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Epictetus ( ancient Greek Ἐπίκτητος Epíktētos , Latin Epictetus ; * around 50 in Hierapolis in Phrygia ; † around 138 in Nicopolis in Epirus ) was an ancient philosopher . He is one of the most influential representatives of the late Stoa .

Epictetus came to Rome as a slave , where he came into contact with stoic teachings and also began to teach himself. Expelled from Rome, he founded a philosophy school in Nicopolis , where he taught until his death. Since Epictetus himself did not write any works, his philosophy is only passed down in the writings of his pupil Arrian , who recorded his lectures.

His teaching deals primarily with ethical questions and focuses on the practical implementation of philosophical considerations. At the center of his ethics are the inner freedom and moral autonomy of every person. Epictetus makes a strict distinction between things and conditions that are outside human power and must therefore be taken as given, and those that affect the innermost part of man and are therefore exclusively the subject of his influence. In addition, Epictetus developed a concept of the moral personality, which in his opinion represents the essence of man. For him, human action is always determined and directed by God, who is directly present in every single person, in the world and in the unified cosmos. Since this divine core equally inherent in all people, must philanthropy applies indiscriminately to all.

The history of the reception of the teaching of Epictetus is complex. After its first brief flowering in the 2nd century, it was largely forgotten in the West during the Middle Ages . In an indirect way - via later literature and Christianized transformations of the oldest tradition - concepts of Epictets significantly influenced Christian authors from late antiquity to modern times , even if these writings were only loosely connected with the name Epictets. The records of his teaching became known and powerful again in the Renaissance .


Little is known about the life of Epictetus. Sources are passages from the Noctes Atticae des Aulus Gellius , a late antique commentary by Simplikios and an entry in the Suda , a Middle Byzantine lexicon. However, the information available there is sparse and in some cases not very reliable. Information that can be found in the scriptures assigned to Epictetus is more valuable.

Epictetus was born around the year 50 in Hierapolis in Phrygia , Asia Minor . He was brought to Rome as a slave and was in the service of Epaphroditus , a wealthy and influential freedman of the emperor Nero . Epictetus, his Greek nickname as a slave, means "the newly acquired". When and for what reason Epictetus came to Rome and at what time he was released remains unclear.

In any case, he still studied philosophy as a slave with the stoic Gaius Musonius Rufus , for whose only oral teaching he is an important source, even if his own teaching seems to differ in some areas from that of his teacher. After his release, Epictetus taught himself in Rome. When Emperor Domitian had philosophers deported from Rome and Italy in 89 (or 94), Epictetus went to Nicopolis in Epirus with his students, among whom there were also prominent members of the noble family . There he resumed teaching and taught with great enthusiasm until his death. An encounter between Epictetus and the emperor Hadrian and a personal relationship between the philosopher and the emperor have only come down to a late source, but are considered credible in research; the contact probably came about either in Athens or in Nicopolis. Epictetus died around 138, maybe 125 AD.

According to an ancient tradition, he led such a poor life that his house in Rome did not need a bolt. It is also said that he limped from childhood or because of an illness. A large part of the sources, however, prefer the often embellished but basically credible episode that his master smashed his leg as a slave, which he endured in stoic composure. Epictetus remained unmarried; in old age, however, he is said to have adopted the child of a poor friend who would otherwise have been abandoned and raised with the help of a wet nurse.


Codex Bodleianus , to which all later manuscripts of the doctrinal conversations go back, Bodleian Library Oxford, 2nd half of the 11th century

Epictetus himself did not write any scriptures. However, his oral lessons were already very influential during his lifetime. The main source of Epictetus teaching provides a collection of doctrinal conversations ( ancient Greek διατριβαί diatribaí , Latin Dissertationes ), which his pupil Arrian , who primarily as an important Alexander historian is known from his notes to Epictetus lectures in Greek vernacular of the time, the Koiné , put together.

The first four books of Arrian's writing, which was known under different names and with a varying number of books in antiquity, have survived. Corresponding to the Greek title, the sections of the work are written in the style of the diatribe , i.e. a teaching lecture in which dialogical and rhetorical elements such as interim questions and objections made by the speaker appear. This style was mostly cultivated by Cynical and Stoic philosophers.

In the foreword, in the form of a letter to a certain Lucius Gellius, Arrian emphasizes that he did not write the script himself, but simply wrote down what he heard verbatim. He wanted to keep the memory of his teacher for himself and had no intention of publishing the notes. Arrian's claim to deliver Epictet's teaching literally met with doubts in research. Controversy arose as to the extent to which the work actually represents a credible reproduction of Epictet's lectures. Some researchers assume that the doctrinal conversations as a kind of “shorthand record” directly present the views of the philosopher, especially since they differ from other works by Arrian in terms of both language and content. Occasionally, scholars even see a work by Epictetus himself, the preface of which is only intended to create the impression of lecture notes. Representatives of the opposite position consider Arrian's claim to authenticity to be a literary fiction. In their opinion, the doctrinal conversations are essentially Arrian's work; some of them come entirely from his pen and are deliberately based on the representation of Socrates in Xenophon , among other things . The question of the relationship between the doctrinal conversations and the doctrines of the historical epictetus cannot be answered conclusively, also due to the lack of sources of comparison. In any case, it is assumed that the Scriptures captured the core of Epictetus' thinking.

In addition, even a custom-built by Arrian extract (there Epitome ) from the doctrinal conversations , called Handbüchlein ( ἐγχειρίδιον Encheiridion ). In this extremely popular work, which was received much more than the doctrinal conversations , Arrian repeats some of the ideas of the doctrinal conversations verbatim, while changing other statements. The essay deals primarily with practical philosophy. Not theoretical considerations, but guiding principles for a lifestyle based on ethical criteria are conveyed.

From Handbüchlein many existing manuscripts , three Christian paraphrases and a commentary of Simplicius . The doctrinal conversations , on the other hand, all go back to a single codex that dates from the second half of the 11th century and is now kept in the Bodleian Library in Oxford. In addition, almost forty fragments are ascribed to Epictetus , which probably originate from the lost part of the doctrinal conversations and whose authenticity is in part disputed. These are mainly quotations from Johannes Stobaios , an author of the 5th century. Older editions included numerous other aphorisms from the anthology of Stobaius and from a collection of gnomes , but these are most likely not authentic.



