Adaptation (literature)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

As a literary adaptation (of Latin adaptare adapt ') refers to the alteration of a literary (mostly epic) work of one genus to another, for example in a drama , or in one opera , or editing in another medium like comic , radio play , Film , television or a computer game .

Theater adaptations

History of the theater adaptation

Adapting original epic works has been a common practice since antiquity to develop material for drama and theater. Not a few works by the great tragedians Aeschylus , Sophocles and Euripides are based on Homer's epics . Even Shakespeare used for his epic sources dramas production. In the late 19th century, as the national feeling grew stronger, it was the medieval epics in particular that were adapted for the stage.

The practice of adapting received a new accent since the 1920s. The director and theater director Erwin Piscator adapted several novels for his Proletarian Theater, including Lev Nikolajewitsch Tolstoy's War and Peace and Jaroslav Hašek's The Good Soldier Schwejk . The reason for this was primarily a political and substantive one: the present drama of the Weimar Republic did not correspond to the effect intentions that he was pursuing with his theater. His adaptations were made in the immediate context of his theater work - as material and template for a staging - not as a transformation into an independent literary work.

At the same time Bertolt Brecht developed the theory of the epic theater. Both were concerned with the development of new subjects, narrative methods and theatrical means that reflected the experience of reality after the First World War and helped develop an "art of watching" (Brecht) that was no longer based on illusion, but on critical distance.

The examination of epic narrative structures also encouraged the development of new dramaturgies (such as montage and revue forms) and the invention of new stage means. So Piscator worked with commentary projections and invented the "running tape" for the good soldier Schwejk in order to transport his passive hero through the action without him having to move.

The tendency to epize theater with a socially critical background came to an end with the beginning of fascism in Germany. Even after the war, the proletarian revolutionary tradition of the 1920s was initially discontinued in both East and West. The main focus was on the classic-realistic legacy, i.e. more on the traditional forms of drama. Only since the 1970s and 1980s have there been more and more adaptations on the repertoire. It is primarily a matter of expanding the theatrical range and opening up interesting and complex material that is not available in the drama or not in a comparable quality. The synergy effect in materials that have already been popular with audiences as books or films is also a reason for adaptations. At the same time, the concept of drama has changed fundamentally in the last few decades , so that open structures and the alternation of situational representation and epic report within a text are common practice.

Current practice

The fact that more and more adaptations are currently being used in theater programs is still controversial among critics and scholars. The theater critic of the Frankfurter Allgemeine, Gerhard Stadelmaier, repeatedly vehemently opposed the practice of adapting. Stadelmaier's fundamental polemics, however, for their part find critics who refer to the thematic and structural enrichment that theater experiences through the appropriation of epic and cinematic material.

The discussion about the value and legitimacy of adaptations is closely linked to the discourses of post-dramatic theater . Adaptations seem to fit better into the post-dramatic understanding of theater than traditional dramaturgies, which are based on the concept of conflict, figure and plot and perpetuate the Aristotelian model of drama. Epic structures - so the argument goes - are far more suitable for capturing the anonymity, complexity and the non-linear forms of current social processes for the theater. The director Frank Castorf , in whose work adaptations occupy a large space and who has brought several novels by Dostoevsky to the stage in recent years , commented: "I have a certain complexity, a complexity, as it is in a multilayered perception, but also materially lies in Dostoyevsky's novels, very important. [...] I would like to approximate the complexity of the reflection of the world, this non-simultaneity. I find that important as an aesthetic principle. That's why I mostly work with novels. Theater plays are often included General plan: They suggest that the world is recognizable and controllable. "

The fact that playwrights fall back on epic pretexts and rework them into a scenic text (as Heiner Müller did with Erik Neutsch's novel Trace of Stones - his play is entitled The Building ) is rather the exception today. As a rule, adaptations are written in the context of a specific theater work. It is not uncommon for the directors (or their dramaturges ) themselves to create the stage versions and to incorporate their aesthetic ideas and scenic processes into the text. It is usually not about a complete transformation of the epic material into a drama. "Mixed forms" of dialogic scenes and narrative passages are predominant today. Therefore, the term "dramatization" in the true sense of the word does not apply to the majority of the adaptations, because it is more about montage forms and not about the re-formation of a drama in the sense of the classic generic term . The terms "dramatization", "adaptation", "stage version", "arrangement for the stage" and "theater version" are, however, used as synonyms in practice , without, as a rule, being sharply delimited from one another.

