Thomas Jonathan Jackson
Thomas Jonathan Jackson (called "Stonewall"; born January 21, 1824 in Clarksburg , Virginia (now West Virginia ); † May 10, 1863 in Guinea Station , Spotsylvania County , Virginia) was a major in the US Army , a teacher at the Virginia Military Institute (VMI) in Lexington , Virginia, and a general in the army of the Confederate States of America in the American civil war . He is best known for the successful Shenandoah campaign and the flank attack near Chancellorsville , which earned him the reputation of being "General Robert E. Lee's most capable subordinate."
Parental home, childhood and youth
Jackson was born to a lawyer. His father and older sister died of typhus in 1826 . After the father's death, the widow remained in high debt and the family became impoverished. After his mother remarried in 1830, Jackson was sent to live with an unmarried uncle in the country. There he had to do the farming activities on his uncle's farm. In his spare time, Jackson took every opportunity to go to school. He was an above-average and athletic student, but did not receive a higher degree.
West Point and the Mexican-American War
Jackson was appointed to the Military Academy at West Point , New York , in 1842 , but not as the first choice of his nominee Congressman. Because of his inadequate schooling, especially in the first year, he had considerable difficulties keeping up with his classmates, who called him “ country clodhopper ” (German: “Bauerntölpel”). These included the later generals on both sides, George B. McClellan , Jesse Lee Reno , Darius N. Couch , Ambrose P. Hill and George Edward Pickett .
He compensated for his deficits in all areas with frequent night-long learning. Jackson graduated from the Military Academy in 1846 as 17th in his class. For Lieutenant promoted, he became the artillery shifted and decreased during the Mexican-American War to General Scott's part campaign from Veracruz to Mexico City. His battery chief praised him as a dedicated, zealous, talented, and brave soldier. Even back then, he was characterized by independent and courageous action. As a result, he was awarded two brevet promotions . For his courage in storming Chapultepec , he was promoted to Brevet Major. After the war he was initially employed at Lee's former place of work, Ft. Hamilton in New York Harbor, used and then shipped to Ft. Meade , Florida .
At the Virginia Military Institute
Jackson received a chair at the Virginia Military Institute in 1851 . He resigned from the US Army, but remained as a major in the Virginia militia . In November 1859, Jackson led the artillery of the Cadet Corps that secured the execution of John Brown in Charles Town, Virginia (now West Virginia).
Jackson taught artillery and physics (Artillery Tactics and Natural Philosophy). He was unpopular with his students, so some called him “ Tom Fool ” (German: “simpleton”), and in 1856 former students applied for him to be removed from the faculty. The dean rejected the application on the grounds that Jackson would not have been successful as a teacher of general physics, and that he lacked the necessary tact with the students, but that as a teacher of war science he was a genius. This educational inability, coupled with his humorless demeanor, made him the victim of many crude jokes by the cadets; one of them, James Alexander Walker , even challenged him to a duel. Jackson didn't hold that against him. Walker served in the Stonewall Brigade during the Civil War , commanding it at Jackson's suggestion in 1863.
On August 4, 1853, Jackson married Eleanor Junkin, who died in stillbirth of their first child. On July 16, 1857, he married Mary Anna Morrison, with whom he had two children, only one of whom reached adulthood.
Jackson was already known during his lifetime for many bizarre quirks, which were later told as anecdotes by numerous authors. So he allegedly sucked on lemons with relish, but did not eat pepper. Much of this can be explained by Jackson's medical history. Before the Civil War, Jackson often suffered from digestive disorders and chronic constipation, which is why he drank a lot of water and often ate standing up, as he hoped that "stretching the digestive system" would alleviate his symptoms. In addition, before the war, other ailments plagued him (including his hearing and eyesight was impaired in twilight), so that he visited spas several times; his alleged lemon consumption could be because he wanted to improve his health.
Jackson visited New England in 1860 . It was there that he first heard of rumors that predicted secession . His fears for the unity of the nation grew. He always advocated resolving the differences of opinion between the states within the Union , not least because he knew the military inferiority of the South. However, when the abolitionist currents in Washington became stronger and stronger and the intention of the US government to intervene in the rights of the individual states became more and more apparent, he saw no other way out than to preserve the rights of the southern states by leaving the Union .
First commands in the Confederate Army and the first battle at Bull Run
On April 21, 1861, four days after the secession of Virginia, the VMI cadets under Jackson's command were assigned to Richmond , Virginia as instructors . He himself was promoted to colonel and on April 27th was transferred to Harpers Ferry , at that time still part of Virginia, in order as brigade commander to form the regiments of the militia gathering there into a powerful brigade . This brigade received his name and later, after his death, his nickname "Stonewall", which the soldiers understood as an award.
Jackson was under Brigadier General Joseph E. Johnston's Shenandoah Army. In the first battle for Harpers Ferry he distinguished himself by bravery and was therefore promoted to brigadier general on June 17th. Jackson's brigade was then used from July 2 to July 15 in the skirmishes at Hoke Run against Major General Patterson and then moved by rail to the area around Manassas, Virginia.
There Jackson was used on Henry Hill . When during the first battle at Bull Run on July 21, 1861, Brigadier General Barnard Elliott Bee 's brigade escaped from the Union troops, the latter called out to his soldiers: “ Look at Jackson's brigade! It stands there like a stone wall ”(German:“ Look at Jackson's brigade! It stands there like a wall! ”)
To this day it is not clear how this statement was meant, because Bee was fatally wounded shortly afterwards. It is usually assumed that he meant the words respectfully because Jackson's men did not flee and Bee was therefore able to gather his soldiers. Or maybe he said it out of anger that Jackson didn't make an exonerating attack. What is certain is that Jackson’s brigade was not engaged in fire fighting at the time and that the Confederate’s escape was stopped. In this battle Jackson was nicknamed "Stonewall", which was later given to his brigade as a name of honor .
