|River basin district||Appennino Centrale|
|source||On Monte Fumaiolo, municipality of Verghereto
|muzzle||Between Ostia and Fiumicino in the Tyrrhenian Sea
|Height difference||1348 m|
|Bottom slope||3.3 ‰|
|Left tributaries||Chiascio , Nera , Aniene|
|Right tributaries||Nestore , Chiani|
|Reservoirs flowed through||Lake Corbara|
|Medium-sized cities||Città di Castello|
|Small towns||Umbertide , Todi|
The Tiber ( Italian Tevere , Latin Tiberis , older also the ) is 405 km long after the Po and the Adige, the third longest river in Italy . It rises in the Apennines , flows through the Italian capital Rome and flows west of the city into the Tyrrhenian Sea .
The legend shifts the naming of the Tiber to early, possibly pre-Latin times. The ninth king of Alba Longa , Tiberinus Silvius , drowned in the river that was later named after him. Another legend of origin traces the name back to the river god Tiberinus .
The Tiber rises in the Apennines on Monte Fumaiolo (1407 m) at 1348 meters above the village of Balze (municipality of Verghereto), which belongs to the Emilia-Romagna region. This affiliation goes back to Benito Mussolini , who came from the Romagna region. He had the regional border moved so that from then on the source was no longer in Tuscany, but in the region where he was born. A column with a marble inscription was put up: "This is where the Tiber rises, the sacred origin of Rome".
The river already reaches Tuscany at the foot of the Fumaiolo and from here runs essentially parallel to the expressway "3bis" and after about 30 km shortly after the town of Sansepolcro reaches Umbria . Accompanied by the expressway, it flows on through the towns of Città di Castello , Umbertide and Perugia to Todi . From here you can follow the river on road 448 to the "Parco Fluviale del Tevere" nature reserve, where the Tiber becomes Lago di Corbara ( ). At the outlet, the A1 motorway coming from Orvieto is reached, which accompanies the Tiber to Rome. The Tiber Valley forms the border between the regions of Umbria and Latium , until after Orte near Magliano Sabina Latium is reached. The Tiber now flows to Rome along the ancient streets of Via Tiberina and Via Salaria . At the Tiberinsel , the river divides below the steep Capitol Hill , which enabled a river crossing and a settlement of the Latins on the Palatine Hill , which later became Rome.
In ancient times, the Tiber flowed into the sea near the port city of Ostia . In 42 AD the port was relocated to Portus because of the silting up of the estuary under Emperor Claudius and again from 103 AD under Trajan and rebuilt. Meanwhile, the sea is 3 km away from Ostia Antica. The Rome-Fiumicino airport is located at the port of Claudius , the hexagonal port basin of Porto is surrounded by private property. The modern Lido di Ostia is a suburb of Rome with sandy beaches and a popular local recreation area, especially in summer.
The Tiber, also given the old name Albula , has always played an important role in Roman history. The twins Romulus and Remus are said to have been abandoned in a basket on the Tiber and washed ashore in the area of what would later become the Forum Boarium . Romulus is said to be 753 BC. Founded Rome.
The Cloaca Maxima , the great sewer of ancient Rome , flowed into the Tiber .
From the port in Ostia , later from Porto, ox wagons hauled ships loaded with goods up the river to Rome. The fragments of the broken amphorae in the Roman river port near the ancient city gate Porta Portese were collected for centuries on a hill, the Monte Testaccio , which is still 40 meters high today.
At the ancient Milvian Bridge (Italian: Ponte Milvio ) in the north of today's Rome, co-emperor Constantine I defeated his rival Maxentius on October 27, 312. Maxentius fell from the pontoon bridge at that time (the actual bridge had been broken off for strategic reasons) Armor in the Tiber and drowned. The bridge that was then rebuilt is still partially preserved today. The decisive event for the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire is depicted on the Arch of Constantine in Rome.
After the aqueducts were destroyed during the Migration Period , the Tiber remained the only source of water in the city apart from the fountain, which is why the focus of the settlement shifted to the Tiber knee on the former field of Mars and to Trastevere . During the Cadaver Synod in 897, the lugged out of their tomb funeral of Pope was Formosus thrown into the river.
The silted up canal from the time of Trajan, which connected the river, the sea and the port of Porto, was reopened under Pope Paul V in 1612 and still exists today. The Pope also had ancient aqueducts repaired.
Because the Tiber in the city, whose center of gravity was now directly on the river near the Vatican , repeatedly brought devastating floods with it, after the particularly violent one of 1870 it was embedded in a deep canal within Rome from 1876, but also as a lively water veins cut off, the ancient buildings on the bank destroyed. Today attempts are being made to renature the Tiber and make it visible again as the lifeblood of the city.
At the beginning of December 2008, the level of the Tiber rose sharply due to heavy rains. Within one night almost 100 liters of rain fell per square meter, which corresponds to the amount of precipitation for a month. This led to flooding in numerous outskirts; especially the northern districts of Rome were affected. Rome's Mayor Gianni Alemanno declared a state of emergency on December 12, 2008; the Tiber had risen to its highest level in 40 years.
The river gave the template for the name of the fictional crystalline mineral Tiberium in the computer game Command & Conquer .
- Cesare D'Onofrio: Il Tevere. 4th edition (1982). Romana Soc. Ed., Rome 1980.
- Joël Le Gall: Le Tibre. Fleuve de Rome dans l'antiquité. Presses universitaires de France, Paris 1953.
- Maria Margarita Segarra Lagunes: Il Tevere e Roma. Storia di una simbiosi. Gangemi, Rome 2004, ISBN 88-492-0621-6 .
- Sextus Pompeius Festus 4L; Maurus Servius Honoratius zu Virgil , Aeneid 8, 332.
- General information on Christian Wieland: Border between nature and feasibility. Technology and diplomacy in the Roman-Florentine discussion about the Valdichiana (17th century). In: Saeculum . Universal History Yearbook. Vol. 58, 2007, pp. 13–32, here p. 18 .
- Rome imposes a state of emergency because of the risk of flooding. Spiegel Online , December 12, 2008.