Film adaptations

Film adaptations are also known under the term literature adaptation .

Theory of the cinematic adaptation of literary material

Using two basic methods, the film conveys a connotative meaning that cannot be described under the literary terms metonymy and synecdoche for nothing . Consequently, James Monaco paraphrased it in his standard work Understanding Film :

“Associated details conjure up an abstract idea. Many of the old Hollywood - clichés are synecdoche (Photography marching feet to an army to represent) and metonymy (the falling calendar sheets, the rolling wheels of a locomotive ). Because metonymic contrivances work so well in film, film can make a greater impact than literature in this regard. Associated details can appear concentrated within an image and thus bring about a representation of unheard of wealth. Metonymy is a kind of cinematic shorthand . "

Film has the advantage of being able to include all other art forms - painting, music, theater and literature - and to be able to combine them in the film montage in order to achieve meaning. It was not until the 1960s that literary scholars in German-speaking countries began to take an interest in film adaptations. This happened primarily out of an aesthetic and normative sense of responsibility in the course of the media change. A discussion on the aesthetic balance of both art forms had already come to an end during the cinema debate of the 1920s. The autonomy of the audiovisual medium came to the fore during the 1970s and 1980s as better text analysis tools were developed. Thereafter, fundamental monographs on the theory and practice of literary film adaptation were also created. Significantly, the literary engagement with the film is attached to the written original and, in principle, to the philological process for which Klaus Kanzog created the term film philology . Where both media were taken into account, the aspect of media competition was brought to the fore and thus asked about the end of literature, although the focus was lost on the aspects of interaction that were important in literary history.

Practice of film adaptation of literary material

Already the concept of United filmung has a clear negative component, the term adaptation evaluates as is the based on the template lower:

“The term adaptation (sometimes also adaptation), due to its etymological origin , already contains the core of a misunderstanding. Derived from the Latin adaptare (= to adapt, to prepare appropriately), it was primarily used for physiological processes (adapting the eye), later for adapting electronic systems ( adapters ). The use of technical terminology in the figurative sense in the field of the arts is therefore co-determined from the outset by these everyday semantics : adaptation of a work of art by another genre or art form always runs the risk of being misunderstood merely as an adaptation, which is also an appreciation of the original and devaluation of the adaptation implies. "

Or as the fable joke, often attributed to Alfred Hitchcock , puts it: Two goats eat the film role of a literary film adaptation. Says one to the other: I preferred the book!

“The narrative potential of the film is so pronounced that it has established its closest connection not with painting, not even with drama, but with the novel. Film and novel both tell long stories with a wealth of detail, and do so from the narrator's perspective (...). Whatever can be told in printed form in the novel can approximately be illustrated or told in the film ”.

Georges Méliès (ca.1890)

Accordingly, films based on Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust were made as early as 1896 . A tragedy by the French film pioneer Louis Lumière , a year later Georges Méliès tried the material. One might critically object to the fact that, due to the shortness of this one-act play, one can hardly speak of a proper adaptation of the entire literary material, but at this point the technology was not yet ready. It was not until around 1909 that the potential to tell longer stories was discovered, which is why the filmmakers of the time, looking for a template, used literature and above all unlawful classics. However, figuratively speaking, this borrowing process has not remained a winding one-way street. B. Alfred Döblin's novel conception Berlin Alexanderplatz uses an almost cinematic assembly technique and Patrick Roth in Meine Reise zu Chaplin directly reenacts a scene from Charlie Chaplin's Lights of the Big City . Another level are the merchandising “books on the film”, which on the one hand consist of special editions of the original editions with a still image of the film, and on the other hand of specially written spin-off stories that have little to do with the original film and also as Tie-ins can be arranged. In Star Wars or Star Trek , there are hundreds of such publications.

