Galba


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Denarius Galbas

Lucius Livius Ocella Servius Sulpicius Galba (* December 24, 3 BC near Tarracina , † January 15, 69 in Rome ) was Roman Emperor from June 8, 68 to January 15, 69 . In the year of his death, three more emperors were appointed, which is why it went down in history as the year of the four emperors . Galba was the first emperor who did not come from the Julio-Claudian imperial family.

Life

Family and origin

Galba was born on December 24th 3 BC. Born in a villa near Tarracina. He came from an old senatorial family of nobility and was considered impeccable in character. His father was Gaius Sulpicius Galba ( suffect consul 5 BC), his mother Mummia Achaica. Through his mother he had family connections to Quintus Lutatius Catulus (consul 78 BC) , a great politician of the late Republic, who was a role model for Galba. After her death, Livia Ocellina, his father's second wife, adopted him, inheriting her large estate near Tarracina. From then on he called himself Lucius Livius Ocella Servius Sulpicius Galba, which created a closer connection to Livia , the wife of Augustus and mother of Tiberius , who encouraged him in his career. In addition, Livia Ocellina bequeathed him a considerable amount of wealth. Galba had an older brother, Gaius, who reached the office of consul in 22, but squandered his fortune and withdrew from Rome. After falling out of favor with Tiberius, Gaius committed suicide in 36. Galba married Aemilia Lepida at 20, with whom he had two sons. However, both his wife and two children died, after which Galba lived as a widower.

Career

Galba began the senatorial career ( cursus honorum ) under the rule of Tiberius. As praetor he let rope-dancing elephants perform at the ludi florales , the games in honor of the goddess Flora . Even before his first ordinary consulate in 33, Galba was the praetorical governor of Aquitaine for a year . After a conspiracy against Caligula was uncovered in the summer of 39 , in which Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus (consul 26) , the commander of the Upper Germanic army, played a major role, Galba was his successor. With tough measures he restored the discipline of the army. Around this time, perhaps under his predecessor, the Chatti had invaded the Rhine, which is why Galba 39/40 made an advance into their area. This campaign was continued in the spring or summer of 1940 under the command of Caligula on the right bank of the Rhine. However, when Caligula left for Rome in the late summer of 1940, there was a renewed advance of the chats. This was repulsed in the following year, under the rule of Claudius , by Galba, where he also invaded the area of ​​the Chatti. Galba's victories ensured that the Chattas kept peace for the next ten years. In 43 he accompanied Claudius, who valued him very much, as a comes on his trip to Britain and was proconsul of Africa from 44-46 . There, Galba was supposed to restore order in the province, which was threatened by both internal disputes and rebellious tribes. Here he defeated the Musulamians in 45 . His insistence on discipline and his sense of justice, especially in insignificant matters, also helped him carry out his task. For his services in Africa and Germania, Galba received the awards of a triumphant and three priesthoods. In the following time Galba withdrew into private life, whereby the resentment of Agrippina , the sister of Caligula and mother Nero , who had married Claudius 49, played a role. After their murder in March 59, Galba 59/60 was rehabilitated because he was still considered efficient and loyal. Nero sent Galba 60 as governor in the province of Hispania Tarraconensis .

