|Vespasian triumphs in the civil war at the end of the four emperors year and establishes the imperial dynasty of the Flavians .|
|69 in other calendars|
|Buddhist calendar||612/613 (southern Buddhism); 611/612 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||46th (47th) cycle , year of the earth-serpent己巳 ( at the beginning of the year earth-dragon 戊辰)|
|Greek calendar||4th year of the 211th / 1st Year of the 212th Olympiad|
|Jewish calendar||3829/30 (September 4th / 5th)|
|Roman calendar||from urbe condita DCCCXXII (822)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 379/380 (turn of the year April); Syria: 380/381 (New Year October)|
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||125/126 (turn of the year April)|
The year 69 according to our era ( DCCCXXII according to the Roman calendar from urbe condita ) goes down in the history of the Roman Empire as the first four-emperor year . Galba , Otho and finally Vitellius follow each other on the imperial throne at short intervals . Only relatively late in the year does another aspirant to the throne intervene in the civil war: Vespasian , who is put on the shield by the legions of the eastern provinces of Judea and Egypt , decisively defeats Vitellius and his Rhine legion in the Second Battle of Bedriacum and thus ascends as the first emperor from the Flavian dynasty the throne.
The new emperor is immediately faced with a difficult task. Because in the province of Germania Inferior - spurred on by predictions of the seer Veleda - the Batavians under Julius Civilis rose to shake off Roman rule .
Politics and world events
- January 15th : After the Roman emperor Galba Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus adopted as co-emperor on January 10th, both of them are murdered by supporters of Otho , who originally supported Galba and made himself hopeful of his successor. Otho is proclaimed emperor. On January 2nd, however, Claudia Ara Agrippinensium Vitellius had herself proclaimed emperor in Colonia after the cavalry of the Legio I Germanica , coming from Bonn, under the command of their legate Fabius Valens, rode into the city through the south gate the day before to emphasize the exaltation of Vitellius .
- April 14th : In the first battle of Bedriacum Vitellius prevails as Nero's successor.
- April 19 : Vitellius is accepted as emperor in Rome after he prevailed in the first battle of Bedriacum and Otho took his own life.
- July 1 : The Prefect of Egypt , Tiberius Iulius Alexander , swears in the troops under him on Vespasian instead of Vitellius and proclaims him emperor.
- October 24 : During the Roman civil war , the legions of the general Vespasian defeat Vitellius' army in the second battle of Bedriacum .
- During the internal power struggle for the emperor's succession, Aquae Helveticae (Baden) in what is now Switzerland is looted.
- The Germanic tribe of the Batavians under Julius Civilis revolted against the Romans ( Batavian Rebellion ).
- 20 / December 21 : In Rome Aulus Vitellius of is Marcus Antonius Primus from the imperial office hunted on the Gemonischen stairs brought before the people, tortured to death and the Tiber thrown. A little later, Gaius Licinius Mucianus arrives in Rome. He accuses Primus, who briefly took over government affairs, of acting arbitrarily and of having committed atrocities. Primus leaves Rome and travels east to Vespasian.
- December 21 : Vespasian is recognized by the Senate as the new Roman Emperor . He thus established the Flavian dynasty . Mucianus provisionally takes over government affairs with Vespasian's son Domitian . At the end of the year he has Vitellius' six-year-old son Vitellius Germanicus executed.
- December 22nd : In the Lex de imperio Vespasiani , the victor of the civil war, Vespasian, is given a number of powers which, in addition to the legal basis of the principate created by Augustus , is supposed to formally transfer the imperial dignity to the new ruler. It represents the last lex in the sense of the republican legislative tradition, even if the dominant position of the emperor is supposed to remain compatible with the republican order.
- The expansion of the amphitheater in Pula is started by Vespasian.
First half of the year
- January 15 : Galba , governor and emperor (* 3 BC )
- January 15 : Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus , Roman politician (* 38 )
- January 15 : Titus Vinius , Roman politician (* 21 / 22 )
- April 16 : Marcus Salvius Otho , Roman Emperor (* 32 )
Second half of the year
- July 11th : Lucius Vitellius , brother of the emperor Vitellius (* 15 )
- December 20 or 21 : Vitellius , Roman Emperor (* 12 or 15 )
- December 21 : Gnaeus Caecilius Simplex , Roman suffect consul
- after Dec. 20 : Vitellius the Younger , designated successor of Emperor Vitellius (* 62 / 63 )
- End of December: Titus Flavius Sabinus , Roman politician (* around 8 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Sextilia , mother of the emperor Vitellius
- Lucceius Albinus , Procurator in Judea
- Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella , Roman patrician
- Cornelius Laco , Roman Praetorian Prefect
- Fabius Valens , Roman politician and general
- Picarius Decumus , Roman politician
- Tigellinus , Roman Praetorian prefect