It is almost inevitable that since the late 1930s there must have been an open competition between the two art forms, as the writers were critical of the increasing number of film adaptations of literary texts. Accordingly, Bertolt Brecht referred to in the three-penny process around the filming of his work of a "dismantling production" of literature in the sense of the film market. It was inevitable that to this day the film industry was accused of “dismantling and plundering works of poetry in order to increase the image and quality of its products”.

Despite all this ambivalence, the writers in the past have always asked whether an adaptation is true to the work, regardless of the question of whether the material at hand can be implemented in a film at all, and the literary film adaptation as " plagiarism of the qualitatively (...) high-quality original."

In the scientific literature, however, this question is considered obsolete in the broadest sense, since one has to assume more from the way in which the literary material has been translated into another medium with its own laws.

However, a film adaptation of a literature will always have to be analyzed against the background of the underlying template. Interestingly, however, there are also shifts in interpretation if either the literary model is spun out, such as E.g. in Total Recall based on memories en wholesaled by Philip K. Dick , or the corresponding template has been modified to such an extent that the audience does not understand what is behind it, especially since the work has not yet been translated into other languages is such as B. Christie Malry's bloody bookkeeping , which is based on BS Johnson's Christie Malry's own double entry (1972). Other literary works or their authors only achieved an undreamt-of widespread effect or a certain renaissance through the filming. B. Tania Blixen through Out of Africa .

Logo of the Harry Potter films

It was only in the last few decades that a few, already very successful authors managed to exert a not inconsiderable influence on the filming of their literary material by selling their film rights while guaranteeing their right of objection in artistic matters. One thinks primarily of the Harry Potter series by JK Rowling . How this might have influenced Rowling himself when writing the later volumes remains to be seen, but also speaks for the mutual influence.

Film adaptations of literary material on German-speaking television

In the first decades of television, cinematic adaptations of literary material - similar to radio plays - were mostly re-enacted theater plays of classics, which seemed rather wooden in their staging, although well-known actors were involved.

The Sea-Wolf , first edition

Interestingly enough, in the 1960s and 1970s there were two different streams of literary adaptation in television films among the public television companies in Germany: “While the ZDF has turned more to American, English and French literature in its major literary adaptations since the early 1970s (before Especially the film adaptations of adventure novels that are regularly shown at Christmas time, e.g. in 1971 of Jack London's Der Seewolf ), the ARD institutions are increasingly adapting the German-language literature of the 19th century ”, such as B. Theodor Storm , Hedwig Courths-Mahler or Eugenie Marlitt from 1972 and 1975 respectively. In this pursuit of the program trend, a more or less systematic thinning of the narrative program of the 19th century took place. However, at least in the final phase of the so-called Christmas four-part series, more and more exotic and remote topics were used that no longer found the audience's previous liking. Were Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson , Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe , Don Quixote of La Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes , Tom Sawers and Huckleberry Finn's adventures by Mark Twain , Cagliostro by Alexandre Dumas , Two Year holidays of Jules Verne , the simplifying processing the Leatherstocking Tales series of James Fenimore Cooper , Michael Strogoff by Michael Strogoff by Verne or lure of gold from London as the initially mentioned catfish with critics and audiences extremely popular, so much the later edits such. B. Mathias Sandorf , The Adventures of David Balfour , Deadly Secret , Race to Bombay , The Black Boomerang and The Man of Suez with a few exceptions due to the international cast all in all clearly qualitative. Since the production costs could hardly be justified even in the international co-production, these projects were discontinued in order to buy up comparable foreign productions of literary adaptations in the following years and to broadcast them on Christmas time. B. 1985 Palace of the Winds by Mary M. Kaye as a mini-series. Interestingly, there is a cut version of the feature film, which, however, focuses primarily on the love story. Comparable miniseries of the ARD were, for example, Unter der Trikolore - Blanc, Bleu, Rouge from 1981, in which, however, German actors such as Constanze Engelbrecht , Alexander Radszun and Claus Obalski were also involved. All these productions, however, have two things in common: the exotic background to a plot overseas or in the Orient, or a clear historical connection that best culminated in a German reference, such as, The Winter That Was a Summer by Sandra Paretti as a production by Hessischer Rundfunk , which was filmed by Fritz Umgelter in 1976 .

