The term telekinesis (from ancient Greek : τῆλε tēle "fern" and κίνησις kínēsis "movement") or psychokinesis (to ψυχή psychē ..., transferred for "mental power") denotes a movement or change of location of objects that are supposedly in connection with spiritistic phenomena or by mental powers of certain persons occur. The Parapsychology deals with the search for evidence of telekinesis. A scientifically verifiable proof or causal relationship has not been provided.
A distinction is often made between macropsychokinesis, in which objects are visibly deformed or moved, and micropsychokinesis, in which electronic circuits or radioactive decay are to be influenced. Retro-psychokinesis aims to influence the data that has already been generated in the past. The terms pyrokinesis for the alleged ability to ignite a fire solely through thought, cryokinesis for the freezing of water caused by thought alone , aerokinesis for influencing air , ferrokinesis for the manipulation of magnetically influenceable metals and biokinesis for influencing biological ones are used less often Systems.
In the 1970s, the German-American physicist Helmut Schmidt experimented with a self-developed random generator based on radioactive decay, the impulses of which were converted into light signals (ie either a red light or a green one lit up). Test subjects had the task of influencing these light signals through the power of thought (e.g. the green lamp should light up more often than the red one). And indeed there was a repetitive deviation.
A meta-analysis carried out in 2006 in which 380 studies on psychokinesis were evaluated came to the conclusion that psychokinesis has not been proven. The effect of psychokinesis was - inversely proportional - very strongly dependent on the respective scope of the experiment and also extremely heterogeneous. That is, psychokinesis could only be observed in small samples and only occasionally. With the Monte Carlo simulation calculations carried out , the authors come to the conclusion that the relationship between the respective scope of the experiment, the observed effect and the (very small) size of the effect is the result of a publication bias .
Other meta-analyzes carried out showed that this is a robust effect.
Telekinesis (or psychokinesis) is often found as a psychological force in movies , television , computer games , literature , comics, and other forms of entertainment. In the 1963 TV series My Uncle from Mars , the extraterrestrial protagonist masters moving things by pointing at them. In the film Carrie (1976) , which is based on the novel of the same name by Stephen King , Sissy Spacek plays a disturbed student with telekinetic powers. For this role she was nominated for an Oscar for best actress . The Anglo-French film The Terror of Medusa from 1978 with Richard Burton and Lino Ventura in the leading roles is about a man who can use the power of his thoughts to bring about catastrophes. In the Star Wars films and the short stories and computer games based on them, the Jedi Knights have the ability to control objects mentally through The Force . Various psychokinetic abilities can be found in fictional characters such as Jean Gray ( X-Men ), Andros ( Power Rangers ), Piccolo ( Dragon Ball ), some Pokémon , The Doctor ( Doctor Who ), Pucky ( Perry Rhodan ), Prue Halliwell and Christopher Chris Perry Halliwell ( Charmed ).
- Holger Bösch, Fiona Steinkamp, Emil Boller: Examining Psychokinesis: The Interaction of Human Intention With Random Number Generators - A Meta-Analysis . In: Psychological Bulletin. Vol. 132, No. 4, July 2006, , pp. 497-523, doi : 10.1037 / 0033-2909.132.4.497 , (PDF; 1.0 MB).
- Christoph Drösser : Roll the dice with your brain. In: The time . 26/2000. (Report on the experiments of the PEAR group and the failed attempts to reproduce their results).
- Eckhard Etzold: Does Psi Exist and Can we Prove It? Belief and Disbelief in Parapsychological Research. In: European Journal of Parapsychology. Vol. 21, No. 1, 2006, pp. 38-57, (PDF; 1.83 MB) .
- Pamela Rae Heath: The PK Zone. A Cross-Cultural Review of Psychokinesis (PK). iUniverse, New York et al. 2003, ISBN 0-595-27658-X .
- Jane Henry: Parapsychology. Research on Exceptional Experiences. Routledge, London et al. 2004, ISBN 0-415-21359-2 .
- Walter von Lucadou : Psi phenomena. New findings in psychokinesis research (= Insel-Taschenbuch 2109). Insel-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main et al. 1997, ISBN 3-458-33809-8 .
- Dean I. Radin: The Conscious Universe. The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena. HarperEdge, New York NY 1997, ISBN 0-06-251502-0 .
- Dean Radin: Testing Nonlocal Observation as a Source of Intuitive Knowledge. In: EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2008, , pp. 25-35, doi : 10.1016 / j.explore.2007.11.001 , (PDF; 782 kB).
- Dean Radin: Entangled minds. Extrasensory experiences in a quantum reality. Paraview Pocket Books, New York NY et al. 2006, ISBN 1-416-51677-8 .
- Albert von Schrenck-Notzing : Experiments of long-distance movement (telekinesis) in the psychological institute of the Munich University and in the author's laboratory. Union Deutsche Verlagsgemeinschaft, Stuttgart et al. 1924 (Reprint. Bohmeier-Verlag, Leipzig 2006, ISBN 3-89094-497-3 ).
- Willy Schrödter: Frontier scientific experiments for everyone. Bauer, Freiburg (Breisgau) 1960.
- Many studies, including by Helmut Schmidt, can be found on the website of the Fourmilab RetroPsychokinesis Project (see: Weblink).
- Society for Anomalies
- Rhine Research Center
- Fourmilab RetroPsychokinesis Project
- Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR)
- Notes toward a General Theory of Paranormal Phenomena
- Brockhaus online: Keyword telekinesis . Bibliographical Institute & F. A Brockhaus AG 2008.
- Walter von Lucadou: Dimension PSI. Facts about parapsychology. List, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-471-78571-X .
- Dean Radin, Roger Nelson, York Dobyns, Joop Houtkooper: Reexamining Psychokinesis: Comment on Bösch, Steinkamp, and Boller (2006). In: Psychological Bulletin. Vol. 132, No. 4, July 2006, pp. 529-532, doi : 10.1037 / 0033-2909.132.4.529 , that psychokinesis is "not proven".
- H. Bösch et al: Examining Psychokinesis. In: Psychological Bulletin. 2006, pp. 497-523.
- Frauke Zahradnik: Irritation derreality: a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the letter collection of the parapsychological counseling center in Freiburg. In: https://books.google.de/books?id=hfM40FIq7J0C&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=Metaanalysen;+robusten+Effhttps://books.google.de/books?id=hfM40FIq7J0C&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=Metaanalysen;+robusten+Effhttps://books.google.de/books?id=hfM40FIq7J0C&pg=PA16&lpg=PA16&dq=Metaanalysen robust + effect; + lucadou & source = bl & ots = mFjsAZ9905 & sig = 8e3IoqfWtvBDhwvQUtOmKW0FWq0 & hl = de & sa = X & ved = 2ahUKEwjo5c_U5r_fAhUQZawKoten =% fAhUQZawKoten =% fAhUqAys3And =% fEwAys3Affect =% 20EWAnalffekt 3% fAhBwLBzkbus .