The philosophy of Epictetus, as it is passed down in the writings of Arrian, fits into the tradition of the Stoic school. He constantly refers to the great school heads Zeno , Kleanthes and Chrysippos . However, he never directly quotes representatives of the Middle Stoa such as Panaitios or Poseidonios . Plato exerted a great influence on his thinking, and his writings, especially in the area of ​​ethics, offered stimuli to the Stoics and especially to Epictetus. In addition, Epictetus values ​​Plato as a source for the life and teaching of Socrates, whom he greatly admired . In numerous passages he quotes or paraphrases his sayings and lists him as the epitome of a virtuous person who lives according to ethical principles. For Epictetus, Diogenes of Sinope embodies the ideal of Cynicism , which his teacher Musonius Rufus was already open to. In the doctrine of Cynicism , Epictetus accordingly paints the picture of the true Cynic, whose task it is to constantly call for philosophical lessons and a simple life and to criticize social conditions. This educational function of the Cynics would only be superfluous in an ideal society of philosophically and morally educated people. The Diatribe Vom Kynismus is an important testimony to the influence of Cynicism on the Stoa of the imperial era and especially on Epictetus.

Corresponding to the three areas of Stoic philosophy, Epiktet's teaching activities were also limited to physics , logic and ethics . The main focus of his teaching were ethical questions, especially topics of morality and religiosity . Even if the research often emphasizes Epictet's adherence to traditional ideas of the Stoa, his philosophy contains many elements that were unknown to previous stoicism.

Logic, physics and the image of God

In Epictetus - at least in the traditional works - logic plays a subordinate role compared to earlier Stoics. Nevertheless, he emphasizes their necessity as a basis for consistent thought and action, as a basis for correct concepts of values ​​and God, and as an expression of reason ( λόγος lógos ). Logic thus provides justifications for ethical principles, thereby securing the foundations of human conduct. Epictetus emphatically emphasizes the primacy of applied ethics over theoretical considerations, because, taken by themselves, the means of logic remain fruitless. According to Epictetus, philosophy consists of three areas: the application of its teachings, the evidence of their correctness and the justification and structure of this evidence. These three aspects are related, but Epictetus gives priority to application. He criticizes the fact that the evidence for the principle that one must not lie is generally known, but the implementation, the actual avoidance of the lie, is often neglected.

Epictetus occupied physics only in the context of his theology and anthropology . He is not concerned with cosmogony . In the tradition of the Stoa, Epictetus teaches the unity of the universe as the whole of reality including the deity. The cosmos is an organic unity for him, he is like a "only city" in which a divine law on Will and crime watches, all items related to each other and interrelationships are subject. As the creator, steward and ruler of the universe, God arranged everything for the best. In the cosmos, which is completely ruled by divine reason, nothing inherently bad exists. The direct presence of God in the world ( immanence ) shows itself in the rational cosmic order. The relationship of things in the cosmos extends to God himself, whose small component Epictetus sees the sun.

Human beings are also part of the universe and are therefore part of the cosmic development. With his birth he emerged from the cosmos "when the world needed him"; in death he mixes with the elements and changes into another form. Life is merely a stay in a “hostel”, with death a person sets out on a journey for which he has to prepare himself in life. But Epictetus does not believe in an individual life after death .

Man is made of matter . He is, however, a "preferred part" of her, because he not only has a material body like animals, but also has reason and judgment like the gods . By nature, man has a special relationship with God through his reason and understanding , which he receives from God himself. His soul is connected to God, whose “fragment” ( ἀπόσπασμα τοῦ θεοῦ apóspasma toû theoû ) represents the person. As a being gifted with reason, he forms together with God the "greatest, most powerful and most comprehensive system". Because of this relationship, he can understand the work of the wise and benevolent God. For Epictetus, God, whom he often calls Zeus or identified with nature ( φύσις phýsis ), is both the divine ordering principle of the cosmos and a power that can be personally experienced. At the same time, he does not break with the polytheistic pantheism of the Stoic doctrine and repeatedly speaks of several gods.

Man should be grateful to this divine for his physical and spiritual existence and constantly praise it. He has to voluntarily submit to the plans and laws of God until finally the will of God and that of man become one. In Epictetus the will of God takes the place of the heimarménē , the inevitable fate, taught by earlier Stoics . The term heimarménē ( εἱμαρμένη ) does not appear anywhere in the traditional works of Epictetus. With every action one should make oneself aware that a part of God is always directly present in the agent. With this awareness one should act in a manner pleasing to God and not defile the God present in man through unclean deeds. Hence, Epictetus exhorts his disciples "to become pure in accordance with what is pure in you and in accordance with God". Epictet's theology is thus one of the foundations of his ethics and is closely related to it.


At the center of Epictetus' teaching is ethics, the points of which are also relevant for the other areas. For him, the essential task of philosophy is to provide orientation in basic questions of action and lifestyle. Knowledge of philosophical ethics helps man to turn away from a life based on mere opinion and to gain knowledge of a happy existence. Recurring themes in Epictet's thought are the moral self-determination of man and his inner freedom , which cannot be taken from him even by external bondage.

Beginning of the handbook , Greco-Latin edition with commentary by Abraham Berkel, 1683

Inside and outside

The basis of the teaching of Epiktetus is the strict separation between those things that one can influence oneself ( τὰ ἐφ 'ἡμῖν tà eph' hēmîn ) and those that are beyond the power of the individual ( τὰ οὐκ ἐφ 'ἡμῖν tà ouk eph' hēmîn ). Epictetus also describes these two areas as mine or own ( τὰ ἐμά, τὰ ἴδια tà emá, tà ídia ) or the foreign or external ( τὰ ἀλλότρια, τὰ ἐκτός tà allótria, tà ektós ). The handbook begins with this frequently repeated thought :

“One of the beings is in our power, the other is not in our power. In our power are judgment, drive to action, desire, avoidance, in a word everything that is our own activity, not in our power the body, property, reputation, dignity, in a word everything that is not our activity. And that which is in our power is by its nature free, not to be hindered, not to be inhibited; But what is not in our power is powerless, slavish, handicapped, subject to alien disposal. Note you now: If you what its nature is slavishly than look at free and the strangers as your own, then you will be prevented from complaining, in affect advised scold gods and men. But if you only see what is really yours as yours, but what is alien, as is the case, as alien, no one will ever force you, no one will hinder you; you will not scold or complain about anyone; you will not do anything against your will, no one will harm you, you will have no enemy; because nothing can happen to you that harms you. "