Film adaptations of literary material can also have a primarily didactic task , as was once the case in the German Democratic Republic .

Radio play adaptations

In the control room during a radio play production, 1946
Recording of a radio play, Netherlands, 1949 (Collectie SPAARNESTAD PHOTO / Wiel van der Randen, via Nationaal Archief)

In radio , literary adaptations have always been used, right at the beginning more as a dramatic live staging and less as readings, but rather as partly lavishly produced radio plays or even as in one of the most sensational cases in radio history by Orson Welles and Howard Koch with their to HG Wells ajar science fiction - novel war of the worlds mockumentary reportage of the Mercury Theater , which at Halloween aired -Evening 1938th This fictional report allegedly caused a mass panic when it first aired on October 30, 1938 on the east coast of the United States . The veracity of this urban legend , which has been reinforced by the media reports, is controversial. However, this says a lot about the perception of broadcasting at the time and the possibilities of literary adaptation.

In the case of German-speaking radio stations such as Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk and Norddeutscher Rundfunk , in the 1950s, one of the heyday of radio play, the editors made hardly any distinction between adaptations and original radio plays. In some cases, the adaptations were not even marked as edits, so the boundaries were fluid. At that time, almost 40 percent of the adaptations were based on German-language literature , half of which belonged to older or classical literature up to 1900.

The most important authors were Johann Wolfgang von Goethe with four adaptations ( Hermann and Dorothea , Urgötz , Iphigenie auf Tauris and Novelle ) and Friedrich von Schiller with three adaptations ( Don Carlos , Maria Stuart and Wilhelm Tell ). Only one source came from other authors: Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock ( The Death of Adam ), Gotthold Ephraim Lessing ( Emilia Galotti ), Heinrich von Kleist ( Earthquake in Chili ), Clemens Brentano ( The story of beautiful Annerl and the good Kasperl ), Ferdinand Raimund ( The Alpine King and the Misanthrope ), Johann Nepomuk Nestroy ( On the ground floor and on the first floor ), Georg Büchner ( Leonce and Lena ), Joseph von Eichendorff ( The Soldiers of Fortune ), Theodor Storm ( Pole Poppenspäler ), Wilhelm Raabe ( Die Innerste ), Conrad Ferdinand Meyer ( Feet in the Fire ), Theodor Fontane ( Unterm Birnbaum ) and Gerhart Hauptmann ( Iphigenie in Delphi ). In a sense, this combined the literary legacy of the previous two centuries.

Writers and playwrights of the 20th century were also represented by one author each, although it is striking that only a few works of historical significance were adapted. Although Thomas Mann ( Fiarenza ), Robert Musil ( Der Schwärmer ) and Ernst Barlach ( Der poor Vetter ) were a few of the modern classics, they were essentially limited to the contemporary literary mainstream: Erich Kästner ( Three Men in the Snow ) , Felix Salten ( Bambi. A life story from the forest ), Alfred Polgar ( defraudant ), Hans Adler ( my niece Susanne ), Walther Franke-Ruta ( The Fourth Holy Three King ) etc. So it was less about teaching literature than persecuting one contemporary, pleasant listening concept. Thus literary currents of the Weimar Republic , such as B. of literary expressionism or the New Objectivity , and authors such. B. Alfred Döblin , avoided. Döblin himself, fascinated by the possibilities of the new medium, wrote a radio play version of his great work Berlin Alexanderplatz .

