Star Wars ( English for Star Wars is) a film franchise whose history with the 1977 released movie Star Wars (original title: Star Wars ) began. Creator of Star Wars is the writer, producer and director George Lucas . At the core of Star Wars from three film trilogies : the original trilogy, in addition to the Star Wars films The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Return of the Jedi includes (1983); the prequel trilogy, which takes place before the original trilogy, with the films The Phantom Menace (1999), Attack of the Clones (2002) and Revenge of the Sith (2005); and the sequel trilogy with the films The Force Awakens (2015), The Last Jedi (2017) and The Rise of Skywalker (2019).
Star Wars is classified, among other things, in the genre of space opera and as heroic epic . The films are set in the fictional universe of a distant past and are about the ongoing struggle between good and evil - two sides represented by the light and the dark side of power. The first two trilogies essentially tell of the fall of the Galactic Republic, the rise of the Galactic Empire and the successful revolution against the Empire by the former leaders of the Republic. Models and sources of inspiration for Star Wars were works from pop culture , including those by director Akira Kurosawa , and from the myth theory of Joseph Campbell .
Measured by their box office earnings , which together totaled over nine billion US dollars, the Star Wars films are among the most successful works in film history . The most important awards for the films include ten Oscars . Star Wars also achieved notoriety through elaborate and innovative trick technology . The Star Wars franchise, which is one of the most commercially profitable ones, includes spin-off films and television series, more than 250 novels as well as comics, toys and countless other merchandising products in addition to the core films . By 2015, Star Wars branded products generated approximately $ 30 billion in revenue.
In 2012 Lucas sold his company Lucasfilm , including the rights to Star Wars , to the Walt Disney Company . In addition to the sequel trilogy about The Force Awakens , The Last Jedi and The Rise of Skywalker , Rogue One: A Star Wars Story and May 2018 Solo: A Star Wars Story were released as offshoots in theaters. In November 2017, Disney boss Bob Iger announced that another trilogy would appear. Rian Johnson , who already worked on The Last Jedi , was hired as creative chief . Another series of films should have been written and produced by David Benioff and DB Weiss . At the end of October 2019, the two announced their exit due to their Netflix deal.
Overview of the main films
The core of Star Wars are three film trilogies . The three films first released between 1977 and 1983 together form the original trilogy. In later years these films received new titles in which they are numbered with the Roman numerals IV, V and VI. The three films, which appeared for the first time between 1999 and 2005, have episode numbers I, II and III in their title and form the prequel trilogy, which tells the prehistory of the original trilogy. The 2015 film The Force Awakens is the prelude to the sequel trilogy, which follows the original trilogy with its plot and ends the "Skywalker" saga. On May 7, 2019, Disney set three dates for new, untitled films for 2022, 2024 and 2026.
|trilogy||year||German title||Original title||chronology||Director|
(later Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope )
(later: Star Wars: Episode IV - A New Hope )
The Empire Strikes Back
(later: Star Wars: Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back )
The Empire Strikes Back
(later: Star Wars: Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back )
Return of the Jedi
(later: Star Wars: Episode VI - Return of the Jedi )
Return of the Jedi
(later: Star Wars: Episode VI - Return of the Jedi )
|1999||Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace||Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace||1||George Lucas|
|2002||Star Wars: Episode II - Attack of the Clones||Star Wars: Episode II - Attack of the Clones||2|
|2005||Star Wars: Episode III - Revenge of the Sith||Star Wars: Episode III - Revenge of the Sith||3|
|2015||Star Wars: The Force Awakens||Star Wars: The Force Awakens||7th||JJ Abrams|
|2017||Star Wars: The Last Jedi||Star Wars: The Last Jedi||8th||Rian Johnson|
|2019||Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker||Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker||9||JJ Abrams|
Plot of the main films
A defining element of the films is power (in the English original: The Force ). It is described in Obi-Wan Kenobi's original Star Wars films as an all-pervasive energy field that holds the universe together. Those who have the gift of using the power effectively have powers such as telepathy , telekinesis , clairvoyance or mental influencing of other living beings. Essentially, the film series is about the constant battle between good and evil. This struggle is reflected in the conflict between democratically oriented and tyrannical figures.
Episodes I – III
The Skywalker saga, as the 9 main films in the franchise are also called, takes place in a fictional galaxy in which there is a multitude of inhabited star systems that are in contact with one another. Most of these systems have come together to form the Republic , a democratic federation ruled by the Galactic Senate on the planet Coruscant . Initially, the republic has no military, but the Jedi Knights, a mystical warrior order whose goal is to maintain peace in the galaxy, are at their side.
Senate member Sheev Palpatine tries to overthrow this order and replace it with a dictatorship under his rule. In order to destabilize the republic, he secretly organized resistance against the republic as Sith lord Darth Sidious . First, he made a pact with the Trade Federation , a trade organization that has considerable military resources. He orders them to block the planet Naboo first and then to occupy it. This results in a political crisis in the republic, in the context of which Palpatine can be elected head of the republic, the chancellor.
In the meantime, the Jedi Qui-Gon Jinn and Obi-Wan Kenobi have traveled to Naboo to evacuate the royal family. During their escape they meet the young Anakin Skywalker, in whom Qui-Gon recognizes the potential of a powerful Jedi. He assumes that Anakin will fulfill an ancient prophecy of the Jedi, which says that at some point a powerful Jedi will come and destroy the Sith, the opponents of the Jedi. Then Skywalker is trained to be a Jedi. Meanwhile, a Republican raiding party succeeds in ending the occupation of the Trade Federation and freeing Naboo.
Sidious encourages various organizations and groups to turn away from the republic and to form a separatist alliance. To do this, he recruits the former Jedi Count Dooku , who henceforth recruits new followers for the separatists. Their growing political and military strength culminated in the Battle of Geonosis, the beginning of a war between the republic and the separatists. In the course of this war, Palpatine achieved a dictatorial position in the republic by means of special powers.
Anakin Skywalker has now been trained to be a Jedi and has risen to become a respected general. At the same time, he began a secret love affair with Senator Padmé Amidala . Such relationships, however, contradict the principles of Jedi, who reject close personal ties. As the Republic gradually gains the upper hand in war and Count Dooku is killed in battle by Anakin Skywalker, Palpatine tries to win Skywalker over. To do this, he primarily uses his concern that Padmé would die giving birth to their child. He offers Skywalker the prospect of saving his wife's life if she accepts some of the Sith teachings.
When Anakin recognizes the Sith Darth Sidious in Palpatine, he informs the Jedi Council. This then tries to put Palpatine under arrest. He kills three of the four Jedi and is then overwhelmed by the last survivor, Master Windu. Anakin then intervenes in the duel and disarms Windu, who is killed by Palpatine as a result. Palpatine explains to Skywalker how to save his wife. In return, Anakin agrees to serve as his student under the name Darth Vader . He then assigns him to kill the Jedi on Coruscant. To do this, he marches with clone troops - the Army of the Republic - into the Jedi Temple and conquers it. At the same time, the clone soldiers attack the Jedi accompanying them across the galaxy. Few Jedi survive these attacks, including Obi-Wan and Yoda. Palpatine then declares the Jedi to be enemies of the state and transforms the republic into a military dictatorship.
In the meantime, Vader eliminates the remaining separatist leaders. Assuming Anakin has become a Sith, Obi-Wan pursues him and tries to take him out. He manages to severely wound Anakin. Believing that he will succumb to his injuries soon, Obi-Wan leaves him behind.
Senator Bail Organa, Yoda and Obi-Wan meet shortly afterwards in a hiding place, where Padmé gives birth to twins and names them Luke and Leia. Obi-Wan and Yoda decide to separate the children after their mother's postpartum death in order to hide them from the Emperor. Kenobi accompanies Luke to Tatooine , where he grows up with his uncle Owen and his wife Beru Lars, while Bail Organa takes Leia with him to Alderaan and raises it there.
Meanwhile, the seriously injured Darth Vader is rescued by Emperor Palpatine. The emergency surgery that follows turns him into a machine-like being, as Vader relies on a life support suit. In the meantime, Palpatine has started a massive upgrade, at the top of which is the Death Star space station .
Episodes IV – VI
Episode IV begins 19 years after these events. Resistance to Palpatine's dictatorship has arisen in the form of the rebel alliance, which has set itself the goal of restoring the republic.
The rebels stole the construction plans of the Death Star in order to destroy it. When Princess Leia tries to deliver these plans to Alderaan to her father, one of the founding members of the Rebellion, her ship is intercepted by an Imperial cruiser over the planet Tatooine. Imperial troops board the ship and arrest Leia. Shortly before, however, she managed to hand over the plans to the droids R2-D2 and C-3PO and send them to Tatooine with an escape pod.
Luke Skywalker, who knows nothing about his origins, discovers these droids and accidentally comes across a message left by Leia containing a cry for help to Obi-Wan Kenobi. Luke searches for and finds Kenobi, who has settled as a hermit on Tatooine. The Jedi Knight Kenobi tells Luke about his origins, noting that Vader is his father. However, he hands him his lightsaber . Luke is hesitant at first until an Imperial search party in search of the two droids attacks the farm of Luke's step-uncle and his wife and kills them. Obi-Wan and Luke then decide to bring the plans to Leia's father in Alderaan. To do this, Obi-Wan hires the smugglers Han Solo and Chewbacca .
When the group arrives in the Alderaan system, however, they only find planetary debris and the Death Star. The planet was previously destroyed by the battle station to induce Leia to reveal the location of the rebel base. Solo's ship, the Millennium Falcon , is then pulled aboard the Death Star by tractor beam. There Luke, Han, Chewbacca and the two droids manage to free the princess. Kenobi now deactivates the catching beam, draws Vader's attention to himself, and finally lets him kill him to allow the others to escape. This succeeds, but Vader had a tracking device attached to the falcon beforehand, with the help of which the Imperials determine the location of the rebel base on Yavin IV. There it comes to a battle between a star hunter fleet of the rebels and the Death Star, as a result of which the battle station is destroyed by Luke Skywalker.
The rebels then withdraw from Yavin and set up a new camp on the ice planet Hoth. When the Empire discovers and attacks this base, the defeated rebels are forced to flee the planet. While Luke travels to Dagobah to be trained as a Jedi by Jedi master Yoda, Leia and Han flee to the cloud city of Bespin , whose administrator Lando Calrissian is an old friend of Han. There they are arrested by Vader, who previously arrived on Bespin, and used as hostages to lure Luke here. Vader, who has now realized that Luke is his son, wants to win over him. Through the Force , Luke learns of the plight of his friends and, contrary to Yoda's advice, rushes to Bespin, where he faces Vader in a fight. Vader is clearly superior to Skywalker and wounds him. He then explains to him that he is his father and asks him to take control of the universe with him. Luke throws himself horrified into a shaft. At the same time, Calrissian had helped Leia, Chewbacca, R2-D2, and C-3PO escape the city; Leia hears Luke's cry for help, the three turn around and take him on board.