In Epictet's view, personal happiness can only be achieved if this distinction is made and if one is aware of it. On the other hand, anyone who desires or tries to avoid something that is beyond his power cannot be permanently happy. He forgets that external things such as property and social status, health and the human body, home and relatives are only contingent and can therefore change or be lost without the person concerned being able to influence this. At the same time, he makes himself dependent on external things and other people, thereby harming his soul and losing his inner freedom. Those who, according to this distinction, limit their will and action to those areas that are solely subject to their influence will become happy. He will not try to escape death, poverty, illness, the laws of nature or the plans of God, but only avoid what harms his soul. Events that he cannot influence he will endure calmly and with restraint and accept them as realities. Ultimately, a person who has internalized this principle will not demand that everything happen as he wants, but rather wish that everything happens as it happens. This will make him happy.


The basis of morality is not only the knowledge of virtues , but also a special ability of the soul that God has bestowed on man: the so-called prohaíresis ( προαίρεσις , literally "preferential choice", "decision", "intention"). Aristotle introduces this expression in the Nicomachean Ethics as a technical philosophical term to denote the decision that determines the chosen action and combines desire and rational elements. The expression does not appear in the older Stoa. Only Panaitios uses this term to differentiate between spontaneous and forced volition.

Epictetus gives the term a very special meaning. For him, prohaíresis is the ability that enables moral action. It represents the "core of the moral personality", the inviolable I of man. You are subordinate to body and perception as well as mental abilities. Epictetus sees in the prohaíresis a fundamental decision of the mind about which action in individual situations someone regards as good and useful for himself. It regulates the right "use of impressions" ( χρῆσις τῶν φαντασιῶν chrēsis tōn phantasiōn ), which are generated either by the ordinary perception of the world or in the human mind itself.

In truth there is no good or evil for Epictetus, rather it is a question of wrong terms for things that are value-neutral in themselves ( ἀδιάφορα adiáphora ). So death is not an evil, only a certain judgment ( δόγμα dógma ) that people form of death is terrible. Therefore only the fear of death is to be feared, not death itself. Health is not a good in itself, illness is not an evil. Only the right or bad use of health makes it either good or evil. The decision about what value is assigned to a thing that is neutral in itself lies in the power of man himself. An animal can make use of his ideas, but only man can test them with his reason and base his life on them.

The task of prohaíresis is to critically examine ideas of the mind, to control the handling of impressions and to make a judgment about the value of things. Corresponding to the strict separation of external and internal things, the correct prohaíresis expresses itself in the fact that the striving and action of a person is limited to the area under his power. Regardless of external circumstances, a prohaíresis , with which the human being reflects on his inner being, makes inwardly truly free. Such a person lives in imperturbability ( ἀταραξία Ataraxia ), inner peace ( εὐστάθεια eustátheia ), under control of emotions ( ἀπάθεια Apatheia ), the "good flow of life" ( εὔροια EuroIA ) and ultimately in bliss ( εὐδαιμονία eudaimonia ).

In order to achieve a stable prohaíresis, one needs constant self-education and practice, asceticism ( ἀσκήσις askḗsis ) in the original sense of this term. It is important not only to know the principles, but to apply them in everyday life. Epictetus therefore recommends observing oneself regularly, seeking hours of reflection, abstaining from urges and desires, not cultivating premarital sexual contacts, curbing one's emotions and avoiding bad company.

Above all, mental exercise is decisive. With it the person should always make himself aware that a certain idea does not have to agree with the actual thing that it seems to be. He must therefore examine it and first ask himself whether it is something that is in his power at all. If not, he should immediately reject the idea with the words: “It's none of my business!” So ​​as not to let it get inside him. In this way he forms correct ideas that can differ from the generally widespread. In addition to such ideas, man also has to keep his reactions to external things, the drive to act ( ὁρμή hormḗ ), desire ( ὄρεξις órexis ) and avoidance ( ἔκκλισις ékklisis ) under control. His job is to take care of himself inside, to develop an individual personality and to play the role that is assigned to him in the drama of the world in the best possible way.

Virtues and duties

Although Epictetus focuses on the inner being of the human being, his obligations towards others also play a major role. These duties ( τὰ καθήκοντα tà kathḗkonta ) depend primarily on the respective social relationships. Accordingly, everyone has to fulfill their assigned tasks. So a son has duties to a wicked father; his faults must not lead the son to neglect his own duties or to change his behavior.

The cultivation of virtues is also part of moral perfection. Among them, Epictetus emphasizes, above all, the modesty ( αἰδώς aidōs ) as a natural quality that holds people back from moral wrongdoing, and the reliability ( πίστις pístis ) as the basis of social life. As a “tame living being destined for the community” ( ἥμερον καὶ κοινωνικὸν ζῷον hḗmeron kaì koinōnikòn zōon ) man is dependent on the community. Since all human beings - including slaves - are of divine origin and therefore brothers, love for human beings should apply to all without distinction.



Epictetus enjoyed a great reputation even in ancient times . However, his teaching was received with varying degrees of intensity and with changing focuses. The work of Epictetus experienced its first, albeit brief, heyday around 180, especially among Roman authors. In the period that followed, however, his influence quickly ebbed. In the writings of Greek authors, only a few references can be found up to the middle of the 3rd century. Compared to his rank among Roman scholars, Epictetus' influence and esteem in the Greek-speaking East was apparently much less. With the general loss of importance of the Stoa in the middle of the third century, Epictetus also faded into the background. His handbook compiled by Arrian was however taken into account in the Plato commentaries of some Neoplatonists ; in the 6th century it was itself honored with an important commentary by Simplikios .

Flowering in the 2nd century

Apart from Arrian, the oldest mention of Epictetus comes from a Latin- speaking author who is known by name by Favorinus , a rhetorician and colored writer and contemporaries of Epictetus. The work of Favorinus is almost completely lost, but his pupil Aulus Gellius gives one of his lectures in which he treats the attitude of the true philosopher and quotes Epictetus partly in Greek. Favorinus' respect is said to have turned into criticism later, which he expounded in a non-preserved work against Epictetus, in which Onesimos, Plutarch's slave , is presented in discussion with Epictetus . Epictetus 'defense against this attack comes from Galenus , who was born shortly after Epictetus' death. He explains that he wrote a "pamphlet in favor of Epictets against Favorinus"; this has also not been preserved.