The adaptation of American and French fabrics made up the next largest share with 20 percent each. With the exception of a few French classics, such as B. Molière ( Der Geizige und ( The betrayed husband )), Prosper Mérimée ( Die Staatskarosse ) and Émile Zola ( Thérèse Raquin ), contemporary authors formed the image of those national literature in German radio plays.

The French texts include some prose works, such as by André Breton ( Nadja Étoilee ) or Romain Rolland ( Meister Breugnon ), but primarily dramatic arrangements by Albert Camus (state of siege ), Henry de Montherlant ( The Dead Queen ), Paul Valéry ( Mon Faust and Jean Giraudoux ( Judith )). In contrast, North American literature has almost exclusively selected playwrights: Thornton Wilder ( Queens of France , I am Heaven , The Bridge of San Luis Rey , Our Little Town and The Alcestiad) , Tennessee Williams ( The Stone Angel ), Arthur Miller ( The Witch Hunt ), William Faulkner ( The Brothers and Old Man River ) and Eugene O'Neill ( Marco's Millions ).

This is followed by English and Russian literature, each with a 10 percent share . If one looks at the cross-section of that selection, it primarily had to satisfy the literary pent-up demand that was caused by the national socialism's policy of harmonization . In general, political events of the 1950s influenced the selection, especially as the cultural exchange between Germany and France, which has been evident since 1950, served to increase the selection of French material for radio plays. On the other hand, the “contemporary” reference was so decisive for the selection of a material that even recognized authors of world literature such as in the specific case of Stefan Zweig ( Das Haus am Meer ) could be respectfully but firmly rejected by the decision maker Werner Curth.

Thus, one can speak of an ambivalence in literary adaptation during the 1950s, since on the one hand radio play theorists denied the adaptation any artistic rank due to its reproductive nature, but on the other hand there was hardly any contemporary discussion about its value, apart from a few exceptions. Thus, the mediation of literature played a completely subordinate role, as a result of which literature in the course of the media transformation was only perceived as a radio play, which has ultimately been preserved to this day.

In 2005, adaptations of fiction book templates made up 47.6 percent of sales with audio books with a clear fixation on the bestseller .

Comic adaptations

Funny paperback books logo

Maike Herrmann's study of literature adaptations in comics offers an interesting cross-analysis through all possible literary genres. Starting with the illustrated classics, in the selected case Jane Eyre , the much-cited Walt Disney's Funny paperbacks The Sorrows of Young Ganther after The Sorrows of Young Werther , from novels such as Letters from My Mill by Alphonse Daudet , The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson , The Discovery of Currywurst by Uwe Timm , Peter Pan , crime novels such as The Bridge in the Fog by Nestor Burma , City of Glass by Paul Auster , examples from science fiction and mystery, such as adaptations by Terry Pratchett's Discworld motifs , The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy , books for children and young people such as The Wind in the Willows , The Hobbit , the Bible with Jesus the Galilean, and anthologies such as Hard Looks and Little Lits - fairy tales and legends . You can watch a comic more than the individual images of a film: “The reader determines the speed of reception himself and can jump back and forth between the actions. Cuts, changes of perspective and shots cannot be used as abruptly and quickly in comics as in film to enable a fluid course of action ”. In the German-speaking area, comics for adults only became established around 1965. The quality awareness with regard to the children's comics was also rather marginal. Only with the sophisticated comics, the graphic novels and the author's comics did this perception change. In the meantime, they are seen as being quite equivalent in bookstores and libraries alike. “Although (..) the comics in libraries are seen more as sweet candy to attract users, between healthy, robust reading in the form of books. The loan numbers even show that comics offer the highest number of loans ”. Significantly, in 2002 Moga Mobo published a comic anthology with literary adaptations in paperback, which was called 100 masterpieces of world literature , with the aim of “so that one no longer embarrasses embarrassing educational gaps in literary tea, there is now this splendid little book that comes in every pocket tasst (...). Come with me on a journey through tome long forgotten ”. The masterpieces compressed on one page with at most eight panels can therefore hardly be called real adaptations.