Takeover

Already after the assassination of Caligula by the Praetorians on January 24, 41, Galba is said to have been urged for the first time by his friends to take power, which he refused. In the winter of 67/68, under the initiative of Gaius Iulius Vindex , the governor of the unarmed province of Gallia Lugdunensis , an uprising against Nero began. Galba initially acted neutrally on his letters with the request for support, as he neither joined nor sent the news of the rebellion to Rome, as other commanders did. This seems to have been due to the fact that Galba did not trust the letters. It was not until the beginning of April 68 that Galba joined the uprising and was proclaimed emperor on April 3 in Carthago Nova by soldiers and provincials. However, he initially called himself legatus Senatus Populique Romani , since the ultimate decision on Nero's successor should be left to the Senate. Galba also sent letters to the other provincial governors asking for their assistance. Aulus Caecina Alienus , the quaestor of Baetica , and Marcus Salvius Otho , the governor of Lusitania , followed these requests and joined him. Galba needed in particular Otho's financial support to pay his troops. At the beginning he had only one legion , the Legio VI Victrix , three auxiliary cohorts and two cavalry squadrons . Galba therefore ordered levies and thus established a second legion, the Legio VII Galbiana , and two other auxiliary cohorts from the area of ​​the Vascones , which almost doubled his armed force. Meanwhile, Vindex had begun the siege of Lugdunum , the capital of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis. When Lucius Verginius Rufus , the governor in Upper Germany, heard about it, he set out to put down the uprising. For this he led his two legions from Mogontiacum , the Legio IV Macedonica and the Legio XXII Primigenia , as well as parts of another four legions from Lower Germany, including auxiliary troops. Vindex is said to have had about 100,000 men under arms at this time, but they were mainly poorly equipped. When he learned that Rufus was besieging Vesontio , who had not welcomed him with the gates open, Vindex rushed to the city's aid and made camp nearby. The two commanders sent messages to each other and ultimately even met in person, speaking out against Nero. Nevertheless, under unexplained circumstances, there was a battle between the two armies, which probably came about through the initiative of the soldiers and in which Vindex committed suicide after the loss of 20,000 soldiers. When the legionaries wanted to proclaim Rufus emperor, however, he refused, which is why his troops continued to stand by Nero. After Galba received the news of the defeat of the Vindex at Vesontio, he immediately wrote to Rufus and offered a cooperation, but received no answer and thereupon withdrew to Clunia . In June 68, however, the situation changed for Galba, as the Praetorian prefect Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus persuaded the Praetorians to apostate Nero with the promise of a huge gift of money of 7,500 denarii (30,000 sesterces ). The Senate then confirmed Galba as the new emperor on June 8, 68 and declared Nero an enemy of the state, whereupon he committed suicide on June 9.

Domination

The news of his confirmation as emperor probably reached Galba on June 16 or 18, when his freedman Icelus arrived in Clunia. Two days later, a message followed with the exact text of the Senate resolution, which Senator Titus Vinius brought. Galba now took over the name Servius Galba Imperator Caesar Augustus and the tribunicia potestas . Before leaving for Italy, however, he first regulated the situation in Hispania and transferred control of the three provinces of Tarraconensis, Lusitania and Baetica Cluvius Rufus . Presumably on July 16, Galba set out from Tarraco for Italy , carrying the Legio VII Galbiana with him. On his way to Rome, Galba punished the cities of Spain and Gaul, who had hesitated to join him, by increasing taxes and, in some cases, razing the city walls. At the city of Narbo he met a delegation from the Senate who asked him to speed up the journey. This meeting can be dated around August 5th. Galba continued his way in Gaul and put Junius Blaesus as governor of the province of Lugdunensis, in whose capital he stationed the Legio I Italica and the ala Tauriana . The tribes of the Haedu , Arverni and Sequaner who had supported Vindex were rewarded with additional territory and the exemption from tributes, while the Treveri and Lingons , who had cooperated with the Rhine legions, were punished. This behavior of rewarding supporters and punishing those who hesitate or adversaries was also used by Galba in other cases. He had the governor of the province of Aquitania, Betuus Cilo , executed, presumably because he had asked for support when the Vindex uprising broke out. Galba also intervened in Germania and had Verginius Rufus replaced by Marcus Hordeonius Flaccus . Rufus then joined the emperor's train to Rome. Aulus Caecina Alienus, who had supported Galba at an early age, was entrusted with a legionary command in Upper Germany. In Lower Germany, the commander Fonteius Capito perished under unclear circumstances. He was replaced by Aulus Vitellius . In the province of Belgica , Pompey Propinquus was installed as procurator . In Mauretania, Lucceius Albinus, procuratorial governor of Mauretania Caesariensis , was also given the administration of Mauretania Tingitana by Galba . In Pannonia and Dalmatia , Cornelius Fuscus was appointed procurator, probably to oversee the two governors of the provinces. Likewise, the Legio VII Galbiana was moved to Carnuntum in Pannonia in November 68 under the command of Mark Antony Primus . Galatia and Pamphylia were administered by the newly appointed Calpurnius Asprenas. After Lucius Clodius Macer's death in the province of Africa, Gaius Vipstanus Apronianus held the office of proconsul at Galba's behest. In Rome itself, the emperor intervened on behalf of his followers and appointed Cornelius Laco as Praetorian prefect. Well received Aulus Ducenius Geminus the Office of Urban Prefect and Plotius Firmus was appointed Prefect vigilum appointed.