Gellius mentions and quotes Epictetus several times. In a passage of his Noctes Atticae he reproduces a scene from the lessons of Herodes Atticus , who uses a passage from the doctrinal conversations of the “greatest of the stoics” to distinguish between the true stoic and the pseudophilosopher. Elsewhere, Gellius lists Epictetus among famous philosophers who were slaves, but does not go into detail about him, since the memory of him is still present anyway. Finally, Epictetus also appears in the description of a sea storm, which Augustine later borrows from Gellius. A stoic on board, gripped by fear, took the doctrinal conversations from his luggage during the storm and, based on Epictet's authority, stated that the appearance of phantasies and the confusions they provoke were not within the power of man, but consent to feelings. This passage is missing in the surviving books of the doctrinal conversations ; therefore it can only come from the lost part.

Emperor Mark Aurel also refers to Epictetus in his self- reflections. In the introduction he thanks his teacher and friend Quintus Junius Rusticus for introducing him to Epictetus' writings. He cites Epictetus three times by name, several times he establishes an indirect connection or falls back on excerpts in which Epictetus himself quotes other authors and some of which are only available in this form in Arrian. In addition, there are certain similarities in the doctrine, but an influence of Epictetus on Marcus Aurelius is difficult to prove, since both belong to the same philosophical tradition.

Lucian of Samosata is the first Greek author to mention Epictetus. Among other things, he tells an anecdote according to which a follower of Epictetus bought his clay lamp for 3,000 drachmas after his death , "in order to acquire the wisdom of Epictetus in his sleep and soon to be like this admirable old man". In the late 2nd century, Celsus, in his pamphlet True Doctrine, first cites the later frequently cited story, according to which Epictetus had calmly endured his master breaking his leg after warning him in vain against this act.

Church fathers

Compared to the influence of Plato and Aristotle , the reception of Epictetus during the patristic period is low. Especially with authors from the East, his teaching has a varying intensity, mostly without naming the author. Clemens of Alexandria , who also takes over thoughts and formulations from Musonius Rufus, knows at least excerpts from the writings common under Epictet's name. Part of the formulations of his work Paidagogos derive from Epictetus, and partly he borrows lines of thought from him. Clemens also teaches the juxtaposition of strange and personal things, that is, “what is in the power of others” and what “is in our power”. The desire for the stranger is a source of unhappiness, even according to Clemens. He also warns not to fear anything that is not really to be feared, such as death, disease and poverty. Clemens' view of man's attitude to God shows similar parallels to Epictet's attitude.

The church writer Origen names Epictetus as the first Christian author in his polemic Contra Celsum . He even raises him above Plato, since this “can only be found in the hands of people who are considered educated, while Epictetus is also an object of admiration for ordinary people who feel the urge to be promoted and the favorable influence that his teachings exercise. ”Origen, however, does not appreciate Epictet's philosophy in his polemics against the anti-Christian polemic of Celsus and does not seem to be influenced by it. As an example of exemplary patience and virtue, Gregor von Nazianzen gives the episode of Epictet's violently broken leg. His teaching hardly plays a role with him, as with Origen, and it is possible that Epictet's texts were not even accessible to him. Even Basil the Great and John Chrysostom express related ideas. Overall, the demonstrable influence of Epictetus remains low.

The evidence of the Latin Church Fathers is even more sparse. In Ambrose of Milan , Epictet's theorem appears that it is “not actually death” that is “terrible, but rather the idea ( opinionio ) one has of death.” Augustine twice cites Gellius's story of sea storms ; but whether he even knew the handbook is uncertain. In any case, after the 5th century, Epictetus was no longer important to the church fathers.


Even in Plotinus , the founder of the Neoplatonic movement, there are numerous trains of thought and formulations reminiscent of Epictetus, often without any reference to their origin. In the fifth century, Proclus, in his commentary on Plato's Alcibiades I, borrowed almost word for word a sentence from the handbook according to which the uneducated blames others for his misfortune, someone who is on the way to education reproaches himself, the truly educated but did not accuse anyone. A century later, Olympiodorus the Younger also uses the handbook in several of his commentaries on Plato, naming Epictetus. Simplikios wrote a detailed commentary on the handbook in the 6th century . He draws on Plato, the not mentioned Aristotle, Socrates, Diogenes, Krates of Athens , Pythagoreans , representatives of the older Stoa as well as speakers and poets. This broad-based commentary by Simplikios was very popular and has been preserved in numerous manuscripts.

middle Ages

There is no evidence that Epictetus' works were known in the West during the Middle Ages. In the Byzantine Empire, however, it received some attention; here the handbook and the doctrinal conversations that have almost disappeared were occasionally mentioned up to the 14th century, and scholias on the doctrinal conversations were also created , the author of which may have been Bishop Arethas of Caesarea (9th / 10th centuries). The scholias are a short commentary, the only surviving commentary on the doctrinal conversations . Your author interprets Epictetus in a Christian way and wants to make it understandable for monks. In addition, the doctrinal conversations were also used in the moral education of educated people.

Arabic philosophy

The Arab philosopher Abū Yaʿqūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (9th century) incorporated thoughts and concepts from Epictetus into the treatise on the procedure for averting sadness . This author considers the pursuit of what is beyond our power or the refusal to forego something God reclaims as a cause of grief. Epictet's teaching is also reflected in the invitation to want what is, since what we want does not occur. He also compares human life with a journey by ship. Al-Kindī must have known Epictet's work thoroughly. It was thus received in the Arabic-speaking world of the early Middle Ages.

Quaestion literature

Indirectly, Epictetus experienced a certain aftereffect in the West, namely in the literary genre of so-called quaestional literature . Already in the high Roman imperial period or in late antiquity , two surviving writings were created that reproduce a fictional conversation between Epictetus and the emperor Hadrian , who was supposedly friends with him . It is essentially a collection of riddles that Hadrian addressed to Epictetus. The oldest script is the anonymous Altercatio Hadriani Augusti et Epicteti Philosophi , which was probably written between the 2nd and 6th centuries and consists of 73 questions. This later resulted in a short version comprising 21 questions under the title Disputatio Adriani Augusti et Epicteti Philosophi . In both collections, Epictetus answers Hadrian's puzzles in a sometimes bizarre way. Numerous medieval manuscripts, some of which change the content, demonstrate the great popularity and widespread use of this genre.