Han is now handed over to the bounty hunter Boba Fett , who takes him to the palace of the crime lord Jabba on Tatooine, as Han owed Jabba money. Some time later, Luke and Lando and Leia manage to free Han from Jabba's palace. Luke then flies to Dagobah again, where Yoda tells him that he doesn't need any further training and that he can become a Jedi by defeating Vader. Yoda then falls asleep and Luke learns from Obi-Wan Kenobi's power spirit that Leia is his twin sister.
Meanwhile, the Empire is building a second Death Star over the forest moon Endor. The rebels plan to attack the station and kill the emperor who is overseeing its construction. Luke wants to turn his father away from the Emperor as part of this mission. He faces Vader and lets him take him to the Emperor. There Palpatine tries to pull him to the dark side. Skywalker refuses and tries to kill the Emperor, but Vader gets in his way. During the fight, Luke tries in vain to convince him to become a Jedi again. Instead, Vader learns that Leia is Luke's sister. Luke then stretches him down. The Emperor now tells Luke to execute Vader and take his place. When Luke refuses, the Emperor prepares to kill him. The injured Vader intervenes to save his son and brings the Emperor to his death. While still on the ward, Vader succumbs to his injuries and the damage his life support suit has taken. Luke then escapes from the station and buries his father on Endor.
Meanwhile, Han, Leia and Chewbacca manage to deactivate the protective shield generator of the Death Star on Endor with the help of the local Ewoks. In doing so, they enable a rebel combat squadron to destroy the combat station. Victory on Endor ultimately leads to the end of the galactic civil war and the collapse of the Empire.
After the Battle of Endor, the empire is severely weakened. The civil war between the empire and the rebellion that proclaimed the new republic after Endor continues for another year. At the Battle of Jakku, the empire is further decimated and the remains withdraw to the unknown regions according to a plan by Palpatine. An epoch of peace begins in which the imperial remains, warrior castes and imperial senators of the new republic form a military splinter group called the First Order , under the leadership of Supreme Leader Snoke. Since the republic is not aware of the threat posed by the first order, Leia Organa founds the resistance to protect it . Luke Skywalker tries to build a new Jedi Order. However, this is undone by Ben Solo, the son of Han and Leia, who joins Snoke and smashes the Jedi Order. Skywalker retires into exile after Ben moves to the Dark Side.
Kylo Ren, as Ben Solo now calls himself, is looking for his former master to kill him. The Resistance is also looking for Skywalker to help them fight the First Order. A map fragment that comes into the possession of Poe Dameron, a resistance pilot, provides clues to Skywalker's whereabouts. Ren locates Dameron shortly thereafter. However, he was able to hide the fragment from Ren in the droid BB-8. This droid manages to escape from the troops of the First Order. A little later it comes into the possession of the scrap collector Rey . Together with the deserted stormtrooper Finn, who fled Ren's ship with Dameron, as well as Han and Chewbacca, Rey tries to bring the map to the base of the resistance. They are repeatedly attacked by the First Order. While Han, Chewbacca, and Finn escape with the fragment, Rey is captured by Kylo Ren.
The First Order is now using the republic's support for the resistance as an opportunity to declare war on the republic and destroy its seat of government with the help of a new super weapon, the Starkiller Base. The resistance plans to destroy this weapon, the next target of which is the base of the resistance. Han, Chewbacca and Finn infiltrate the battle station, sabotage its protective shield and find Rey, who has now escaped. During their escape, they meet Kylo Ren. Han tries to get his son to turn away from Snoke. He does not succeed in this, instead Ren kills his father. Then Ren is defeated by Rey in a lightsaber fight. Meanwhile the resistance attacks the station with star fighters. Due to the sabotaged shield, Dameron manages to cause a chain reaction in the weapon that destroys them and the entire planet. Rey, Finn and Chewbacca manage to escape from the planet in time. After returning to the base of the resistance, they evaluate the map and find Skywalker.
After the republic is destroyed, the First Order attacks the last base of the resistance on D'Qar . After the attacking battleship is destroyed with significant losses, the last survivors of the resistance under the leadership of General Leia Organa can flee, but are tracked down again and again by the First Order. Meanwhile, Rey tries to win Luke back to the resistance side and learn more about the Force. There she also learns the exact reasons for Kylo Ren's massacre of Luke's order and Skywalker's exile: Luke felt the dark side of the sleeping Ben Solo flashing; instinctively, he drew his lightsaber to protect the galaxy from the renewed grasp of darkness. But when Luke realized what he was going to do, Ben woke up and finally switched to the dark side. Rey feels a sporadic mental connection with Kylo Ren through which everyone can see and feel the other. So Rey believes to recognize that Kylo Ren is supposedly still having an inner conflict with himself. She visits him on Snoke's ship to convince him to join the resistance. However, it turns out to be a trap from Snoke, who used the mental connection to Kylo Ren as bait to lure her onto the ship and draw her to the dark side of the Force. During the confrontation with Snoke, he asks Kylo Ren to kill Rey. However, Kylo Ren manages to kill Snoke with Rey's lightsaber in a moment of inattentiveness, and declares himself supreme leader of the First Order.
On the run from the First Order, the resistance suffered losses again and again, and a pitiful remnant sought last refuge in escape pods on an abandoned base on Crait . In the battle for Crait, Luke comes to the aid of the resistance in the form of a power projection, in order to enable the survivors with Rey and Leia in the Millennium Falcon to escape, which they succeed. Weakened by his appearance as a projection, Luke dies and becomes one with the Force.
After Kylo Ren takes control of the First Order, Palpatine reveals through a transmission across the galaxy that he survived the Battle of Endor. Kylo Ren is afraid of losing his power and meets Palpatine with the help of a Sith pathfinder at his whereabouts on Exegol, a planet in the unknown regions of the galaxy, in order to destroy him for good. However, Palpatine offers Kylo Ren a gigantic fleet of Star Destroyers, using the same technology as the Death Stars, to rebuild the Empire, the Last Order , on condition that he destroy Rey; he reveals two things to him: Rey is the Emperor's granddaughter. His son, Rey's father, turned away from his family. To protect his daughter from the Emperor's captors, he hid her on Jakku; however, he and Rey's mother were discovered and murdered. Furthermore, Snoke is a tool created by Palpatine; From the beginning, Palpatine was behind the developments of the current conflict between resistance and first order as well as behind Kylo's visions that led him to the dark side.
Rey lives and trains at the base of the resistance. There she received news of Palpatine's survival and his plans; she goes on a search for Exegol with Finn, Poe, Chewbacca, C-3PO and BB-8. With the help of Lando Calrissian she finds a way to the second Death Star, in the ruins of which she finds the second Sith pathfinder, but is provided by Kylo Ren, who destroys him. In battle, Rey seriously wounds Kylo Ren, but uses the Force to heal his fatal injury. During the fight his mother Leia Organa calls him by his real name "Ben", whereupon she dies in the presence of R2-D2. After Rey's escape, Kylo Ren remains on the wreckage of the second Death Star. There his father appears to him in a vision that leads him back to the light side of power.
Rey sets out to Exegol with Kylo Ren's pathfinder and allows the Resistance to follow her there. The resistance is calling for help in the battle against the First Order through radio signals across the galaxy. Rey meets Palpatine, who, as his granddaughter, offers her the Sith throne in order to deprive her of her life energy and thus bring himself back to life for good. With Kylo Ren's help, Rey is able to resist and kill the Emperor, but is so badly injured that she dies. Kylo Ren succeeds in bringing Rey back to life by using the Force to transfer his life energy to her, but dies in the process and becomes one with the Force. The resistance fighters defeat the Star Destroyer fleet, the Sith Empire goes under. Rey goes to Tatooine to bury Luke and Leia's lightsabers on the Lars farm, symbolic of the Skywalker twins. She takes the name Skywalker in memory of her.
History of origin
Main responsible persons
|IV||1977||George Lucas||Gary Kurtz|
|V||1980||Irvin Kershner||Leigh Brackett & Lawrence Kasdan||George Lucas|
|VI||1983||Richard Marquand||George Lucas & Lawrence Kasdan||Howard G. Kazanjian|
|I.||1999||George Lucas||Rick McCallum|
|II||2002||George Lucas||George Lucas & Jonathan Hales||George Lucas|
|VII||2015||JJ Abrams||Lawrence Kasdan, JJ Abrams & Michael Arndt||Kathleen Kennedy , JJ Abrams & Bryan Burk|
|VIII||2017||Rian Johnson||Kathleen Kennedy &
|IX||2019||JJ Abrams||JJ Abrams &
|Kathleen Kennedy, Michelle Rejwan & JJ Abrams|
Development of the trilogies
The emergence of Star Wars began under a contract, the Lucas with the film studio Universal has completed in the 1971st Lucas was commissioned to produce two films, American Graffiti and a science fiction project that would later become Star Wars . After the former was published in 1973, Lucas designed a two-page concept for the latter called The Journal of the Whills . After the draft was rejected as too difficult to understand, Lucas drafted a 14-page synopsis of a space adventure film titled The Star Wars , which was inspired by numerous myths and classic stories and some parallels to Akira Kurosawa's film The hidden fortress exhibited . However, this draft was also rejected by Universal and other film studios, such as United Artists .
Finally Lucas presented his idea to the new creative director of 20th Century Fox , Alan Ladd junior . He saw potential in the filmmaker because of Lucas' previous achievements with American Graffiti and THX 1138 , but he too was cautious about his idea for Star Wars . He signed a preliminary contract with Lucas, so that in May 1974 Lucas began to work out his draft and write a first screenplay. In 1975, Lucas hired Ralph McQuarrie to create production drawings for his film project. These drawings were instrumental in convincing 20th Century Fox to fund the production of Star Wars and release the film. The team initially had a budget of 10 million US dollars. Lucas waived a fee and had the merchandising rights for his film guaranteed in its place.
While writing the script for Star Wars , which grew to over 200 pages, Lucas realized that the story was too long for a single film. So he planned to split the script into three films. To do this, he negotiated a contract with his production company that gave him the right to produce two sequels if the first film was successful.
Star Wars was finally released on May 25, 1977. With a gross profit of $ 775.4 million, it was commercially successful above average. Therefore, Lucas then started working on a successor. He financed the production of this film independently with the proceeds from the previous film. In order to concentrate on the financing and the merchandising, he decided to mainly take on managerial and executive positions in the production of the successor. He was therefore looking for a co-author to work on the script. First, he recruited the writer Leigh Brackett , with whom he worked out a script. This design differed significantly from the later film in places. Originally, Luke's father and Vader were supposed to be different. Before Brackett could work out her draft into a finished script, she died of cancer in March 1978. Lucas then wrote a second script himself, based on Brackett's draft, but taking the plot in a different direction. Lucas hired screenwriter Lawrence Kasdan to help . The new script was marked by a sinister atmosphere and contained a major turning point with the relatives of Luke Skywalker and Darth Vader.
In 1980 the sequel finally appeared under the title The Empire Strikes Back . This film was the first to have an episode suffix, which numbered the film as Episode V, to the confusion of the audience. The 1977 film Star Wars was given the addition Episode IV after the release of The Empire Strikes Back . Lucas chose these numbers because he reserved episodes I to III for the prehistory that he had already roughly outlined and later wanted to make as films .