Even without a literature adaptation, the comic reader constantly comes across literary quotations : the best known is probably Uncle Dagobert , who is called Uncle Scrooge in the American original based on the Ebenezer Scroog from Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol . Only figures like Hal Forster's Tarzan , in which one simply adapts exciting stories and not Edgar Rice Burrough's novel, cannot be counted among the actual adaptations. Overall, Herrmann found in the comparative analysis that comics are "an independent medium to be taken seriously and that adaptations to literature can present their own or new interpretations of the works".

Adaptation in music

The adaptation of a composition to changed sound ideas or its redesign (including editing ) for a different musical genre is called adaptation .


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Web links

Individual evidence

  1. James Naremore: Film Adaptation . Rutger University Press, New Brunswick 2000, p. 11.
  2. ^ Stefan Neuhaus (ed.): Literature in the film: examples of a media relationship . Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2008, p. 61.
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  4. ^ Erwin Piscator: Theater Film Politics . Selected writings, edited by Ludwig Hoffmann. Henschelverlag Berlin 1980, p. 277
  5. ^ Press review from July 8, 2010 - Gerhard Stadelmaier and Peter Kümmel on novels and representational emergencies on today's stages on Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  6. The 2010/2011 season - a comment on Stadelmaier's "epic epidemic" and the statistics of the German stage association on Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  7. There are too few anarchists . Conversation with Frank Castorf. In: Theater der Zeit issue 9/2001.
  8. Astrid Kohlmeier : From the novel to the theater text. A comparative study using the example of the suffering of young Werther by Johann Wolfgang Goethe. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller 2010, ISBN 978-3639276497 , pp. 50-56.
  9. Hans-Harry Drößiger: Metaphorics and Metonymy in German: Investigations into the discourse potential of semantic-cognitive spaces. (= Philologia series of publications. 97). Kovač-Verlag, Hamburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-8300-2227-5 .
  10. ^ Heinrich Lausberg: Handbook of literary rhetoric. 3. Edition. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-515-05503-7 , §§ 572-577.
  11. James Monaco: Understanding Film . Rowohlt, Reinbek b. Hamburg 2009, p. 177 f.
  12. On the influence of montage back on the literature z. B. with James Joyce , William Faulkner , TS Eliot , Dos Passos and Alfred Döblin ; Philipp Löser: Film, Orality and Hypertext in Postmodern Literature . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1999, p. 52 ff.
  13. ^ Alfred Estermann: The film adaptation of literary works . Bonn 1965.
  14. z. B. André Bazin : For an impure cinema - a plea for adaptation; In: Ders .: What is cinema? Building blocks for a theory of film . Cologne 1975.
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  16. Michaela Mundt: Transformation Analysis. Methodological problems of literature adaptation, Tübingen 1994.
  17. ^ Petra Grimm: Filmnarratology. An introduction to the practice of interpretation using the example of the commercial. Munich 1996.
  18. Klaus Kanzog: Introduction to Film Philology . 2nd Edition. 1997.
  19. Controversies, old and new. Files of the 7th International Germanist Congress . Volume 10: Medium Film - The End of Literature? Tuebingen 1986.
  20. ^ Joachim Paech: Literature and Film . Stuttgart 1988.
  21. Wolfgang Gast: Grundbuch Film und Literatur. Frankfurt am Main 1993, p. 45.
  22. James Monaco: Understanding Film. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2009, p. 45.
  23. ^ Franz-Josef Albersmeier, Volker Roloff (Ed.): Literaturverfilmungen. Frankfurt am Main 1989, p. 16.
  24. Sigrid Bauschinger et al. (Ed.): Film and literature. Literary texts and the new German film. Munich 1984, p. 20.
  25. ^ Philipp Löser: Film, Orality and Hypertext in Postmodern Literature . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1999, p. 52 f.