Around 650, a form of dialogue between Hadrian and Epictetus developed from this, which, in addition to the Latin version, has also been preserved in an Old French , an Old Provençal and a Cymric translation. The dialogue is now embedded in a framework story: Recommended to a king, the "young man Epictitus" ( iuvenis Epictitus ), also called Epictavus in other versions, is sent to the east as the leader of a group of soldiers. There he meets three wise men, to whose questions he gives puzzling answers. When Hadrian found out about this, he had Epictitus called to him, in order to ask him questions, as in the original version. The number of puzzles in these versions varies between 59 and 105. They partly agree with those of the Altercatio and the Disputatio , but partly they also refer to the Bible.

In the 13th century, a third version with the title L'enfant sage ("The wise child") emerged from these versions in southern France . Epictitus became the three-year-old prodigy Epitus or Apidus, who answered Hadrian's questions. In different versions, which are heavily embellished compared to the earlier versions and contain additional questions and a final prayer, this new creation spread throughout Western Europe until the 19th century. It has been translated into various languages ​​and excerpts have been included in other, similar texts.

Christian transformations

Epictet's work had no direct influence on the emerging Christian monasticism . Indirectly, however, his ideas about Christian transformations of the handbook , which were to serve as a guide for a Christian way of life, flowed into the monastic ideas of the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The Philokalia , an anthology of older Christian writers published at the end of the 18th century , also included the exhortation of our holy father Anthony the Great on moral behavior and on the decent life . This medieval treatise is certainly not from Antony , who is considered the founder of monasticism. Rather, it is a stoic work, significantly influenced by Epictetus, which was probably interpolated by a Christian and ascribed to Antonius.

There are also several Christian revisions of the handbook . One of them is attributed to the ascetic Neilos of Ankyra († 430), but is likely to be a few centuries younger. The manual of the pseudo-neilos adheres verbatim to the text as far as possible, without inserting its own material, but abbreviates it in part and changes formulations that appear incompatible with Christian ideas. In the revision, God is only spoken of in the singular, the names of pagan philosophers are sometimes replaced by a neutral “the philosophers”, and the apostle Paul takes the place of Socrates. Figures from Greek mythology have been exchanged for "some of the unreasonable"; Passages that deal with sexual issues have been left out.

The author of a second revision, which was widespread in the Middle Ages and which is independent of that of the pseudo-Neilos, intervenes in the text much more strongly. The oldest manuscript of this work, called Paraphrasis christiana in research, dates from the 10th century; the text is therefore older, but it cannot be dated more precisely. In contrast to Pseudo-Neilos, this editor converts the handbook almost completely, for content as well as for literary reasons. The "philosopher" is replaced by the anchorite or the "man who alone is consecrated to God" or "is dear to God". Where there was originally talk of reading the writings of Chrysippus, reading the Gospel takes their place. Brotherly love in the monastery is emphasized, and quotations from the Bible are woven in. A passage on the mantic turns into a comment about correct prayer, from Socrates as in pseudo-Neilos the apostle Paul.

A commentary on this Christian adaptation has survived that was written around the 9th century or earlier. Even in its most detailed form, it only covers about an eighth of the interpolated text. The commentary is expressly understood as a philosophical work and in the first part also offers strongly stoic terms, but Christian thoughts increasingly come to the fore. Like the makeover, the commentary was likely intended primarily for monks and the clergy .

Early modern age

Early prints and translations

Beginning of the handbook , Latin translation by Angelo Poliziano, Basel 1554
Fantasy portrait of Epictetus in the Latin version of the handbook by Edward Ivie published in 1715 under the title Epicteti Enchiridion Latinis versibus adumbratum . The epigram reads: "I am a slave, Epictetus, and physically mutilated, and in my poverty an Iros and yet a friend to the gods."

At the time of Renaissance humanism , the writings of Epictetus came to Italy from the declining Byzantine Empire. In 1451 Niccolò Perotti translated the handbook into Latin. His translation, dedicated to Pope Nicholas V , was not printed until the 20th century. Angelo Poliziano completed his translation in 1479. It was not printed until after his death, then remained authoritative for a long time and contributed significantly to the popularity of the handbook . In 1484 Poliziano sent a copy to his friend, the humanist Giovanni Pico della Mirandola . In his letter of thanks, Pico enthusiastically described how the aged Epictetus had visited him and his friends and converted him from a follower of Aristotle to a stoic, so that he, "overwhelmed by the old man's speech", turned to stoicism "not only with his feet, but also with the hands and the whole body overflowed. "

In 1528 the first printed edition ( Editio princeps ) of the original Greek text of the handbook appeared in Venice as an appendix to the Simplikios commentary, but it was based on an incomplete manuscript; the work was published in full in Nuremberg the following year. 1535 the first print edition followed the doctrinal conversations of Giovanfrancesco Trincavelli . In 1534 the first German translation of the handbook by Jacob Schenck was published under the title Eyn, already useful Büchlin, called der Sticher des Hochweysen Heiden Epicteti .

Reception of teaching

The neoicism of the Dutch philologist Justus Lipsius is strongly influenced by Epictetus. So he calls on Seneca and the “divine Epictetus”, the two “extraordinary highlights of wisdom” ( rara sapientiae lumina ), as inspiration for his work De constantia libri duo . The power and the fire of the words of Epictetus are unparalleled in Greek literature and would advantageously shape the mind and move the soul anew when reading it.

In the first third of the 16th century, the Carthusian monk Matthias Mittner (1575–1632) made a Christian transformation of the handbook . He formed 35 Latin aphorisms from around two thirds of the original text , each with a "paraphrasis" as a comment. In terms of content, the original was greatly changed, Christianized and specially adapted to monastic life, for which the script was intended to serve as a guide. The British cleric Edward Ivie (1678–1745) published a Latin adaptation in hexameters in 1715 under the title Epicteti Enchiridion Latinis versibus adumbratum .