Even after the success of the first film, Lucas speculated with the production of a large number of Star Wars films. He considered making up to twelve films. He later reduced that number to nine. Shortly after the release of The Empire Strikes Back , he stated that he would produce at least one more Star Wars film. This time the production of this film was financed by Lucas himself. The script was written by Kasdan and Lucas. In May 1983 the film was released under the title Return of the Jedi . Lucas then announced in an interview that the Star Wars film project was over. He will not produce any further Star Wars films.
In the 1990s , the Star Wars brand received more attention. This went back to a Star Wars comic series by Dark Horse and the Thrawn Trilogy , a novel series by author Timothy Zahn that continued the events of Return of the Jedi . Lucas realized that more Star Wars films had a chance of success. It appealed to him to deal with the history of the three Star Wars films, as they would change the Star Wars saga significantly. Therefore he finally announced in 1993 that he would portray this prehistory in three films. He planned to cover the development of Anakin Skywalker to Darth Vader in the new films and thus to put this at the center of the Star Wars saga.
Lucas began work on the script for the first film on November 1, 1994. Lucas reverted to early drafts that treat the story of Anakin as a Jedi. He had already developed these drafts for his work on the first Star Wars film in order to make it easier for himself to tell a credible storyline.
The first film in the new trilogy was finally released in 1999 under the title The Phantom Menace . Attack of the Clone Warriors followed in 2002, and with a budget of 115 million US dollars it was the most expensive Star Wars film to date . While working on this film, Lucas decided that Palpatine was the one who sparked the separatist uprising and caused the war that resulted. In 2005, the third and final film in the so-called prequel trilogy, Revenge of the Sith, was released . This film focuses on Anakin's transition to the dark side. Lucas changed the script several times while the first film was being made, sometimes drastically. He financed the production of all three films independently.
After the release of the prequel trilogy and its moderate reception, Lucas decided not to produce any more Star Wars films. On October 30, 2012, Star Wars creators George Lucas and the Walt Disney Company announced that Disney had acquired Lucasfilm and all of its subsidiaries, including the special effects company Industrial Light & Magic , and all trademark rights for around 4.05 billion US dollars. Dollars (about 3.12 billion euros) bought from the previous sole owner George Lucas. Shortly thereafter, Disney began producing Star Wars films again and developing a sequel trilogy.
Work on the first film in the so-called sequel trilogy, Episode VII, began shortly after the takeover by Disney. JJ Abrams was hired as director . Michael Arndt initially worked as an author on the project until he had to get out of the Star Wars saga because of his work with The Hunger Games . In October 2013 he was replaced by Lawrence Kasdan . John Williams was hired to compose the score for the entire sequel trilogy.
Episode VII was released under the title The Force Awakens in December 2015. Episode VIII was released under the name The Last Jedi in December 2017. The final Episode IX, entitled The Rise of Skywalker , started in December 2019. Episode VIII, The Last Jedi , was directed by Rian Johnson , who also wrote the script. For The rise Skywalker JJ Abrams again led directing.
Filming and trick technology
For the production of the first film, Lucas wanted to use the best possible animation technique. To do this, he founded his own company for special effects with Industrial Light & Magic. For the development of the effects, Lucas stated that the design should be based on existing equipment, buildings, textiles, weapons and means of transport. Due to the tight budget, he tried to avoid the complex construction of building props when shooting for Star Wars . He therefore looked for suitable backdrops, which he found in London and Tunisia , for example .
So far, all films in the Star Wars epic have been shot in an original aspect ratio of 2.35: 1 ( Cinemascope ). The original trilogy and Episode I were shot on 35 mm film negative with anamorphic lenses. Episodes II and III were recorded with high-resolution digital cameras of the Sony Cinealta model and digitally post-processed.
Episode IV was one of the first films to use the Dolby Stereo four-channel optical sound system. In some countries, a high quality 70 mm blowup was produced from this film with the magnetic sound format Dolby Stereo 6 Track.
With Episode VI, Lucasfilm presented the newly developed THX quality seal for image and sound for the first time . Episode I was the first film to be released using the Dolby Digital EX sound system. For the entire prequel trilogy, Lucas also had the ability to use computer-generated special effects , which he did on a large scale.
The score for all nine Star Wars films was composed by John Williams . Williams' music is characterized by themes and themes . Each film opens with the main theme . This piece should represent idealism and euphoria, accompanied by sounds that seem military. Individual characters and locations were given a certain melody and certain sounds that expressed their presence in the films both physically and figuratively. The Imperial March, for example, is the theme of Darth Vaders. This technique of motifs and themes is often used in operas and is found mainly in Richard Wagner .
The soundtrack to Star Wars is mainly composed for a full symphony orchestra and partly uses stylistic, rhythmic and harmonic twists and turns and content from the late romantic , new music and early Hollywood era. It is characterized by a wide range of rhythmically driven marches, lyrical string melodies and bright fanfares with a high recognition value. The main title , which can be heard in all nine films at the opening , is one of the best-known film scores worldwide. The use of classical music went back to an idea by Lucas, who wanted to use traditional sounds familiar to the audience as a contrast to futuristic science fiction. Although Williams already with blockbusters such as The Towering Inferno , The Poseidon Adventure , and Jaws had established himself as a film composer, made him Star Wars one of the most famous composers and gefragtesten the world.
Williams' soundtracks to the prequels emphasize the old motifs, but weave them into a more subtle musical dynamic. Williams also changed his way of processing themes and motifs. So he noticeably thinned out the use of old and new themes over the entire length of the film in order to create a more archetypal soundscape, in complete contrast to the clearer unification of character and local motifs of the earlier films.
All Star Wars films in the Skywalker saga use an opening text that sums up the film's history. Lucas imitated the Flash Gordon series with this design element by allowing his opening text to “run” through the image at a steep angle from bottom to top, as if the text were disappearing into a starry sky far away. The so-called story films, which tell the events of the Star Wars universe outside of the Skywalker saga, do without the scrolling text.
The order of the films and series does not correspond to the history of their creation. The following table shows the order within the universe.
|films and series||fictitious calendar (in years)|
The Phantom Menace
Attack of the Clones.
Revenge of the Sith
The Empire Strikes Back
Return of the Jedi
The Force Awakens
The Last Jedi
The Rise of Skywalker
The Clone Wars (+ movie )
The consequences of the series The Powers of Fate take place at different times, so that a list in the table is not meaningful. Also not listed miniseries, short stories, comics, books and other ancillary works of the official Star Wars - canon and the theme park Star Wars: Galaxy's Edge (between VIII and IX). The fictitious calendar of the Star Wars universe is used for the schematic classification of the actions . This differentiates between the years before the Battle of Yavin (VSY) and after the Battle of Yavin (NSY). The Battle of Yavin IV marks the end of Star Wars (1977), in which Luke Skywalker and the Rebel Alliance destroy the first Death Star .
|1997||VHS||Revised episodes IV – VI|
|2004||DVD||Episodes IV – VI in new, revised versions|
|2006||Episodes IV – VI in revised versions from 2004
and in their original versions
|2011||Blu-ray||Episodes I – VI in new, revised versions|
|2015||Blu-ray / digital||Episodes I – VI in their revised versions
from 2011 with revised logos
|2019||Disney +||Episodes I – VI in revised versions
from 2019 (created in 2012) in 4K and with HDR
|2020||Ultra HD Blu-ray|
In 1997, Episodes IV, V and VI were re-released as a Special Edition . For this purpose, the films were restored and some visual effects were changed or added according to Lucas' ideas. In some places, however, he also made changes to the content. A controversy arose over the change to the "Han shot first" scene, a sequence from Episode IV in which Han shoots the bounty hunter Greedo. In the original, Han beats the bounty hunter, while in the revised version Greedo first shoots past and Han counters almost at the same time. Lucas justified his changes in content by stating that these changes made the films in the state in which he wanted to publish them back then, but this was denied to him due to various requirements.
When it became apparent that the VHS cassette would be replaced by the DVD , fans and the film distributor asked Lucas to also publish the classic trilogy on DVD. However, Lucas initially resisted it because he wanted to publish a new edition of the original trilogy only after the publication of Episode III. However, since Lucas feared an increase in film piracy, he decided to bring the films to the market earlier. In preparation for this new release, the films were revised once again by Lowry Digital Images and provided with some changes. In Episode VI, for example, Lucas replaced the cast of the ghost of the late Anakin Skywalker in the scene after the destruction of the second Death Star. This ghost is played in the new version by Hayden Christensen, who played Anakin in Episodes II and III. In the original version of the film, the ghost was played by Sebastian Shaw . This DVD collection was released on September 20, 2004 with episodes IV to VI revised by Lowry.
On September 14, 2006, after numerous Internet petitions and mailing campaigns by fans, a new DVD edition of the original trilogy followed, which included the revised versions from 2004 as well as the unedited cinema versions from 1977 to 1983. Lucasfilm approved a sale of this edition until December 31, 2006 - the dealers were then obliged to stop the sale and return the films.
On August 14, 2010, Lucas announced at the Star Wars Celebration V Convention in Orlando that all six films would be released on Blu-ray Disc in Fall 2011 . In addition, Lucas planned to release the films in 3D . He first announced this at a ShoWest convention in 2005. Episode I started as the first part in 3D and was released in US cinemas on February 10, 2012. In Germany, the 3D version of Episode I was released by 20th Century Fox on February 9, 2012. Worldwide, the 3D re-release of Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace played around 103 million US dollars (86.9 million US dollars). Euros; 93.6 million Swiss francs). After taking over Star Wars rights holder Lucasfilm, Disney decided not to work on 3D re-releases of the remaining five films until further notice, as the company wanted to concentrate entirely on work on Episode VII.
After Disney bought Lucasfilm, the films were first released digitally and again on Blu-ray in 2015, but with redesigned logos and the removal of the Fox fanfare in all films except Star Wars . Otherwise, the 2011 versions were used for all films.
Due to the takeover of 20th Century Fox by Disney , the Fox logo and fanfare were restored for the launch of the Disney + streaming platform on November 12, 2019. For the first time, the films were released in 4K resolution and with Dolby Vision HDR . The original trilogy was again prepared, corrected and changed visually. The changes are made by George Lucas in 2012, before Lucasfilm was sold to Disney. The films were updated with the new versions on other streaming platforms after they were released on Disney +. The films were announced as Ultra HD Blu-ray for 2020 .
Sources of inspiration and role models
The makers of the Star Wars films let themselves be influenced to a large extent by other films, television shows, and other popular culture products in their development . This includes, above all, works by the Japanese director Akira Kurosawa . Lucas took inspiration from Kurosawa's film The Hidden Fortress when designing a number of characters, including Darth Vader, whose distinctive black helmet is modeled on a Japanese kabuto , and the droid duo R2-D2 and C-3PO. In designing the rebels, Lucas borrowed from Kurosawa's film Sanjuro .
Lucas was also inspired by Frank Herbert's Dune novels, one of the most important works of science fiction from the 1960s . This applies, for example, to the design of the plot and the locations. The works have in common, among other things, a desert planet as an important setting and an evil emperor as an opponent. The design of some robots, particularly that of the B1 battle droids and that of General Grievous in Episode III, is based on the sculpture The Rock Drill , which Jacob Epstein created before the First World War .