Galba showed no particular skill in treating the soldiers. The legions of Germania did not receive any recognition from him for their efforts to suppress the insurrection of the Vindex and feared punishment because they had fought on the apparently wrong side in this matter. The deposition of Verginius Rufus and the mysterious death of Fonteius Capito aroused further enmity. Galba's actions against the Legio I Adiutrix made up of marines under Nero and who had camped outside Rome generated further hatred among the soldiers . They wanted to receive confirmation of their status from Galba and therefore gathered at the Milvian Bridge . However, when their demands were rejected, the soldiers tried to riot to reinforce the cause. Galba then let his infantry and cavalry take action against the rebels, killing many. The survivors were decimated . The subsequent fulfillment of the requirements and official recognition as Legio I Adiutrix did little to change the damage that this act had done to Galba's reputation among the soldiers. His behavior towards the Praetorians also took away the support of the soldiers, as he did not think of paying the donation promised by Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus . This would have been all the more advisable since the Praetorians, under the leadership of the military tribune Antonius Honoratus , put down Sabinus' attempt to take over the rule, and he was then killed.

One of Galba's political goals was to reorganize the state budget, which had suffered from Nero's immense expenditure. 2.2 billion sesterces that had been given away under Nero were to be recovered, only a tenth of the donation was to be left to the people concerned. 30 knights were used to collect the sum. Since most of the money had already been converted into goods, they were foreclosed. The greatest success in this project seems to have been the collection of 40,000 sesterces that Nero had given to the Oracle of Delphi .

It is also known through an inscription from autumn 68 that Galba had repairs carried out on the Horrea Sulpicia , the largest granary in Rome. However , he did not restore the frumentationes , the free grain donations to the male residents of Rome, probably for financial reasons.

However, Galba's greatest problem turned out to be the dependence on his advisors Titus Vinius, Cornelius Laco and Icelus, through whom he isolated himself. According to ancient sources, all these men had character deficiencies and pursued their own interests. Vinius' career was marked by scandals and he amassed a fortune. Laco had no military or administrative experience and is said to have been arrogant and lazy. Icelus, the freed Galbas who had only recently been knighted, amassed a fortune just like Vinius.

The crisis for Galba's rule came on January 1, 69, when the legions in Upper Germany refused to renew their oath on the emperor and overturned his statues. The news of this event reached Galba a few days later in a letter from the Procurator of the Province of Belgica, Pompey Propinquus.

Piso's adoption and murder

The crisis in Germania now accelerated the choice of a successor. Since his two sons and his wife had died before him, Galba had to look for another potential candidate. Several men were considered for this. One option was Marcus Salvius Otho, who had accompanied Galba as one of the earliest followers since Spain and the Vindex uprising. As an alternative, Gnaeus Cornelius Dolabella was seen, a distant relative and presumably his great-nephew. After the letter of the procurator of the province of Belgica, Pompeius Propinquus, arrived on January 9th, informing Galba about the crisis in the Germanic legions, the emperor was forced to make a decision on the successor election. So on January 10th he called his closest advisers to a meeting and stated that he had chosen Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to succeed him. The adoption of Piso was first made known to the Praetorians, but the emperor failed to bind the soldiers to himself or his successor on this occasion as well. In this situation, too, he did not promise any monetary gift, neither the money promised by Nymphidius Sabinus nor a sum to celebrate the events. Then they went to the Senate to announce the adoption of Piso. Many senators received the news with joy or faked it if they were not well-disposed towards Piso; the neutral majority tolerated the decision.

