are being written. The authentic Pauline letters , the synoptic Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles of Luke are certainly written in the 1st century .
- Around 100 AD there were already around 80 types of wine to choose from in Roman wine taverns.
- Herod Antipas , son of Herod the Great. Sub-king of the Jewish state. Founder of the city of "Tiberias". Did nothing against the execution of Jesus and had John beheaded the Baptist .
- Philo , Jewish philosopher. Taught the complete dependence of man on the will of God and declared the Old Testament as the eternal law of God for all people.
- Marbod , King of the Germanic Marcomanni . For the first time founded a Germanic empire, which was based on Roman administrative principles.
- Pontius Pilate , highest Roman judge of the Jews. Incited by the Jewish priests, he condemned Jesus to the dishonorable death on the cross.
- Arminius , Germanic general and prince of the Cherusci , united Germanic tribes against the tribute obligation from Rome, destroyed three Roman legions under Varus and successfully defended this independence against opposing Roman troops.
- Germanicus , Roman general. Worked without resounding success in Germania .
- Claudius , Roman emperor. Renewed the court's corrupt staff many times with former slaves. Improved the social conditions of the empire. Murdered by his wife Agrippina .
- Judas Iscariot , Jewish freedom fighter and traitor to Jesus
- Matthew , Jewish apostle and missionary. Taught the conception of Mary by the Holy Spirit. Recorded the teachings of Jesus.
- John the Baptist , preacher of Jewish descent. Baptized Jesus in the Jordan River . Herald of the imminent appearance of the Messiah .
- Jesus of Nazareth , Jewish itinerant preacher, founder of religion .
- John the Evangelist , Jewish preacher and apostle . Together with his brother James and Peter, he is considered the most trusted disciple of Jesus and the author of the Gospel of John .
- Vespasian , the first Roman emperor to take the name “Caesar” as an honorary title.
- Pedanios Dioskurides , Greek physician and naturalist . Researched the mode of action of medicines and wrote the compilation "From the remedies" (De materia medica).
- Luke the Evangelist, Greek physician, preacher and missionary . Companion of Paul . First non-Jewish apostle . Established the doctrine of the virgin conception of Mary.
- Pliny the Elder , Roman scholar. Created a 37-volume compilation of the natural sciences , explained the earth as a sphere, which he calculated and geographically described in his Geographike Hyphegesis .
- Iulius Civilis , Germanic freedom fighter. Ignited an uprising of Teutons , Gauls and parts of the Roman legions against Rome.
- Gaius Musonius Rufus , Roman philosopher. First went public by declaring that women were endowed with the same common sense and morality as men.
- Nero , Roman emperor. Killed mother and wife. Ordered the first persecution of Christians , but was also considered a patron of the arts.
- Flavius Josephus , Jewish historian
- Titus , Roman Emperor. Struck down the Jewish uprising , which is reminiscent of the triumphal arch (Titus arch) named after him.
- Plutarch , Greek philosopher and writer
- Cai Lun (Tsai Lun), Chinese researcher. Inventor of paper .
- Domitian , Roman emperor. Had a border wall ( Limes ) built to Germania. Persecuted researchers and philosophers, and later arbitrarily respected Roman citizens. Was murdered.
- Epictetus , Greek philosopher (stoic). Demanded love of neighbor and enemy, moral action and renunciation of material goods. Rejected Christianity.
- Tacitus , Roman historian and statesman
- Apollodorus of Damascus , Roman architect. In addition to many other structures, he created the “ Trajan's Forum ”, one of the most important structures of antiquity .
- Juvenal , Roman poet and fighter against social inequality, exploitation and oppression , and religious fanaticism .
- Decebalus , the last king of Dacia
- Publius Quinctilius Varus , Roman general and politician
- Natakamani , the Nubian Empire of Meroe , is at its peak.
- Euphorbus , Greek doctor
Some of the personalities listed were born towards the end of the last century and are still listed here. Others were born in this century but will not be performed until the next century. This is due to the fact that the criterion for inclusion was not whether the year of birth falls in this century, but whether the main work and activity of the person took place in this century. Of course, a clear delimitation of this type is not always possible.
Inventions and discoveries
- At the beginning of the 1st century, windows made of raw glass were first used in Rome .
- In Rome around the year 17, stable braided wire ropes were made from individual copper wires .
- Surgical instruments with more than 100 individual instruments are used in Rome.
- Around the year 52 , a 5.6 km long drainage tunnel was driven through Monte Salviano to drain the water from Lake Fucin .
- Around the middle of the 1st century, cupboards came into use for the first time in Rome, in addition to the previously common chests .
- Second half of the 1st century: the first suspension bridge made of iron chains is built in China.
- In Rome, the lock for keys with beards is invented.
- The first glass mirrors came into use at the end of the 1st century : thinly rolled tin foil was placed behind a glass plate as a reflective surface. The glass mirrors soon replace the previously used polished metal mirrors.
- The medicinal and aromatic plant Silphium , which is popular in the Mediterranean region, is becoming extinct as a result of overexploitation .