Withdrawn from Paris society, the philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal had a conversation with his confessor Louis-Isaac Lemaistre de Sacy (1613–1684) about Epictetus and Michel de Montaigne in 1655 , which was recorded by his secretary and later published Entretien avec M. de Saci sur Épictète et Montaigne (1655). In this conversation about "the two greatest defenders of the two most famous schools of philosophy and the only ones that correspond to reason," Pascal anticipates thoughts of his later major work. Pascal sees the core of Epictetus' philosophy in recognizing God as the highest goal of human life and in submitting to his just and wise work. Epictetus overestimated man's ability when he thought he could "know God perfectly, love him, obey him, please him, heal himself from all vices, acquire all virtues"; these are rather "principles of diabolical arrogance".

In 1719 a German-language revision of the handbook appeared in Leipzig under the title The wise and virtuous Epictetus, in the Sauer-Brunnen-Cur zu Schwalbach , which Philipp Balthasar Sinold called von Schütz (1657–1742) had written under the pseudonym Ludwig Ernst von Faramond. In the foreword, the author emphasizes that there is no shame in using the scriptures of a pagan as a Christian , which is known throughout Europe. Rather, he wanted to reproduce Epictet's thoughts "to find out whether anyone among those vicious Christians wanted to be shamed by this virtuous Heyden." The content of the little manual is built into a framework story: The two main characters Erinto and Celiander are on cure in Schwalbach at the Taunus . Every morning on a walk they read sections of the handbook in German translation and discuss what they have read. The conclusion is a biography of Epictetus, which Erinto recites.


Goethe had known the handbook since his youth . In his autobiography Poetry and Truth , he mentions his preoccupation with Epictetus: “Neither the sharpness of Aristotle nor the fullness of Plato was of any benefit to me. On the other hand, I had already developed a certain inclination towards the Stoics, and now I managed to bring about the Epictetus, which I studied with great interest. "

Alexander von Humboldt usually carried his copy of the Enchiridion (Leiden: Maillart, 1643) with him at an advanced age. It had been given to him in 1847 by his friend, the physicist François Arago .

Friedrich Nietzsche counts Epiktetus, along with Seneca , Plutarch and Pascal, among the great moralists and regrets that their works are rarely read. He regards Epictetus as one of the "greatest miracles of ancient morality" and sees in him a forerunner of his own rejection of all forms of compassion . The “epictetical man”, who lives quietly inwardly and is self-sufficient, forms a contrast to current ideals. Nietzsche particularly values ​​the fact that Epictetus strictly believed in reason and did not surrender to fear of God. In contrast to Christian ideas, he did not console himself with the hope of a hereafter and did not expect to receive the best only through the love and grace of God, but believed that he already had it in his innermost being and, if necessary, could defend it against the world . Bertrand Russell sees the philosopher in agreement with Christianity on the question of love for one's enemies .

Hannah Arendt dedicates a brief outline to Epiktet's philosophy in her work Das Wollen (Lectures 1973/74), published posthumously in 1989 and later published in the anthology Vom Leben des Geistes . Epictetus dealt with the inner freedom of the human being and believed in the omnipotence of the will , which shows itself in the turning away from the outside and turning to the unshakable inside. She had previously represented a different view in the lecture on evil from 1965, which was also published after her death : The question of will was completely unknown to ancient philosophy, freedom was only conceivable if it was connected with the ability to act, not as inner freedom despite external bondage. Epictetus therefore only changed the object of desire by directing desire to something that was still in his own power. According to their conclusion, Epictetus had represented an "irritated slave mentality" with which he countered a lack of freedom by denying everything beyond his own power.

In the 1998 novel A Whole Guy by the American writer Tom Wolfe , reading Epictets plays a crucial role.

Epictetus and Christianity

Because of the parallels between Stoic and Christian ideas, Epictetus repeatedly had the reputation of being a secret Christian. In two manuscripts of the doctrinal conversations from the 15th and 16th centuries, a certain Gennadios noted that Epictetus was a Christian and intended to explain the gospel and the law of God in his writings. His polytheistic formulations can be explained as an adaptation to the masses. He avoided openly professing Christianity in order to avoid possible persecution . In addition, Epictet's thinking flowed significantly into the works of Christian authors.

Similar statements have been handed down from the 16th and 17th centuries. Francis de Sales , who knew the doctrinal conversations in a French translation, is considered to be the "best man of all paganism"; the Stoics in general and Epictetus in particular show how far a person can approach perfection on his own . One could almost take his writings for the knowledge of a Christian, which he received in deep meditation , so soulfully and zealously spoke Epictetus of God. Therefore, Franz asked himself why a person who has so much understanding for the goodness of God does not openly acknowledge him. In the preface to his edition of the manual booklet writes Abraham Berkel 1670, that he not hold Epictetus for a Christian, but his soul was "sprinkled and fertilized by the divine dew of the Christian religion," and his work have included "droplets of the Christian faith". At the beginning of the 18th century there were already the first dissenting voices, which proved the incompatibility of the doctrine of Epictetus with the Christian one.

In research this question came up again at the beginning of the 19th century: Some scholars saw Christian elements in the writings assigned to Epictetus, which they interpreted as borrowings from the Gospels . On the other hand, it was argued that the few parallels were more an expression of a polemic of Epictetus against Christianity. This research controversy continued into the 1920s. The monograph Epiktet und das New Testament , published in 1911, was particularly groundbreaking , in which Adolf Bonhöffer compared Epiktet's work with the New Testament in terms of style and content. He came to the conclusion that the common language and world of thought of the time explained possible parallels and that there was no dependency. In more recent research, an influence on Epictetus by the New Testament is represented less and less. While the search for a connection between the teachings of Epictetus and those of early Christianity has moved into the background, its influence on later Christian authors is now being intensively examined, for example by the French scholar Michel Spanneut .

Critical Editions

Ancient and Medieval Commentaries

  • Commentaire sur la Paraphrase chrétienne du Manuel d'Épictète , ed. Michel Spanneut, Les Éditions du Cerf, Paris 2007, ISBN 978-2-204-08301-0 (critical edition of an early medieval commentary).
  • Simplicius: Commentaire sur le Manuel d'Épictète ( Philosophia antiqua , Volume 66), ed. Ilsetraut Hadot, Brill, Leiden and others. a. 1996, ISBN 90-04-09772-4 (critical edition of the commentary on Simplikios).