Another influence on Lucas' creative process were the works of the mythologist Joseph Campbell , especially his book The Heros in a Thousand Forms . In it, Campbell came to the conclusion that the myths of different cultures and times were structured uniformly and had certain leitmotifs . The uniform, archetypal basic structure used by all myths is called “monomythos”, is also known as the hero's journey and follows the structure of departure - initiation - return. Above all, the original trilogy was based closely on The Heros in a Thousand Figures and the Monomyth, important characters such as Luke Skywalker and Darth Vader are based on characters from the book.
For the fictional concept of power, Lucas was inspired by a discussion that the US scientist Warren McCulloch had with the director Roman Kroitor , which focused on the reduction of the biological to the mechanical.
For Star Wars , Lucas orientated himself heavily on elements of East Asian culture, philosophy and spirituality. These include Taoism , Buddhism and Confucianism . For example, there is a parallel to Buddhism in the way Jedi die. The concept is similar to the Bodhisattva of Mahayana Buddhism . One remains as a spirit in order to train subsequent generations, unlike when completely extinguishing in nirvana .
Lucas said he was heavily inspired by World War II and the Nazi dictatorship . At several points, such as the emergence of the dictatorial empire, George Lucas draws close parallels to the National Socialist dictatorship in Germany, where Hitler also came to power through the use of democratic means and an enabling law . Further allusions to this can be found, among other things, in the uniforms of the imperial troops, in the term " storm troops ", in the suppression of minorities , in imperial propaganda as well as in the general procedure and work of the dictatorial state under Palpatine, the emperor . The weapons of individual figures are based on those from World War II, such as the Sterling L2A3 or the MG42 . The air battles shown in Star Wars were modeled on recordings from World War II. For the invasion of the planet Hoth by the Imperial Army in The Empire Strikes Back served grave war as a model. The Order 66 to the night of the long knives be ajar.
When designing the First Order, director Abrams was guided by the idea of organizing former SS members , a suspected group of National Socialists who fled to South America towards the end of the war. The First Order sees itself as the successor to the Empire, which Darth Vader regards as a martyr and wants to resume the role that the Empire took in the galaxy.
The aerial war was the model for the spaceship battles in space
Analysis and interpretation
Star Wars was interpreted by numerous recipients in the context of myths . The US psychoanalyst Bruno Bettelheim said in Harper's Magazine in 1981 that the Star Wars films gave viewers hope for the future and that given the current threats, such as the Cold War, they could be safe there the next day to be. In Star Wars , wars are fought over problems that have motivated people in the past. Despite material progress, the basic concerns of human beings - especially the struggle between good and evil - would remain the same.
The two American English scholars Carl Silvio and Tony M. Vinci wrote that the terms myth and Star Wars are closely linked in the public consciousness. This connection also met with great interest outside of academic circles. This was evident from the great success of the Star Wars and the Magic of Myth exhibition , which began in 1997 at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum and later went on tour through the United States, and the book of the same name.
Joseph Campbell's comparative mythologies were criticized negatively as reducing, according to the US scientist Kevin J. Wetmore Jun., Because Campbell - like Lucas - enriched ancient myths with modern, psychological readings. Wetmore came to the point that the criticism that Campbell is depriving myths of their original meaning by modernizing and psychologizing them also applies to those who try to compare Star Wars with the myths of a multitude of cultures.
The author Daniel Mackay stated in the science fiction magazine Foundation 1999 that an anti-mythological message emanates from Star Wars because the message about the human mind is composed of remnants of earlier mythologies that no longer have any meaning in today's life and the "scientific Capitalism mythology ”.
The German philologist Heinz Wismann recognized similarities between Homer's Iliad and Star Wars . In Star Wars, too , there are a number of arists , that is, deeds "with which certain heroes [...] demonstrate their bravery," including Luke Skywalker's fight against Darth Vader.
The concept of power and related considerations of good and evil are also a major theme of the Star Wars reception.
Vinci was convinced that power in the original trilogy was defined as a generalized, spiritual being that had the potential to strengthen all individuals and to unite all living things regardless of the cultural position of the individual. In the prequel trilogy, on the other hand, power is an institutionalized tool of the cultural elite that serves to train peacekeepers and to preserve the status quo . Vinci saw Wetmore's opinion confirmed, according to which the only use of the Jedi in the prequel trilogy was to keep themselves and other powerful people in power and to prevent resistance to the rule of the Republic. The Jedi, so Vinci, therefore appeared in the prequel trilogy in comparison to the original trilogy in terms of their social duties and position radically changed.
The French philosopher Tristan Garcia, referring to the concept of power in the original trilogy, emphasized that the originality of Star Wars consists in “tracing and naming the fictional point of modern science under the guise of a science fiction world With the fictitious point, Garcia means the “indefinable character of force”, that is, that part of the movement for which there is no scientifically and technically rational justification. With this, Garcia said, power has the properties of a myth.
The fact that power in the first film of the prequel trilogy The Phantom Menace is explained by the presence of the midi-chlorians was generally interpreted as the reduction from something mystical to something scientifically rational and therefore criticized negatively - especially by fans. In response to this, the German science journalist Ulf von Rauchhaupt interpreted in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung in 2015 the view that power would be biologically reduced or disenchanted to something rationally material as illogical. The reaction of the fans shows "how quickly even spiritual thinking can tip over into a rationalism with the opposite sign."
The French philosopher Alexandre Lacroix compared Anakin Skywalker with the late antique philosopher Augustine of Hippo . Lacroix came to the conclusion that Lucas followed “the more subtle and humane ideas of Augustine” with the first two trilogies and thus did not propagate a “very crude idea of evil” as is common in many other Hollywood productions. This is made clear by the fact that Anakin has free will and goes as far on the side of evil as on that of good , for example when he attacks his wife Padmé on the one hand, but also kills the villain Palpatine on the other.
Among the recipients, the interpretation is widespread that the story told by Luke Skywalker in the original trilogy reflects the Oedipus conflict . The comparison is explained, among other things, by the fact that Luke only becomes a hero through the confrontation with his father, in this case a Jedi knight. The French philosopher Clotilde Leguil wrote in the Star Wars special edition of the philosophy magazine (2015) that Luke's Oedipus conflict also corresponds to Jacques Lacan's interpretation of the Oedipus conflict; Luke is a figure of the little other and Darth Vader a figure of the overpowering, great other .
In the seventh Star Wars film, The Force Awakens, some critics also believed they saw a retelling of the Oedipus conflict. It becomes - according to the critic of the US magazine Esquire - clear when Kylo Ren kills his father Han Solo and thanks him.
The French authors Pelisse and Cluzel (1999), however, believed to recognize a number of differences between the heroic journeys of Luke Skywalker and Oedipus and therefore referred to Luke as anti-Oedipus . The differences are, for example, that Oedipus - unlike Luke - kills his father without the certainty that it is his father, and that Luke only hurts his father after he has tried to avoid it.
With Star Wars, Lucas originally pursued the goal of reacting to the political situation in the United States in the 1970s . This consisted of the conservative post-war period of the Vietnam War (1955–1975), the socio-political lethargy that gripped the United States as a result of Nixon's resignation; the stagflation and the oil price crisis . For example, Lucas outlined his idea of Star Wars towards the end of the Vietnam War as a story in which a strong and technological superpower tries to take over a small peasant state.
In the original trilogy, recipients believed they saw parallels to the Cold War . According to the author Nick Desloge, for example, this becomes clear in the use of satellite states such as Cloud City, the presence of a weapon of mass destruction - in the case of Star Wars, the Death Star - and the blockade in the Battle of Hoth, which is similar to the Berlin blockade .
Star Wars has been credited with being shaped by a colonialist and imperialist ideology. Wetmore, for example, compared the films to the theories of Frantz Fanon , a writer who advocated decolonization . An imperialist ideology is evident from the use of expressions like The Rebellion or The Empire, or from the fact that Governor Tarkin uses the Death Star as the colonial powers in Africa and Asia once used their military power to keep their natives "loyal to the line". The US political scientist Christopher Deis suggested that the Galactic Empire served as a metaphor for the colonial and imperial era in which European nation-states dominated Asia, Africa and America. The Galactic Empire is a Racial State , which is symbolized by its external and internal rules of xenophobia , discrimination , ghettoization and in extreme cases also genocide against aliens and the Jedi.
Gender and Sexuality
The US cultural scientist Diana Dominguez analyzed that the character Padmé developed in the course of the prequel trilogy from a frank, risk-ready queen to a woman who loses the will to live when her husband turns away from her. Padmé could therefore be understood as an “alarming reflection of the complex, confusing and contradicting messages” that young women received from society and the media. So the character Padmé - in contrast to Princess Leia in the original trilogy - is not a role model for girls and women.
Wetmore came to believe that female characters in the first six films would be portrayed as in fairy tales , that is, as rich, attractive young ladies who often need to be rescued. Along with this, he noted that these films lack not only strong female characters, but also sexuality : In the original trilogy, Han Solo, Leia and Lando are the only sexual beings; In the prequel trilogy, the love affair between Padmé and Anakin is presented as being downright “sexless” (German for example: “genderless”). The lack of sexuality is also made clear by the fact that the Jedi are not allowed to have sex and they have to cultivate celibacy .
In the first film of the Sequel trilogy, women play a more important role than in the previous two trilogies. This becomes clear in the heroine Rey, but also in the fact that there are other women who not only appear as background characters.
With Star Wars , a film started in 1977 that was given little chance in advance of ever being able to bring in its production costs. Although Lucas had proven with American Graffiti that he could celebrate success at the box office, skepticism still prevailed, especially with regard to the technical feasibility of his ideas.
The success of the first film was resounding - both in the box office results and in the way in which it suddenly established itself in the public's consciousness. Critics praised the film as outstanding. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times newspaper described the effects of the film as high quality. The plot is simply structured, but appealing. Vincent Canby praised the film in the New York Times as the most elaborate, expensive and beautiful film ever. Hans Blumenberg, on the other hand, criticized the film as boring and unemotional at the time .
The successor The Empire Strikes Back was viewed positively when it was released, but the ratings were weaker than the predecessor. In retrospect, however, the film is seen as the best Star Wars film. Ebert wrote that Episode V had the deepest storyline and the characters were very well written. San Francisco Examiner's Bob Stephens praised the drama of the film. In addition, he described the design of the environments, vehicles and creatures as extraordinarily successful. Blumenberg criticized that the figures were hardly developed again. Instead, he focuses too much on special effects. This makes the film look flat.
The Return of the Jedi received mixed reviews. In some cases it was rated as just as successful as its predecessors, while others described it as weak. Patrick Gibbs of the Daily Telegraph criticized ridiculous dialogue. Vincent Canby complained that the storyline was confused and the battle sequences were confusing.