Galba's decision had to snub Otho, as the latter had made himself hopeful about the successor. He was now planning a conspiracy against Galba to secure the imperial title. It was helpful here that Otho had taken care of the soldiers before and had given them gifts of money or favors. Among other things, he is said to have distributed 100 sesterces to each man in the cohort on watch when Galba dined with him. Otho left the planning of the coup to his freedman Onomastus, who bribed the orderly officer Barbius Proculus, who was responsible for the slogan of the imperial bodyguard, and the Optio Veturius with money and promises so that they could win more soldiers for the coup. The plan was now first drawn up to seize Otho on the night of January 14th and bring him to the Praetorian camp, but then discarded because he harbored too many risks. The execution of the coup was postponed until the morning of January 15th.

That day Galba sacrificed in the morning in front of the temple of Apollo. At first Otho was also present at the ceremony, but later apologized on the pretext of buying a house after Onomastus had brought him the news that they were ready for a coup, and hurried to the Miliarium Aureum . There he found only 23 bodyguards who called him as emperor, which is why they hurriedly made their way to the Praetorian camp, with the number of putschists roughly doubling. When Galba was informed of the events, he first ordered the palace guards to check the loyalty, which is why Piso was sent there. Meanwhile envoys were also sent to the other troops remaining in Rome, but without much success. The Praetorians threatened two tribunes sent , Cetrius Severus and Subrius Dexter, and the third, Pompey Longinus, arrested them. The legion of marines punished by Galba had sided with the mutinous Praetorians. The Illyrian troops drove out the ambassador Celsus Marius and the Germanic troops hesitated, although they were well-disposed towards Galba. The emperor now had to decide whether he would entrench himself in the palace or actively oppose the putschists before they organized themselves. Galba decided to crush the coup and headed for the forum, accompanied by a well-meaning crowd that had gathered in front of the palace. Meanwhile, Otho had won over the soldiers in the Praetorian camp and had them armed. Since the news got around that Galba was arming the mob, he hastily caused the soldiers to leave, who then stormed the forum and dispersed the crowd. When these came into view, the remaining soldiers of the palace guard deserted, only the Praetorian centurion Sempronius Densus defended Galba, but died in the process. The emperor, hurled from his litter in the chaos, was killed near Lacus Curtius . His mutilated body was recovered by Gaius Helvidius Priscus with the permission of Othos and buried by the accounting officer Argius in his private gardens on Via Aurelia. The Damnatio memoriae was first imposed on him, but on January 1, 1970, Galba's reputation was restored by Vespasian .

swell

The most important ancient sources for the life and rule of Galba are Suetons Kaiserviten, the histories of Tacitus (1,1–49), the Galba biography of Plutarch and the historical work Cassius Dios (63,22–64,7). Presumably there were also works by Cluvius Rufus , Fabius Rusticus and Pliny the Elder about Galba, but these have not been preserved.