Translations and comments

Complete works


Doctrinal conversations

  • Epictetus: Discourses. Book I , trans. by Robert F. Dobbin, Clarendon Press, Oxford 1998, ISBN 0-19-823664-6 (with comment).
  • Lothar Willms: Epiktets Diatribe On Freedom (4.1) ( Scientific Commentaries on Greek and Latin Classics )
    • Vol. 1: Introduction and commentary (§§ 1–102) , Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8253-5816-7
    • Vol. 2: Commentary (§§ 103–177), translation, index and bibliography , Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-8253-6012-2 .



  • Georg Wöhrle : Epictetus for Beginners. Conversations and handbooks of morals. An introduction to reading. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 2002 (dtv 30864), ISBN 3-423-30864-8

Overview representations in manuals


  • Jonathan Barnes : Logic and the imperial Stoa (= Philosophia antiqua , Volume 75). Brill, Leiden u. a. 1997, ISBN 90-04-10828-9 .
  • Jean-Joel Duhot: Epictète et la sagesse stoïcienne . Paris 1996, 2003.
  • Johannes Carl Gretenkord: The Epictetus Concept of Freedom . Studienverlag Brockmeyer, Bochum 1981, ISBN 3-88339-167-0 .
  • Jackson Hershbell: The Stoicism of Epictetus . In: Rise and Fall of the Roman World . II 36.3. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1989, ISBN 3-11-010393-1 , p. 2148-2163 .
  • Benjamin Lodewijk Hijmans: ΑΣΚΗΣΙΣ. Notes on Epictetus' Educational System . Assen 1959.
  • Amand Jagu: La Morale d'Epictète et le christianisme . In: Rise and Fall of the Roman World . II 36.3. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1989, ISBN 3-11-010393-1 , p. 2164-2199 .
  • Anthony Arthur Long : Epictetus. A Stoic and Socratic Guide to Life . Clarendon Press, Oxford 2002, ISBN 0-19-924556-8 .
  • Theodore Scaltsas, Andrew S. Mason (Ed.): The philosophy of Epictetus. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2007, ISBN 978-0-19-923307-6 ( review ).
  • Barbara Wehner: The function of the dialogue structure in Epiktet's diatribs. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-515-07434-1 ( excerpts online )

Web links

Wikisource: Ἐπίκτητος  - sources and full texts
Commons : Epictetus  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Editions of works and source texts