Episodes I through III were generally perceived as worse than the previous films. For the first episode, Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times wrote that the dialogues lacked wit. The acting performance does not come close to the level of the first trilogy. The film is also kept too childish overall. Desson Howe described the characters as implausible. They don't come close to the characters from the earlier films. On the other hand, the special effects were successful. Bob Graham of the San Francisco Chronicle followed suit . He praised the high quality of the visual effects that show up in busy sets with diverse creatures. The main characters, on the other hand, seem unexciting.
According to Ebert, the attack by the clone warriors was mostly monotonous and the love story between Anakin and Padme was too long and unconvincing. The film critic Anthony Scott wrote in the New York Times that the film was technically a milestone with outstanding battles. However, despite its effects, the film does not achieve the creativity and charm of the old trilogy. Carsten Baumgardt from the online magazine Filmstarts, on the other hand, praised the improvement of the film compared to its predecessor, even if the film seems too lengthy in places.
In Revenge of the Sith , Peter Bradshaw of the Guardian criticized the poor performance and the poor script. Carsten Baumgardt described the frequent use of CGI effects as exaggerated, the film often seems too clear as a pure material battle. Convincing, on the other hand, are the actors whose performance was the best in terms of episodes 1 and 2. Dietmar Dath from the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung praised the fact that Lucas learned from the criticism of the predecessors during the production of the third episode and that the new trilogy was a successful conclusion.
The Force Awakening received mostly positive reception. Robbie Collin of the Daily Telegraph praised the film for telling an exciting story with well-designed characters. He thus ties in with the qualities of the original trilogy. According to Tom Long of Detroit News, he is recapturing the spirit of the old films and not suffering from the mistakes made in the production of the prequel trilogy. Although there are great similarities to Episode IV, this does not seem disturbing.
Representation of species and races
A subject of criticism of the Star Wars films that has often been taken up is the portrayal of species , races and ethnic minorities .
The US historian Andrew Howe summarized that the original trilogy lacked human, ethnic minorities and that mainly white people inhabited the Star Wars universe. The Galactic Empire and the Rebel Alliance are largely white , apart from a few multicultural elements . The ethnic minorities in the trilogy are mostly aliens and droids. In addition to the depiction of the Tusken robbers, the problem is that the character Darth Vader equates blackness with the devil.
Kevin J. Wetmore, author of The Empire Triumphant - Race, Religion and Rebellion in the Star Wars Films , said the first two trilogies take a reductionist approach to depicting other planets, species, and cultures. All beings on a single planet, regardless of their geographical, religious, political, economic, philosophical, and cultural differences would be represented as symbolic of all individuals in the world. There are only homogeneous groups on the planet; Differences between different members of the same species are obliterated, provided that they are not humans.
In the first Star Wars film A New Hope , the lack of colored people was criticized negatively. In response to this criticism, the character Lando Calrissian , who appears for the first time in the second film The Empire Strikes Back , was cast with a dark-skinned actor. Lando Calrissian has been criticized for being portrayed as a hypersexual figure - for example because of his flirt-like greeting from Princess Leia .
A major negative point of criticism of the prequel trilogy, which was expressed by both the press and fans, is the computer-generated character Jar Jar Binks , who belongs to the amphibious species of the Gungans and was spoken by the black Ahmed Best in the original English version . Critics judged Binks to be portrayed stereotypically and racially . According to several critics, Binks' way of speaking is stereotypical for Caribbean characters. In the whole trilogy blacks would be reduced to the - so Wetmore - "clown figure" Binks as well as the servant Panaka and the "useless" Mace Windu .
The first film in the prequel trilogy, The Phantom Menace , was criticized particularly negatively; especially in the portrayal of Binks and the Neimoidians, for example the New York Times , racial stereotypes become clear. Journalist John Leo in the conservative Washington Times also shared this opinion . Three other authors of this newspaper defended Lucas against the criticism. One of them, the publicist and former Vice Secretary of the Treasury Paul Craig Roberts , said that the criticism was a reaction from the liberal side to a conservative film.
Howe emphasized that there are also a number of positive examples of the portrayal of ethnic minorities in the prequel trilogy. The planet Tatooine is presented as quite cosmopolitan , with the Sith the main villains are essentially white and several Polynesian actors such as Temuera Morrison played important roles. Howe also noted that Wetmore is "usually" a little quick at "yelling" about the Star Wars Aliens racism.
The Star Wars films received numerous awards. Most of the awards went to Star Wars . The nine films have been nominated for an Oscar 37 times in a wide variety of categories , including best film, director, supporting actor and film music. The film series won seven Oscars, six of which were for Episode IV and one Oscar for Episode V. In addition, the Classic Trilogy received three honorary Oscar.
Three Oscars for the film series are special Oscars . Episode IV received the special Oscar for the voices of aliens and droids. The two successors received the special award for their particularly high-quality visual effects.
In addition, the films won numerous other awards, such as People's Choice Awards and Saturn Awards . Of the latter, Episode IV received 13 alone. The soundtrack brought composer John Williams not only an Oscar but also six Grammys , two BAFTA Awards and a Golden Globe . In a list of the best film scores of all time published on September 23, 2005 by the American Film Institute ( "100 Years of Film Scores" ), based on the evaluation of a jury consisting of over 500 artists, composers, musicians, critics and historians of the film industry , the score for Star Wars came out on top.
|category||Episodes & offshoots|
|Best film score||Won||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated|
|Best production design||Won||Nominated||Nominated|
|Best make-up and best hairstyles||Nominated|
|Best supporting actor||Nominated|
|Best costume design||Won|
|Best original script||Nominated|
|Best sound editing||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated|
|Best visual effects||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated||Won||Nominated||Nominated||Nominated|
|Honorary Oscar for special achievements||Awarded||Awarded||Awarded|
The eleven films released to date, which are part of the three film trilogies and offshoots of Star Wars , grossed more than nine billion US dollars so far. Seven of the films are in the top 100 financially successful films . There is A New Hope in 99th place (as of August 8, 2020), The Phantom Menace in 43 (as of August 8, 2020), The Revenge of the Sith in 73 (as of August 8, 2020), Das Force Awakens in 4th place (as of August 8, 2020), Rogue One: A Star Wars Story in 36th (as of August 8, 2020), The Last Jedi in 14th (as of August 8, 2020) and The Skywalker rose to 32nd place (as of August 8, 2020).
In 2005, the magazine estimated Forbes by Star Wars - Merchandising US dollar and called earned up to that revenue to around 20 billion Star Wars here as the most financially successful film project of all time. Revenue from licensing the Star Wars brand increased to approximately $ 27 billion in 2012, of which George Lucas received approximately $ 3 billion until the licensing rights to Disney were sold. The Fortune Magazine estimated the total revenue of the brand Star Wars was achieved, up to 42 billion US dollars. Other estimates came to similar results. The biggest items were the toys and the box office results.
Star Wars was instrumental in making 20th Century Fox one of the most important film studios in the United States.
|USA & Canada||D.||world||D.||Europe||USA & Canada|
|1977||A new hope||11||461||775||8th|
|1980||The Empire Strikes Back||23||290||548||5.05|
|1983||Return of the Jedi||33||309||475||5.05|
|1999||The phantom menace||115||475||54||1027||8.9||48.4||84.7|
|2002||attack of the Clone warriors||115||311||35||657||5.5||31.7||53.5|
|2005||Revenge of the Sith||115||380||47||849||5.6||33||59.3|
|2008||Star Wars The Clone Wars||9||35||69|
|2015||The Force Awakens||306||937||110||2068||9||63.2|
|2016||Rogue One: A Star Wars Story||200||532||46.6||1056||4th||29.9|
|2017||The last Jedi||200||620||83||1333||5.9|
|2018||Solo: A Star Wars Story||275||214||16.7||393||1.3|
|2019||The rise of Skywalker||275||515||66.8||1073||5.2|
|in millions of dollars||in millions|
Media and cultural impact
To Star Wars appeared several parodies and tributes that address individual episodes as well as the merchandising products. A prominent parody is Spaceballs by Mel Brooks from 1987, which alludes to many elements from Star Wars , such as characters, power and merchandising. The film Fanboys , which is about four friends who want to break into the Skywalker Ranch , also addresses the merchandising for Star Wars . (T) Spaceship Surprise - Period 1 alludes to some Star Wars characters . The film Men Who Stare at Goats also takes up individual elements from Star Wars , such as the existence of power and the order of the Jedi. In the cartoon series Family Guy , the films tell Blue Harvest , Somewhere, Somehow, Sometime on the dark side and It's a trap! the Star Wars episodes A New Hope , The Empire Strikes Back and The Return of the Jedi . The animation television series Robot Chicken also parodies the Star Wars films in several episodes .
That in the United States during the administration of Ronald Reagan planned project of a defense shield against intercontinental ballistic missiles , the Strategic Defense Initiative , was due to their space-based weapons systems based on Star Wars by most media as Star Wars designated project. This name went back to a statement by Senator Edward Kennedy , who thought the project was an illusory fantasy. A televised address in 1983 in which Reagan announced the SDI program became widely known as the "Star Wars Speech".
In 2001, several thousand citizens named Jediism as their religion in several censuses in English-speaking countries, including England, Wales, Australia, Canada and New Zealand . In England and Wales around 390,000 citizens professed Jediism, in Australia over 70,000, in Canada over 21,000 and in New Zealand over 53,000. Jediism sees itself as a syncretistic worldview based on the Jedi from Star Wars .
On May 1, 2007, the city of Los Angeles declared May 25 to be Star Wars Day . May 25, 1977 was the day on which the first Star Wars film had its cinema premiere in the USA. In addition, May 4th is considered by many fans as "Star Wars Day" because of a pun: The English pronunciation of the date ("May, the fourth") sounds similar to the beginning of the sentence "May the force be with you" ("May the force be with you"), which appears frequently in the films.
Since 2002 LucasFilm and Atomfilms have supported the Star Wars Fan Film Awards , an annual film competition in which Star Wars fans present short films they have made themselves.
Star Wars and Science
The characters from Star Wars are an issue in science too. When developing characters for films, certain personality traits are usually consciously chosen in order to distinguish them from other characters (the classic: good vs. bad). This is used for studies to report back to the test subjects a character match with certain actors, packaged in a quiz. This is achieved in that the individual characters are assessed by assessors in a preliminary study according to certain characteristics (e.g. personality and emotional intelligence). On the basis of these reference values, the test subjects are then fed back a match value in the form of a percentage value (e.g. based on the questionnaire data given, their personality is most similar to Luke Skywalker - 58% match). However, these studies have a strictly scientific approach, in that only tried and tested, validated questionnaires are used, and they are very different from popular science personality quizzes (so-called “psychological tests”), as can be found in some magazines.
Studies on this can be found in English-speaking countries, such as those from 2017, which Time Magazine carried out in collaboration with employees of the University of Cambridge , as well as from 2019 in German-speaking countries.
The term Advanced universe (Engl. Expanded Universe ) be in Star Wars all licensed -Context Star Wars passed materials outside the film trilogies. The expanded universe includes books, comic books, games, and other media that expand the stories told in the films. The individual stories take place up to 25,000 years before Episode I and up to 140 years after Episode VI.