literature

Web links

Commons : Galba  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Remarks

  1. ^ Suetonius, Galba 4 , 1.
  2. Werner Eck: Galba. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 4, JBMetzler, Stuttgart a. a. 1998, col. 746.
  3. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 31.
  4. Werner Eck: Galba. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 4, JBMetzler, Stuttgart a. a. 1998, col. 746.
  5. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 32.
  6. ^ Suetonius, Galba 5 , 1.
  7. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 32.
  8. ^ Suetonius, Galba 6 , 1.
  9. Werner Eck: Galba. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 4, JBMetzler, Stuttgart et al. 1998, Col. 746.
  10. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 33.
  11. ^ Suetonius, Galba 6 , 3.
  12. Ludwig Schmidt, Hans Zeiss: Die Westgermanen ( history of the German tribes up to the end of the migration , volume 2). 2nd edition, CH Beck, Munich 1970, p. 350f.
  13. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 33.
  14. Werner Eck: Galba. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 4, JBMetzler, Stuttgart et al. 1998, Col. 746.
  15. ^ Suetonius, Galba 7 , 1.
  16. Werner Huss: Musulamii. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 8, JBMetzler, Stuttgart et al. 2000, column 559.
  17. ^ Suetonius, Galba 7 , 1.
  18. ^ Suetonius, Galba 8 , 1.
  19. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 33.
  20. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 37f.
  21. Werner Eck: Galba. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 4, JBMetzler, Stuttgart et al. 1998, Col. 746.
  22. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 37.
  23. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 19f .; Plutarch Galba 4 , 1.
  24. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 40.
  25. Werner Eck: Galba. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 4, JBMetzler, Stuttgart a. a. 1998, col. 746.
  26. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 21.
  27. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 36f.
  28. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 22f.
  29. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 20; Plutarch Galba 4 , 3.
  30. Cassius Dio, 63:24 .
  31. Plutarch Galba 6 , 3.
  32. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 27.
  33. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 29.
  34. Stefan Pfeiffer: The time of the Flavians. Vespasian - Titus - Domitian Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2009, p. 4.
  35. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 30.
  36. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 27.
  37. Plutarch Galba 7 , 3.
  38. Werner Eck: Galba. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 4, JBMetzler, Stuttgart a. a. 1998, col. 746f.
  39. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 28f.
  40. ^ Suetonius, Galba 12 , 1.
  41. Plutarch Galba 11 , 1.
  42. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 28.
  43. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 41.
  44. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 42.
  45. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 52; Tacitus Histories 1,53 , 1-2.
  46. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 42.
  47. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 52.
  48. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 52; Tacitus Histories 1.12 , 1.
  49. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 48; Tacitus Histories 2.58 , 1.
  50. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 52f; Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 49.
  51. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 52f.
  52. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 50; Tacitus Histories 1,13,1-2; 1,14,1 and 1,46,1
  53. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 41f.
  54. ^ Charles L. Murison: Galba, Otho and Vitellius: Careers and Controversies Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 1993, p. 59.
  55. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 43f.
  56. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 46f.
  57. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 47; Tacitus Histories 1.20 ; Suetonius, Galba 15 , 1. Suetonius speaks of 50 knights.
  58. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 40f; Plutarch Galba 14
  59. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 48.
  60. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 35f.
  61. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 54f.
  62. Tacitus Histories 1:12 , 1.
  63. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 57f; Plutarch Galba 23 , 1.
  64. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 60; Plutarch Galba 23 , 1 .; Cassius Dio, 64.5 .
  65. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 61f .; Tacitus Histories 1.18-19 .
  66. Tacitus Histories 1.23-24 .
  67. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 63f .; Tacitus Histories 1.25-26 .
  68. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, pp. 64f .; Tacitus Histories 1.27 .
  69. Tacitus Histories 1.28 .
  70. ^ Gwyn Morgan: 69 AD The Year of Four Emperors. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2006, p. 67 .; Tacitus Histories 1.31 .
  71. Tacitus Historien 1.32-33 .
  72. Tacitus Historien 1.34-35 .
  73. Tacitus Histories 1.38 .
  74. Tacitus Histories 1.40-41 .
  75. Tacitus Historien 1.43 ; Plutarch Galba 26 , 5; Cassius Dio, 64.5 , 4-5.
  76. Tacitus Historien 1.41 ; Suetonius, Galba 20 , 2.
  77. Tacitus Historien 1.49 ; Plutarch Galba 28 , 3; Suetonius, Galba 20 , 2.
  78. Werner Eck: Galba. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 4, JBMetzler, Stuttgart a. a. 1998, col. 747.
predecessor Office successor
Nero Roman emperor
68–69
Otho