  26. See Sigrid Bauschinger et al. (Hrsg.): Film und Literatur. 1984, p. 22.
  27. Thomas Beutelschmidt, Henning Wrage, Kristian Kissling, Susanne Liermann (eds.): The book for the film, the film for the book . Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2004, p. 18 ff.
  28. See Franz-Josef Albersmeier, Volker Roloff (Ed.): Literaturverfilmungen. 1989, p. 17.
  29. Bertolt Brecht: The Threepenny Trial. A sociological experiment (1930/31). In: Brecht, Bertolt: Collected works in 20 volumes. Volume 18: Writings on literature and art I. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp 1976, pp. 139–209.
  30. Bjørn Ekmann: society and conscience . Munksgaard 1968, p. 172 f.
  31. See Helmut Schanze (Hrsg.): TV history of literature. Requirements - case studies - canon. Fink, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-7705-3120-5 , p. 74.
  32. Gaby Schachtschnabel: The ambivalence character of the literary film adaptation. With an example analysis of Theodor Fontane's novel Effi Briest and its film adaptation by Rainer Werner Fassbinder . Dissertation. Frankfurt am Main 1984, p. 9.
  33. Gaby Schachtschnabel: The ambivalence character of the literary film adaptation. 1984, p. 9.
  34. Michael Braun, Werner Kamp (Ed.): Context Film. Contributions to film and literature. Berlin 2006, p. 9.
  35. ( Memento from April 28, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  36. ↑ Major works of English literature. Individual presentations and interpretation . Volume 2, From the Beginnings to the End of the Victorian Age . Kindler, Munich 1995, p. 323 f.
  37. Stefanie Hudeshagen: Harry seen differently: audience reactions to the film Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. In: Christine Garbe: Harry Potter - a literary and media event in the focus of interdisciplinary research . LIT Verlag, Münster 2006, p. 159 ff.
  38. ^ Mary H. Snyder: Analyzing Literature-to-Film Adaptations: A Novelist's Exploration and Guide . Continuum, New York 2011, p. 228 f.
  39. Knut Hickethier: literature adaptation, cultural canon, media storage. Storm and the television. In: Gerd Eversberg , Harro Segeberg (ed.): Theodor Storm and the media . (= Husum contributions to Storm research. Volume 1). Erich Schmitt Verlag, Berlin 1999, pp. 299-320, here p. 314.
  40. James F. Cooper : The leather stocking in two volumes (original title: Leatherstocking Tales ). The edition is based on the contemporary translation of the Complete Works published by Christian August Fischer from 1826 to 1859 . With illustrations based on stone drawings by Max Slevogt . Ellermann, Munich 1992, two volumes.
  41. ( Memento from December 30, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  42. ( Memento from November 10, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  43. ( Memento from June 24, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  44. The Adventures of David Balfour. ( Memento of April 28, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) - Discussion of the corresponding DVD release.
  45. Cf. Oliver Kellner, Ulf Marek: Seewolf & Co. Everything about the great tradition of adventure four-part series on ZDF. The big book for fans. Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf, Berlin 2001.
  46. ( Memento from March 16, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  47. ( Memento from April 28, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  50. Thomas Beutelschmidt et al. (Ed.): The book for the film, the film for the book . Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig 2004, p. 11.
  51. Cf. Friedrich G. Hoffmann, Herbert Rösch: Basics, styles, shapes of German literature. A historical account. 12th edition. Hirschgraben-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1983, pp. 392-394.
  52. ^ Howard Koch: The Panic Broadcast - The Whole Story of the Night the Martians Landed - Orson Welles' Legendary Radio Show Invasion From Mars. Avon Books, New York 1970, ISBN 0-380-00501-8 .
  53. ^ HG Wells: The War of the Worlds. Radio play. Editing: Howard Koch. Directed by Orson Welles. Prod .: CBS, 1938, ISBN 3-89940-617-6 .
  54. ^ The Mercury Theater on the Air