The expansion of the Star Wars universe began in January 1978 with the Marvel Comics Star Wars # 7 and Alan Dean Foster's novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye ( The New Adventures of Luke Skywalker , later dubbed Skywalker's Return ). After the early development was rather sporadic and uncoordinated due to the small amount of official material, a big step was taken in expanding the Extended Universe in 1987 with the publication of the Star Wars role-playing game by West End Games . In order for role-playing game players to create new adventures, West End Games developed a large amount of supplementary material that added details to the Star Wars universe.
The position of the expanded universe changed with the takeover by Disney. In late April 2014, Disney announced that the expanded universe was no longer part of the official canon and would continue to exist independently under the collective name of Legends . The Star Wars canon now includes films, the Star Wars Rebels and Star Wars: The Clone Wars series, as well as all newly released Star Wars media. This gave Disney a greater creative leeway in the production of new films. Future Star Wars new releases will be developed in cooperation with the so-called Lucasfilm Story Group in order to maintain continuity between the works.
In 2015, a Star Wars fan and researcher from the École polytechnique in Lausanne studied the characters from all episodes, books and games. He cataloged them and put them in relation with the means of graph theory . In the multitude of media in the Star Wars universe there are therefore 20,000 characters who exist in 640 societies. Of these, 7,500 play an essential role, particularly 1,367 Jedi and 724 Sith. The time frame extends over 36,000 years, which are divided into six periods: "Before Republic", "Old Republic", "Empire", "Rebellion", "New Republic" and the "Jedi Order". Nearly 80% of the galaxy's populations are human.
A Star Wars Story Films
In 2015, Disney announced the production of several spin-off films, which are grouped under the name Anthology . These films shed light on individual characters and events from the episodes. However, the term anthology was dropped a short time later. Instead, the film titles were given the suffix A Star Wars Story . The first film in this series, Rogue One: A Star Wars Story , started in Germany on December 15, 2016 and takes place immediately before Episode IV; Directed by Gareth Edwards . Solo: A Star Wars Story was released in May 2018. Another film in this series was initially planned for 2020. However, it was later decided to take a break from the feature films after The Rise of Skywalker . The actions of the offshoots are part of the official canon.
|2016||Rogue One: A Star Wars Story||Gareth Edwards||Chris Weitz & Tony Gilroy||Kathleen Kennedy , Allison Shearmur & Simon Emanuel||Yes|
|2018||Solo: A Star Wars Story||Ron Howard||Lawrence Kasdan & Jon Kasdan|
In November 1978, the Star Wars Holiday Special aired. Lucas, who was involved in the production to a small extent, forbade the holiday special to be broadcast or published in any other way due to the poor quality .
In November 1984 and 1985, the TV films Ewoks: Caravan of Courage and Ewoks: Kampf um Endor (Battle for Endor) followed , which revolved around the adventures of the Ewoks known from Episode VI, but are set before Episode VI.
|year||German title||Original title||Classification in the Star Wars universe||canon|
|1978||no German publication||The Star Wars Holiday Special||between episodes IV and V||No|
|1984||Ewoks - The Caravan of the Brave||Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure||between episodes V and VI, based on The Ewoks|
|1985||Ewoks - Battle for Endor||Ewoks: The Battle for Endor||based on Star Wars: Ewoks - The Caravan of the Brave|
|year||German title||Original title||Classification in the Star Wars universe||canon|
|1985-1986||Friends in Space (cartoon series)||Star Wars: Droids||before episode IV||No|
|The Ewoks (animated series)||Star Wars: Ewoks||a year before episode VI|
|2003-2005||Star Wars: Clone Wars (animation series)||Star Wars: Clone Wars||between episodes II and III|
Star Wars: The Clone Wars
(3D animation film)
|Star Wars The Clone Wars||between episodes II and III, 21 years before episode IV||Yes|
|Star Wars: The Clone Wars (3D animation series)||Star Wars The Clone Wars||between episodes II and III, 21 to 19 years before episode IV|
|2014-2018||Star Wars Rebels (3D animation series)||Star Wars Rebels||Season 1: five to four years before Episode IV
Season 2: four to three years before Episode IV
Season 3: two years before Episode IV
Season 4: one year before Episode IV
|2017-2018||Star Wars: The Forces of Destiny (animated series)||Star Wars: Forces of Destiny||different, but between the periods 32 VSY and 34 NSY|
|2018-2020||Star Wars Resistance (3D animation series)||Star Wars Resistance||six months before episode VII to before episode IX|
|since 2019||The Mandalorian||The Mandalorian||seven years after episode IV or three years after VI|
|2021||Star Wars: The Bad Batch (3D animation series)||Star Wars: The Bad Batch||after Episode III and The Clone Wars|
|2021||Untitled prequel real series for Rogue One||open||before the events of Rogue One|
|open||Untitled Obi Wan Kenobi series||open||between episodes III and IV|
In 1985 the animated series Droids was created , which shows further adventures of the droids C-3PO and R2-D2. In Germany it was broadcast on Pro Sieben as friends in space. Droids was discontinued after just one season, only the special episode The Great Heep followed in June 1986.
In 1985 the animated series Ewoks was produced, which showed further adventures of the Ewoks. In Germany they were broadcast as Die Ewoks on ZDF . Ewoks was also discontinued after the end of season two in December 1986.
From 2003 to 2005, the animated series Star Wars: Clone Wars , produced by Genndy Tartakovsky , was first broadcast, showing events from the Clone Wars that were previously discussed in Episodes II and III.
The Clone Wars
The concept of Clone Wars was later taken up again with the digitally animated television series Star Wars: The Clone Wars , of which six seasons appeared between 2008 and 2014. To kick off the series, the movie Star Wars: The Clone Wars was released in 2008 . With a budget of $ 8.5 million, it achieved gross income of nominally 68.2 million and, adjusted for inflation, 81 million dollars. On July 19, 2018, a twelve-part seventh season for Disney's planned streaming service for 2019 was announced. The final season kicked off on February 21, 2020 on Disney + .
In the fall of 2014, a new animated Star Wars television series was released under the title Star Wars Rebels . It takes place between Episode III and Episode IV and is about the building of the rebel alliance and the hunt for the last surviving Jedi knights.
Another series was planned for 2010 under the working title Star Wars: Underworld . It should cover the period between Episodes III and IV and focus on new characters or characters who only appeared as supporting roles in the movies. Work on the scripts was hampered by the writers' strike . In January 2012, the producer Rick McCallum stated that the project should not be advanced for a few years, as the technologies necessary to implement the series within the budget were not yet available. Some of the ideas for the series were carried over to other Star Wars productions or influenced productions outside of Star Wars . For example, the first two A-Star Wars story films were originally conceived as part of the real-life series and ideas were adopted in the series The Clone Wars .
For Disney's in-house VoD platform Disney + , which went online in November 2019 , a real-life series called The Mandalorian was produced, as was already planned for Star Wars: Underworld . Jon Favreau wrote and produced it. This takes place seven years after the events of Star Wars , and thus just under three years after The Return of the Jedi , and introduces numerous new characters. In addition, Disney's CEO Bob Iger announced that several other series are currently being worked on. One of these series will be about the character Cassian Andor and will be set before the events of Rogue One , while another will deal with Obi-Wan Kenobi's life between episodes III and IV .
The expanded universe developed significantly through the Thrawn trilogy by author Timothy Zahn , which was first published between 1991 and 1993 by Bantam Dell Books . This trilogy of novels enlivened the fan base and contributed significantly to the development of the Star Wars literature genre . In the US, Star Wars books are mainly marketed by Del Rey Books and Bantam Spectra. In the European market, this is mainly done by the publishers Blanvalet , Panini , Heyne and Goldmann .
As a result, numerous novels and novel series by various authors, such as Kevin J. Anderson , Jude Watson , Matthew Stover , James Luceno , Troy Denning and Karen Traviss appeared . To maintain continuity between the individual works, new Star Wars stories were submitted to subsidiary Lucas Licensing for approval prior to their release.
The expanded universe also evolved through comics, starting with Star Wars # 7 in January 1978. The comics were published by Marvel Comics from 1978 to 1986 . A total of 107 issues, 3 yearbooks, and the four-part comic book adaptation of Return of the Jedi have been published by Marvel. Well-known comic authors such as Roy Thomas and Archie Goodwin could be hired for the comics .
In 1990 the comic book licenses went to Dark Horse Comics , where well-known works such as Dark Empire , Commando Repulic or Legacy appeared. In 2015, the comic book licenses returned to Marvel Comics after 29 years.
In Germany, the comics have been published by Panini since 1999.
Numerous video games were also released for Star Wars . Lucas made an early plan to produce Star Wars media for computers. To this end, he founded a development group called the Games Group. This group initially developed a few games unrelated to Star Wars to test what the current consoles were capable of. The first game by the Games Group, which has since been renamed Lucasfilm Games, was released in 1984 under the title Ballblazer . More followed in the next few years.
In the meantime, other studios were developing Star Wars games under license . It all started with The Empire Strikes Back , released by Parker Brothers in 1982 . In this game, the player took on the role of a snow glider pilot who fought AT-ATs during the Battle of Hoth. Further games were subsequently released. After the arcade game Star Wars , which was released in 1983 and was the first game to use sound recordings from a feature film, the development of new titles was suspended due to the video game crash . In 1987, British studio Vektor Grafix began converting the 1983 arcade game for 8-bit home consoles. Other console titles followed.
In the 1990s, Lucas' development group, now renamed LucasArts, began producing Star Wars titles. 1993 appeared with X-Wing a flight simulation and with Star Wars: Rebel Assault a rail shooter . Both titles were very well received by the trade press. X-Wing is one of the best-selling games of 1993. Successors to both titles were released in the following years. In 1995 the first-person shooter Dark Forces , which was also popular at the time, was released . The 1998 published Rogue Squadron by the studio Factor 5 sold over 1.5 million copies.
In the 2000s, LucasArts concentrated mainly on the activity of a publisher and outsourced the development to other studios such as BioWare , Obsidian , Pandemic or Raven Software . An exception to this was Star Wars: The Force Unleashed , which was released in 2008 and, with over seven million units sold, is one of the best-selling Star Wars titles, along with Star Wars: Battlefront II developed by Pandemic, with over seven million units sold .
With the takeover of the Lucas companies by Disney, LucasArts was dissolved as a developer and has only served as a licensor since then. Electronic Arts secured the right to develop new Star Wars titles .
In 2015, a new video game for the Battlefront series was released as a remake of the first part called Star Wars: Battlefront (2015) . However, this game does not include a single player campaign like the previous parts. As of 2017, the sequel Star Wars: Battlefront II (2017) appeared, they offered a single-player campaign, for its action Star Wars belongs -Kanon and between the films Return of the Jedi and Star Wars: The Awakening of power plays .
In cooperation with the Disney Group, Lenovo intends to launch the Star Wars: Jedi Challenges virtual reality game set in mid-December 2017 , consisting of virtual reality glasses, a lightsaber and a tracking device.
In May 2019, ILMxLAB, Lucasfilm's VR studio , began releasing the Vader Immortal trilogy for the Oculus Quest VR headset and completed it in November 2019. The plot of the game is assigned to the official canon and is set between the films Revenge of the Sith and Rogue One .