  1. Suda , keyword Epiktetos ( Ἐπίκτητος ), Adler number: epsilon 2424 , Suda-Online
  2. According to an unspecified inscription from Pisidia , Epictet's mother already appears to have been a slave; see Georg Kaibel: Inscriptions from Pisidia , in: Hermes 23 (1888), pp. 532–545, here: 542–545; Schenkl (1916), p. VII.
  3. On the relationship between Musonius Rufus' and Epiktet's philosophy see Hershbell (1989), pp. 2155f.
  4. ^ Suetonius , De vita Caesarum , Domitian 10.
  5. According to the Historia Augusta , Vita Hadriani 16.10, there was a very familiar relationship between Hadrian and Epictetus (In summa familiaritate Epictetum […] habuit) . Puech (2000) p. 116 provides an overview of the research opinions.
  6. For the life data see Dobbin (1998), pp. Xii – xiii.
  7. a b Simplikios, Commentary on Encheiridion 13.
  8. a b The first mention is found in Celsus, which is handed down in Origen's pamphlet, Contra Celsum 7.53; for further sources and their evaluation see William Abbott Oldfather , Epictetus , vol. 1, pp. ix – x, footnote 1.
  9. Simplikios, Commentary on Encheiridion 46.
  10. For example Diálexis ("conversation"), Apomnēmoneúmata ("memories") or Homilíai ("conversations"); For a research discussion as to whether the so-called works are identical to the writings known today, see Spanneut (1962), Sp. 601–603.
  11. For example Oldfather, Epictetus , vol. 1, p. Xiii: "[...] Arrian's report is a stenographic record of the ipsissima verba of Epictetus." (German: "[...] Arrian's presentation is a stenographic record of the ipsissima verba ( very own words) Epictets. ").
  12. Dobbin (1998), pp. Xx-xxiii.
  13. Theo Wirth , Arrian's Memories of Epictetus . In: Museum Helveticum 24, 1967, pp. 149–189, 197–216, here: pp. 172ff .; Hendrik Selle, Poetry or Truth - The Author of the Epictetic Sermons . In: Philologus 145, 2001, pp. 269-290; on the other hand, for example, Stefan Radt , Zu Epiktets Diatriben. In: Mnemosyne 43, 1990, pp. 364-373. For a detailed discussion of the positions see Wehner (2000), pp. 27–53, who considers the doctrinal conversations to be largely authentic testimony and rates Arrian's influence as rather minor.
  14. For an overview of the history of research see Hershbell (1989), pp. 2152f. with further literature.
  15. Hershbell (1989), p. 2152 with evidence and further literature.
  16. Cod. Bodl. misc. Graec., Auct. T. 4. 13.
  17. Oldfather, Epictetus , Vol. 2, p. 439.
  18. Amand Jagu, Épictète et Platon , Paris 1946; for a brief overview, see Hershbell (1989), pp. 2156f.
  19. Hershbell (1989), pp. 2153-2155 with further literature.
  20. Epictetus: Doctrinal Discussions 3.22. An introduction, a translation and a commentary are provided by Billerbeck (1978); summarized by Margarethe Billerbeck, Le cynisme idéalisé d'Épictète à Julien , in: Richard Goulet, Marie-Odile Goulet-Cazé (ed.), Le Cynisme ancien et ses prolongements. Actes du colloque international du CNRS (Paris, June 22-25, 1991) , Paris 1993, pp. 319-338, especially 321-323. For a brief overview, see Hershbell (1989), pp. 2155f. with further literature.
  21. Epictetus: Doctrinal Discussions 1.17.
  22. Epictetus: Handbook 52.
  23. Epictetus: Doctrinal Discussions 1:14; 3.24.
  24. Epictetus: Handbook 27.
  25. Epiltet: doctrinal conversations 1,14,10.
  26. Epictetus: Doctrinal Discussions 3.24.
  27. Epictetus: doctrinal discussions 1,3,3.
  28. Epictetus: doctrinal discussions 1,14,6; 2.8.11.
  29. Epictetus: Doctrinal Discussions 1.9.
  30. On the concept of God Epiktets see Long (2002), pp. 142–148, Spanneut (1962), Sp. 604–606, 611–616, slightly different from this Martin Persson Nilsson, History of the Greek Religion , Vol. 2: The Hellenistic and Roman time , Munich 1974, pp. 396-399.
  31. For numerous sources see Spanneut (1962), Sp. 611–614.
  32. Max Pohlenz: The Stoa. History of a spiritual movement , 6th edition, Vol. 1, Göttingen 1984, p. 339.
  33. Epictetus: Doctrinal Discussions 2.8.
  34. Epictetus: doctrinal conversations 2,18,19.
  35. ^ Epiktet: Handbüchlein 1, translation after Pohlenz (1984), p. 330.
  36. Epictetus: Handbook 8.
  37. ^ Charles Chamberlain, The meaning of Prohairesis in Aristotele's Ethics . In: Transactions of the American Philological Association 114, 1984, pp. 147-157; Hershbell (1989), p. 2157 with further literature.
  38. Pohlenz (1984), p. 332ff.
  39. Spanneut (1962), Col. 606.
  40. Epictetus: Handbüchlein 5, doctrinal conversations 2,1,13.
  41. Epictetus: doctrinal conversations 3,20,4.
  42. Epictetus: Handbook 1.5.
  43. Epictetus: Handbook 33.1.
  44. Epictetus: Handbook 17.
  45. Epictetus: Handbook 30.
  46. On the terms, see Pohlenz (1984), p. 335.
  47. Epictetus: doctrinal conversations 2,10,14.
  48. Epictetus: Doctrinal Discussions 1:13.
  49. Spanneut (1962), Col. 621f.
  50. ^ Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae 17, 19.
  51. ^ Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae 1, 2.
  52. ^ Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae 2, 18, 10.
  53. a b Augustinus, Civitas Dei 9, 4, 2.
  54. ^ Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae 19, 1, 14-21.
  55. Marcus Aurelius, Self- Contemplations 1.7.
  56. Lukian, Adversus indoctum 13.
  57. Spanneut (1962), Col. 633–640 with numerous sources and comparisons.
  58. Origen, Contra Celsum 6, 2.
  59. Ambrosius, De bono mortis 555A.
  60. For a detailed presentation, see Spanneut (1962), Sp. 632–661.
  61. For comparisons see Spanneut (1962), Sp. 622f.
  62. Epictetus: Handbook 5; Proclus: Commentary on Alcibiades I 113b-c.
  63. Spanneut (1962), Col. 626f.
  64. Lloyd William Daly and Walther Suchier, Altercatio Hadriani Augusti et Epicteti Philosophi , Urbana / Illinois 1939, pp. 104-107.
  65. Lloyd William Daly and Walther Suchier (1939), pp. 112-113.
  66. Original text of the Altercatio ( Memento of June 30, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) at Bibliotheca Augustana; English translation of the first 67 questions in The Knickerbocker , Volume 50, New York 1857, pp. 126–129.
  67. Text examples are provided by Klaus Döring, Epiktet's Handbüchlein der Moral und seineempfangs, in: Peter Neukam and Michael von Albrecht (eds.): Von der Reception zur Motivation , Munich 1998, p. 70.
  68. Walther Suchier, L'enfant sage (The Conversation of Emperor Hadrian with the clever child Epitus) , Halle 1910, offers text examples .
  69. Spanneut (1962), Col. 662-664.
  70. For the adaptation in Codex Vaticanus gr. 2231 see Boter (1999), pp. 257–266.
  71. Spanneut (1962), Col. 664f.
  72. For text examples see Döring (1998), p. 67. For the original text see Johann Schweighäuser , Epicteteae philosophiae monumenta , Vol. 5, Leipzig 1800, pp. 95–138.
  73. For text examples see Döring (1998), pp. 67–69. Schweighäuser (1800), pp. 10–94, offers the original text.
  74. Döring (1998), p. 71.
  75. For the history of Epictetus prints see Greek Spirit from Basler Pressen .
  76. "Sticher", ie "dagger", alludes to the second meaning of the Greek word encheirídion , which, in addition to a "handbook", can also refer to a "hand weapon".
  77. Lipsius, Manuductionis ad Stoicam philosophiam libri tres 1.18.
  78. Long (2002), pp. 262f., Oldfather, Epictetus , Vol. 1, pp. Xxix – xxx.
  79. Digitized version available in the Internet Archive ; for text examples see Döring (1998), p. 72f. or 37f.http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Depictetienchirid00epic~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D
  80. Blaise Pascal, L'entretien de Pascal et Sacy , ed. Pierre Courcelle, Paris 1981, pp. 13, 17, 19.
  81. For text examples see Döring (1998), pp. 74–76.
  82. ^ Goethe's works, Hamburg edition in 14 volumes, Vol. 9.1, Hamburg 1955, p. 222.
  83. ^ Announcements from the State Libraries in Berlin and Munich, issue 2/2012, pp. 3–8.
  84. ^ Nietzsche, Menschliches, Allzumenschliches I, 282.
  85. ^ Nietzsche, Morgenröthe II, 131.
  86. ^ Nietzsche, Morgenröthe V, 546.
  87. ^ Bertrand Russell, Philosophie des Abendlandes , Zurich 2007, p. 282.
  88. Hannah Arendt, Vom Leben des Geistes , Vol. 2: Das Wollen , Munich 1989, pp. 71–82; Arendt translates prohaíresis as “will”.
  89. Hannah Arendt, About Evil. A lecture on questions of ethics , Munich 2006, pp. 105f.
  90. Spanneut (1962), Col. 628f. and 675.
  91. Saint François de Sales, Œuvres , Vol. IV, pp. 36, 81f.
  92. For similarities and differences, see Spanneut (1962), Col. 631f.
  93. ^ Adolf Bonhöffer, Epiktet und das New Testament , Giessen 1911; for a description of the teaching of Epictetus, see Bonhöffer's works Epictet and the Stoa. Studies on Stoic Philosophy , Stuttgart 1890 and The Ethics of the Stoic Epictet , Stuttgart 1894.
  94. For an overview of the relevant research history see Spanneut (1962), Sp. 627–631, Hershbell (1989), pp. 2160f.
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