  55. Richard J. Hand: Terror on the Air !: Horror Radio in America, 1931–1952 . Jefferson, North Carolina: Macfarland & Company 2006, ISBN 0-7864-2367-6 , p. 7.
  56. ^ Robert E. Bartholomew, Little Green Men, Meowing Nuns and Head-Hunting Panics: A Study of Mass Psychogenic Illness and Social Delusion . Jefferson, North Carolina: Macfarland & Company 2001, ISBN 0-7864-0997-5 , pp. 217 ff.
  57. cf. Stanley J. Baran, Dennis K. Davis: Mass Communication Theory: Foundations, Ferment, and Future.
  58. Wakiko Kobayashi: Talking to claim: The radio play program NWDR Hamburg and NDR in the 1950s . LIT Verlag Münster, Münster 2009, p. 157.
  59. About the piece and author:  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  60. Wakiko Kobayashi: Talking to claim: The radio play program NWDR Hamburg and NDR in the 1950s . LIT Verlag Münster, Münster 2009, p. 158.
  61. The story of Franz Biberkopf. 78 min., Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft , 1930. Director: Max Bing . Speakers: Heinrich George , Gerhard Bienert , Ludwig Donath , Hilde Körber , Hans Heinrich von Twardowski and others
  62. Sandra Stürzel: Dissertation project: The acoustic notation of Berlin Alexanderplatz - novel and radio play. In: Yvonne Wolf (Hrsg.): International Alfred Döblin Colloquium, Mainz 2005. Lectures of the XV. International Alfred Döblin Colloquium . Frankfurt et al. 2005, p. 318.
  63. Ulrike Schlieper: The radio play of the 50s in the mirror of listeners' surveys. The example of the NWDR. In: Rundfunk und Geschichte 30. 2004, pp. 93–100, especially p. 95.
  64. Wakiko Kobayashi: Talking to claim: The radio play program NWDR Hamburg and NDR in the 1950s . LIT Verlag Münster, Münster 2009, p. 161.
  65. Edgar Stern-Rubarth: The dramatized novel on the radio. In: radio and television. 1953, pp. 38-44.
  66. Jan Brockmann: Novel and short story adaptation for the radio play. In: Rundfunk und Fernsehen, 1957, pp. 11–15.
  67. ^ Sibylle Bolik: For an impure radio play. On the (not asked) question of literature adaptation on the radio. In: Journal for Literary Studies and Linguistics 28. Issue 111, 1998, pp. 154–161.
  68. Sandra Rühr: Sound documents from the roller to the audio book: history - media specifics - reception . V&R unipress GmbH, 2008, p. 134.
  69. A typical radio play production for that phase: Dick Francis : Zügellos . Radio play adaptation: Alexander Schnitzler. Director: Klaus Zippel , production: MDR and SWR, 2002, music: Pierre Oser , 1 CD, length: approx. 71 min. Der Audio Verlag , Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-89813-266-8 .
  70. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview . Diploma thesis in AV media, course in public librarianship, Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences, University of the Media, 2002.
  71. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 16-20.
  72. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 20-26.
  73. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 27-34.
  74. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 34-42.
  75. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 42-50.
  76. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 51-61.
  77. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 63-71.
  78. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 72-89.
  79. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 90-101.
  80. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 101-109.
  81. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 110-119.
  82. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 120-128.
  83. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 129-137.
  84. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, pp. 139-178.
  85. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, p. 6.
  86. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, p. 7.
  87. Maike Herrmann: Literature in comic adaptations. A current overview. 2002, p. 180.
  88. Wolf Moser : The repertoire second hand. The history of the transmission and its tasks. In: Guitar & Laute 9, 1987, 3, pp. 19-26; cited here: p. 19.
  89. In particular on the problem of the film adaptation of Thomas Mann's stories Tonio Kröger , Wälsungenblut and Death in Venice .