Several Star Wars books, films and series have been adapted as radio plays by various studios . The radio plays for the six episodes of the original trilogy and the prequel trilogy were produced by Oliver Döring . The original movie sound was used. Joachim Kerzel is used as the narrator . Disney also chose a similar production method for the adaptations of the TV series Star Wars Rebels . The narrative part was taken over by Hanns Jürgen Krumpholz . This type of production, which is more of a TV series with a narrator describing what is happening on the screen, has been harshly criticized by reviewers.
In addition to the aforementioned radio plays, there are also productions by Oliver Döring that adapt the story of some Star Wars book series as radio plays. Labyrinth of Evil is based on the novel of the same name by James Luceno . The three-part radio play tells the story behind the film Die Rache der Sith. A sequel to Episode III is the four-part radio play series Dark Lord . It tells the beginnings of the systematic hunt of Darth Vader and the empire for Jedi knights who survived Order 66. This series was also produced by Oliver Döring.
Other radio play adaptations that were produced in this way and have been released under the Imaga label are Heirs of the Empire , The Dark Side of Power and The Last Command . All of these stories are primarily characterized by a dense atmosphere and the use of the speakers from the movies. The soundtrack by John Williams was also used as background music.
- William Brooker and Davina Quinlivan: Star Wars (online). Annotated and last updated 2011 selected bibliography from the Oxford Bibliographies series (Oxford University Press).
- Emilio Audissino: John Williams's Film Music . University of Wisconsin Press, Madison 2014, ISBN 978-0-299-29733-6 .
- Laurent Bouzereau: Star Wars: The Annotated Screenplays: Star Wars A New Hope, The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi . Ballantine Books, New York 1997, ISBN 978-3-933731-16-6 .
- Jacqueline Frost: Cinematography for Directors . Michael Wiese Productions, Los Angeles 2009, ISBN 978-1-61593-019-7 .
- Ulrich Gehmann: Virtual and ideal worlds . KIT Scientific Publishing, Karlsruhe 2012, ISBN 978-3-86644-784-4 .
- Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, Winterpark 2007, ISBN 978-0-9784652-3-0 .
- Janice Liedl, Nancy Reagin: Star Wars and History . John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken 2012, ISBN 978-1-118-28525-1 .
- John McDowell: The Politics of Big Fantasy: The Ideologies of Star Wars, The Matrix and The Avengers . McFarland, Jefferson 2014, ISBN 978-0-7864-7488-2 .
- Ken Napzok: 100 Reasons to Love Star Wars. A tribute to the greatest saga of all time. Riva, Munich 2019, ISBN 978-3-7423-1196-2 .
- Andreas Rauscher: Star Wars. 100 pages. Reclam, Ditzingen 2019, ISBN 978-3-15-020553-2 .
- Jonathan Rinzler: The Making of Star Wars: The Definitive Story Behind the Original Film . Del Rey Books, New York 2007, ISBN 978-0-345-49476-4 .
- Kevin J. Wetmore Jr .: Empire Triumphant: Race, Religion and Rebellion in the Star Wars Films . McFarland, Jefferson 2005, ISBN 978-0-7864-2219-7 .
- Catherine Newmark (Ed.): You still have a lot to learn. Star Wars and Philosophy . Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-499-63234-1
- Douglas Brode, Leah Deyneka (Eds.): Myth, Media, and Culture in Star Wars: An Anthology . Scarecrow Press, Lanham 2012, ISBN 978-0-8108-8513-4 .
- Douglas Brode, Leah Deyneka (Eds.): Sex, Politics, and Religion in Star Wars: An Anthology . Scarecrow Press, Lanham 2012, ISBN 978-0-8108-8514-1 .
- Kevin Decker, Jason Eberl (Eds.): Star Wars and Philosophy: More Powerful than You Can Possibly Imagine . Open Court, Chicago 2013, ISBN 978-0-8126-9701-8 .
- Kevin Decker, Jason Eberl (Eds.): The Ultimate Star Wars and Philosophy: You Must Unlearn What You Have Learned . Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken 2015, ISBN 978-1-119-03807-8 .
- Matthew Kapell, John Lawrence (Eds.): Finding the Force of the Star Wars Franchise: Fans, Merchandise, & Critics . Peter Lang, Pieterlen 2006, ISBN 978-0-8204-6333-9 .
- Catherine Newmark (Editor-in-Chief): Star Wars. The Myth of Our Time , Philosophy Magazine Special Issue No. 5, November 2015.
- Carl Silvio, Tony Vinci, Donald Palumbo, CW Sullivan (Eds.): Culture, Identities and Technology in the Star Wars Films: Essays on the Two Trilogies . McFarland, Jefferson 2007, ISBN 978-0-7864-2910-3 .
Newspaper and magazine articles
- Christiane Kuller: The leader in foreign worlds. The Star Wars Empire as a historical lesson? , in: Zeithistorische Forschungen No. 1/2006, pp. 145–157
- Georg Seeßlen : The crowded sky. In: Die Zeit No. 20/2005 of May 11, 2005
- Official German-language Star Wars website
- Official Star Wars site (English)
- The Star Wars Traveler - Star Wars at the original locations in Tunisia
- Wookieepedia - English language wiki (over 100,000 articles)
- Jedipedia.net - German-language Wiki (41,284 articles)
- Jedipedia.de - German-language Wiki (39,373 articles)
- ↑ Disney designs new "Star Wars" trilogy. (No longer available online.) In: mediabiz.de. VideoMarkt , November 10, 2017, archived from the original on November 10, 2017 ; accessed on November 10, 2017 .
- ↑ Alex Stedman, Brent Lang: 'Game of Thrones' Creators to Write, Produce New 'Star Wars' Series of Films. In: Variety . February 6, 2018, accessed February 6, 2018 .
- ↑ Game of Thrones creators Benioff and Weiss drop Star Wars movies for Netflix. In: The Guardian. October 29, 2019, accessed November 13, 2019.
- ↑ Nibel on Twitter: "Disney announced their plans from 2021 until 2027". Retrieved May 7, 2019 .
- ↑ Jonathan Rinzler: The Making of Star Wars: The Definitive Story Behind the Original Film . Del Rey Books, 2007, pp. 8 .
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 48 .
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: Under the Influence of Akira Kurosawa: The Visual Style of George Lucas . In: Douglas Brode, Leah Deyneka (Eds.): Myth, Media, and Culture in Star Wars: An Anthology . Scarecrow Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-8108-8512-7 , pp. 83-100 (86) .
- ↑ George Lucas, Sally Kline: George Lucas: Interviews . Ed .: Sally Kline. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson 1999, ISBN 978-1-57806-125-9 , pp. 78 .
- ↑ Douglas Brode: Cowboys in Space: Star Wars and the Western Film . In: Douglas Brode, Leah Deyneka (Eds.): Myth, Media, and Culture in Star Wars: An Anthology . Scarecrow Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-8108-8512-7 , pp. 1-12 (1) .
- ↑ Henry Blodget: Hey, Silicon Valley, George Lucas Just Made $ 4 trillion Without Any VC Money. In: Business Insider . October 30, 2012, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ "Star Wars" designer McQuarrie dead: I am your father, Darth Vader. In: Der Spiegel . March 5, 2012, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 134 .
- ↑ Chris Taylor: Star Wars Producer Blasts Star Wars Myths. September 27, 2014, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ An interview with Gary Kurtz. (No longer available online.) In: IGN Entertainment . Ziff Davis , Nov. 1, 2001, archived from the original on April 5, 2012 ; accessed on April 17, 2016 (English).
- ^ Brian Warner: How One Brilliant Decision In 1973 Made George Lucas A Multi-Billionaire Today. In: Celebrity Networth . May 1, 2014, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 132-134 .
- ↑ Star Wars. In: Box Office Mojo . Amazon , accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Mike Ryan: 'Episode VII' Isn't The First Time There Was A 'Star Wars' Script Shakeup. In: The Huffington Post . October 25, 2013, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Laurent Bouzereau: Star Wars: The Annotated Screenplays: Star Wars A New Hope, The Empire Strikes Back, Return of the Jedi . Ballantine Books, 1997, pp. 123 .
- ↑ a b Bruce Handy: Lawrence Kasdan Says There's a Future for Lando Calrissian in Star Wars. In: Vanityfair . Condé Nast Verlag , May 18, 2015, accessed April 17, 2016 (English).
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 120-121 .
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 159 .
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 230 .
- ↑ Mark Hamill talks 'Star Wars 7, 8 and 9'! In: Movieweb . September 10, 2004, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Carole Cusack: Invented Religions: Imagination, Fiction and Faith . Ashgate Publishing, 2013, ISBN 978-1-4094-8103-4 , pp. 119 .
- ^ A b Roger Ebert: Return of the Jedi. In: The New York Times. May 25, 1983, accessed August 28, 2015 .
- ↑ Gerald Clarke: Show Business: I've Got to Get My Life Back Again. In: Time . March 23, 1983, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 288-289 .
- ↑ a b Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 291 .
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 299-300 .
- ↑ a b A ll I Need Is An Idea, interview with George Lucas. Additional material from the DVD release of Episode I.
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 132 .
- ↑ Janet Maslin: 'The Phantom Menace': In the Beginning, the Future. In: The New York Times . May 19, 1999, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ^ AO Scott: Star Wars Episode II Attack of the Clones (2002). In: The New York Times. May 10, 2002, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Lucas's DVD commentary on Attack of the Clones.
- ^ AO Scott: Some Surprises in That Galaxy Far, Far Away. In: The New York Times. May 16, 2005, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Jonathan Rinzler: The Making of Star Wars: The Definitive Story Behind the Original Film . Del Rey Books, 2007, pp. 36 .
- ↑ a b DVD commentary by Lucas on Revenge of the Sith.
- ^ Bryan Curtis: George Lucas Is Ready to Roll the Credits. In: The New York Times . January 17, 2012, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ a b Marc Graser: Disney buys Lucasfilm, new 'Star Wars' planned $ 4.05 billion deal for George Lucas' company also covers' Indiana Jones,' ILM. In: Variety . October 30, 2012, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ a b c d Josh Wilding: Disney Buys LucasFilm From George Lucas For $ 4B; Star Wars: Episode 7 Set For 2015 Release. In: Comicbookmovie . October 30, 2012, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Angela Watercutter: Star Wars: Episode VII Finally Gets a Release Date. In: Wired . November 7, 2013, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Valentin Aschenbrenner: JJ Abrams regrets not filming the upcoming episode anymore. In: IGN Entertainment . Ziff Davis , December 23, 2015, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Hoai-Tran Bui: JJ Abrams Returning to Write and Direct 'Star Wars: Episode 9'. In: / film. September 12, 2017, accessed September 12, 2017 .
- ↑ a b Christian Neeb: The dream factory. In: Der Spiegel . May 11, 2015, accessed July 19, 2015 .
^ Ben Beaumont-Thomas: Tataouine, town in Tunisia that inspired Star Wars, becomes Isis waypoint - reports. In: The Guardian . March 25, 2015, accessed April 17, 2016 . Alexander Göbel: For lunch with Luke Skywalker. In: The first . January 3, 2013, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ^ Jacqueline Frost: Cinematography for Directors . Michael Wiese Productions, 2009, p. 203 .
- ^ The THX Story. (No longer available online.) THX , archived from the original on March 6, 2016 ; accessed on April 17, 2016 (English).
- ↑ Lasse Hambruch: Where is Dolby Digital Ex on it? (No longer available online.) In: DigitalMovie. Archived from the original on December 23, 2015 ; Retrieved April 17, 2016 .
- Jump up ↑ Laurent Bouzereau, Jody Duncan: Star Wars, Episode I, The Phantom Menace, The Making of Episode 1 . Burgschmiet, 1999, pp. 77-84.
- ^ Mervyn Cooke: The Hollywood Film Music Reader . Oxford University Press, 2010, pp. 240 .
- ↑ Emilio Audi Sino: John Williams's film music . University of Wisconsin Press, 2014, pp. 34 .
- ↑ Emilio Audi Sino: John Williams's film music . University of Wisconsin Press, 2014, pp. 124 .
- ↑ Emilio Audi Sino: John Williams's film music . University of Wisconsin Press, 2014, pp. 72-73 .
- ↑ Emilio Audi Sino: John Williams's film music . University of Wisconsin Press, 2014, pp. 78 .
- ^ The Complete Del Rey Books Timeline. In: Random House Books. Retrieved May 26, 2018 (English).
- ^ Emil Fortune: Star Wars: Galactic Atlas . Ravensburger, 2017, ISBN 978-3-473-49038-7 (Original title: Star Wars: Galactic Atlas . Translated by Wolfgang Hensel).
- ↑ Jamie Lovett: Lucasfilm Reveals Official Timeline of the Star Wars Saga. In: comicbook.com. August 24, 2019, accessed on August 29, 2019 .
- ↑ Ben Child: Star Wars: Chewbacca's script shows Han shot first. In: The Guardian . June 10, 2015, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Andrea Peterson: Reddit asked Harrison Ford who shot first. Here's what he said. In: The Washington Post . April 14, 2014, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ a b Eric Risberg: Lucas talks as 'Star Wars' trilogy returns. Associated Press , accessed January 19, 2016 .
- ↑ Spencer Kelly: Macs do Star Wars dirty work. BBC , October 22, 2004, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Carsten Tudisch: 20th Fox: Details of the "Star Wars" Limited Editions. In: Cinefacts . July 6, 2006, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Frank Moers: Star Wars Blu-ray Disc: George Lucas issues an official press release. In: PC Games . Computec Media , August 16, 2010, accessed December 12, 2015 .
- ^ Bill Desowitz: Lucas and Cameron to Showcase Digital 3D at ShoWest. In: Animation World Network . March 15, 2005, accessed August 18, 2015 .
- ^ Garth Franklin: Lucas Making Early Plans For 3D "Star Wars". (No longer available online.) In: Dark Horizons . January 19, 2010, archived from the original on September 23, 2015 ; accessed on April 17, 2016 (English).
- ↑ Ben Child: A 3D re-release for every Star Wars film - is Avatar to blame? In: The Guardian . January 28, 2010, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Josh Tyler: Star Wars: The Phantom Menace Gets A 3D Release Date. In: Cinemablend . March 4, 2011, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Josh Tyler: Star Wars Headed For 3D Conversion And A 2012 Re-Release. In: Cinemablend . September 28, 2010, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Björn Becher: New cinema start dates: "Star Wars" & "The Lion King" in 3D and Oscar candidate George Clooney. In: film starts . March 11, 2011, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Star Wars: Episode I - The Phantom Menace 3D. In: Box Office Mojo . Amazon , accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Steffi Goldhammer: Lucasfilm is not in the mood for Star Wars 3D. In: Moviepilot . January 29, 2013, accessed August 20, 2015 .
- ↑ a b Ben Kirby: Who Shot First? The Complete List Of Star Wars Changes. In: Empire Online . Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- ↑ Disney + Changes Original 'Star Wars' Trilogy to Include Classic Fox Fanfare and Newly Tweaked Han / Greedo Confrontation. In: / film. November 12, 2019, accessed February 9, 2020
- ↑ Bill Hunt: Star Wars: A New Hope - A Visual Guide to Changes, Fixes, and Tweaks in the Disney + 4K Version. In: thedigitalbits.com. December 4, 2019, accessed February 9, 2020.
- ↑ Bill Hunt: Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back - A Visual Guide to Changes, Fixes, and Tweaks in the Disney + 4K Version. In: thedigitalbits.com. December 24, 2019, accessed February 9, 2020.
- ↑ Bill Hunt: Star Wars: Return of the Jedi - A Visual Guide to Changes, Fixes, and Tweaks in the Disney + 4K Version. In: thedigitalbits.com. January 29, accessed February 9, 2020.
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 50-52 .
- ↑ George Lucas on Akira Kurosawa. Retrieved June 9, 2015 .
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 61 .
- ↑ Hari Kunzru: Dune, 50 years on: how a science fiction novel changed the world. In: The Guardian . July 3, 2015, accessed April 17, 2016 .
- ↑ Michael Kaminski: The Secret History of Star Wars . Legacy Books, 2007, pp. 59-60 .
- ↑ Laura Brandon: Art and war . IB Tauris, London 2007, ISBN 978-1-84511-237-0 , pp. 123 (English).
- ↑ Lisa Friedrich: The Hero's Journey. In: Moreau 2015, pp. 20–21.
- ↑ a b Tristan Garcia: From Newton to Yoda: The Force. In: Moreau 2015, pp. 40–43.
- ↑ Interview by Pauline Brenders and Sven Ortoli with Alexis Lavis: Knights from the Far East. In: Moreau 2015, pp. 48–52.
- ↑ Jonathan Bowen, Rachel Wagner: Hokey Religions and Ancient Weapons: The Force of Spirituality . In: Matthew Kapell, John Lawrence (Eds.): Finding the Force of the Star Wars Franchise: Fans, Merchandise, & Critics . Peter Lang, 2006, p. 16-28 (18) .
- ↑ a b Star Wars: Attack of the Clones. (No longer available online.) In: Time Magazine . Archived from the original on June 5, 2002 ; accessed on April 17, 2016 (English).
- ↑ James Lawler: The Force Is with Us: Hegel's Philosophy of Spirit Strikes Back at the Empire . In: Kevin Decker, Jason Eberl (Eds.): Star Wars and Philosophy: More Powerful than You Can Possibly Imagine . Open Court, 2013, p. 144-156 (150) .
- ^ A b Janice Liedl, Nancy Reagin: Star Wars and History . John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p. 144 .
- ↑ Janice Liedl, Nancy Reagin: Star Wars and History . John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p. 145 .
- ↑ Alessandro Tedde: Mitologia e Simbolo nella Saga di Star Wars. Lulu, 2012, p. 121.
- ↑ https://www.washingtonpost.com/gdpr-consent/?destination=%2fnews%2fcheckpoint%2fwp%2f2015%2f10%2f20%2fthe-real-world-small-arms-that-inspired-the-weapons-of -star-wars% 2f% 3f
- ↑ Kevin Burns : Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy. Documentation on the genesis of Episodes IV – VI, Prometheus Entertainment 2004.
- ↑ Nancy R. Reagin, Janice Liedl: Star Wars and History October 15, 2012, ISBN 9781118285251 , p 341 (Accessed on August 30, 2013).
- ↑ James Dyer: Plus background info on Star Wars' First Order. In: Empire Online . August 15, 2015, accessed December 25, 2015 .
- ↑ Kevin J. Wetmore Jr .: Empire Triumphant: Race, Religion And Rebellion in the Star Wars Films . McFarland, 2005, pp. 91-92 .
- ^ Carl Silvio, Tony Vinci: Introduction. Moving Away from Myth: Star Wars as Cultural Artifact . In: Carl Silvio, Tony Vinci, Donald Palumbo, CW Sullivan (Eds.): Culture, Identities and Technology in the Star Wars Films: Essays on the Two Trilogies . McFarland, 2007, p. 1–8 (here: p. 2) .
- ↑ Kevin J. Wetmore Jr .: Empire Triumphant: Race, Religion and Rebellion in the Star Wars Films . McFarland, 2005, pp. 88-89 .
- ↑ quoted from Tony Vinci: The Fall of the Rebellion; or, Defiant and Obedient Heroes in a Galaxy Far, Far Away. Individualism and Intertextuality in the Star Wars Trilogies . In: Carl Silvio, Tony Vinci, Donald Palumbo, CW Sullivan (Eds.): Culture, Identities and Technology in the Star Wars Films: Essays on the Two Trilogies . McFarland, 2007, p. 11–33 (here: p. 30) .
- ↑ Interview by Sven Ortoli with Heinz Wismann : Achilles and Ödipus meet Wild West , in: Moreau 2015, p. 22 ff., Quoted from p. 23.
- ↑ Tony Vinci: The Fall of the Rebellion; or, Defiant and Obedient Heroes in a Galaxy Far, Far Away. Individualism and Intertextuality in the Star Wars Trilogies . In: Carl Silvio, Tony Vinci, Donald Palumbo, CW Sullivan (Eds.): Culture, Identities and Technology in the Star Wars Films: Essays on the Two Trilogies . McFarland, 2007, p. 11–33 (here: pp. 19–20) .
- ↑ Ulf von Rauchhaupt : What is actually awakening? In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung . December 13, 2015, accessed April 10, 2016 .
- ↑ Alexandre Lacroix : Jedi Master Augustine against Darth Faustus , in: Moreau 2015, pp. 59–60.
- ↑ Stefan Weiss: Ancient Myth "Star Wars". In: derStandard.at . December 12, 2015, accessed April 10, 2016 .
- ↑ Clotilde Leguil: Liberation from the father , in: Moreau 2015, pp. 28–31.
- ↑ Stephen Marche: It's Time to Talk About the Daddy Issues in Star Wars: The Force Awakens. In: Esquire . December 23, 2015, accessed April 10, 2016 .
- ↑ Laetitia Pelisse and Sophie Cluzel: La Guerre des Étoiles , in: Pierre Brunel (ed.): Dictionnaire des mythes d'aujourd'hui , Éd. du Rocher, Monaco 1999, pp. 330–341, quoted from Laurent Jullier: Star Wars. Anatomy of a Saga , UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Konstanz 2007, from the Frz. by Rüdiger Hillmer (Original edition: Star Wars. Anatomie d'une saga , Armand Colin 2005), ISBN 978-3-89669-557-4 , pp. 134-135.
- ↑ Christopher Deis: May the Force (Not) Be with You. "Race Critical" Readings and the Star Wars Universe . In: Carl Silvio, Tony Vinci, Donald Palumbo, CW Sullivan (Eds.): Culture, Identities and Technology in the Star Wars Films: Essays on the Two Trilogies . McFarland, 2007, p. 77-108 (here: p. 79) .
- ↑ Kevin J. Wetmore Jr .: Empire Triumphant: Race, Religion And Rebellion in the Star Wars Films . McFarland, 2005, pp. 2 .
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