From Shenandoah Valley to Richmond
Jackson and his brigade were ordered back to Shenandoah Valley after the battle. He was under the Potomac Confederate Army until October 6, and was promoted major-general the following day, and on October 22, he was appointed commander of the Shenandoah Valley Military District. A wintry advance to Romney, today West Virginia, was unsuccessful, not least because of the weather conditions. Because of Jefferson Davis ' unjustified criticism of this failure, he initially wanted to return his officer license, but later refrained from doing so.
On March 23, 1862, Jackson began the Shenandoah campaign with 10,000 men (another division was added later as reinforcement) . Even if this began with a defeat due to inadequate reconnaissance at Kernstown, Virginia, Jackson succeeded in the spring of 1862, with these vastly outnumbered large formations, through five victories to bind about 100,000 Union soldiers in the Shenandoah Valley who were missing Major General McClellan for his peninsula campaign . Jackson's campaign was characterized by rapid movements, his notorious forced marches, which earned his troops the nickname "foot cavalry", aggressive slamming before the enemy could join forces, and systematic obscuration of his intentions and routes. This went so far that he withheld the next intended steps even from subordinate officers - for fear that the enemy's ubiquitous spies might get wind of it. Jackson benefited from the fact that, as a local, he knew the valley very well and also had it explored. He oriented himself using a 3 m long map. The leading cartographer was Captain Jedediah Hotchkiss . Jackson's brilliant campaign not only gave him the nimbus of victor among the subordinate officers and in the Confederate army, but also became in the late 19th century in many war academies - and is still used today in the US Army - as a prime example of a successful tactic in the face of a superior one Opponent taught. Jackson himself rarely commented on his preferred tactics. To General Imboden in 1861 he said:
“ Always mystify, mislead, and surprise the enemy, if possible; and when you strike and overcome him, never let up in the pursuit so long as your men have strength to follow; for an army routed, if hotly pursued, becomes panic-stricken, and can then be destroyed by half their number. The other rule is, never fight against heavy odds, if by any possible maneuvering you can hurl your own force on only a part, and that the weakest part, of your enemy and crush it. Such tactics will win every time, and a small army may thus destroy a large one in detail, and repeated victory will make it invincible. "(German:" If it is possible, always puzzle the enemy, lead him astray and surprise him; and if you strike and overpower him, do not give up the pursuit as long as your men have the strength Forces defeated will panic if pursued vigorously and can then be destroyed by half as many units. The other rule is: never fight against a large overwhelming force if you see any possibility, against only part of your enemy Tactics like these always win, and a small force can destroy a large one piece by piece and become invincible through repeated victories. ")
Jackson applied these principles whenever he could. After the victory at Port Republic, the infantry divisions were exhausted and unable to pursue the evading enemy. He therefore instructed the cavalry to constantly harass the evasive Union soldiers:
“ The only true rule for cavalry is to follow the enemy as long as he retreats. "(German:" The only true rule for the cavalry is to pursue the enemy while he is backing away. ")
On the evening of June 17, 1862, Jackson left the Shenandoah Valley with about 16,000 men to help General Lee, who had just taken over command of the Northern Virginia Army as the successor to the wounded Johnston , in his daring plan for the relief of the besieged Richmond support. This led to the development of the seven-day battle , in which Lee pushed McClellan back to Malvern Hill through constant and loss-making attacks, thus forcing the siege to be broken off. During this battle, Jackson led his corps hesitantly and without emphasis in the eyes of many later military historians and some Confederate generals who had had different expectations of him after the Shenandoah campaign. There was even an (unjustified) rumor that he had slept through exhaustion for a whole day. A fairer assessment is that the Union soldiers defended themselves tenaciously in the impassable terrain and a prudent general like Jackson first pooled his forces and looked for ways to circumvent them before attacking a strong enemy position. Throughout the battle, the Confederate generals had difficulty orienting themselves (there were only very simple maps and guides hardly familiar with the area) and communication deficiencies (ultimately a mistake by Lee's staff). The entire course of the fighting clearly shows that the divisions of the Northern Virginia Army first had to adapt to each other and to General Lee's leadership style. As a result, Lee made no accusations against Jackson in his official report. Nonetheless, the judgment of the Seven Day Battle remains the most controversial point in Jackson's career. Interestingly, Jackson never became a "victim" of the Lost Cause - on the contrary, many southern authors after the war more insisted on accusing the non-Virgin James Longstreet of his alleged mistakes at Gettysburg, and lost little about Jackson and the Seven Day Battle no words at all.
From Rappahannock to Antietam Creek
After Lee's strategic victory over McClellan in the Seven Day Battle, Lee regrouped the Northern Virginia Army. Jackson became the left wing commander. He was subordinate to three divisions: Winders and Ewells, which Jackson had already led in the Shenandoah campaign, and the "Light Division" Major General A. P. Hills , which had distinguished itself several times during the seven-day battle.
In mid-July, Lee intended to beat Major General John Pope and then McClellan. He sent Jackson to meet Pope's troops, initially to prevent them from proceeding further south. North of Orange, Virginia, the Battle of Cedar Mountain broke out on August 9th . The battle was fought negligently by the Confederates. Jackson had failed to provide adequate clarification, and orders to the divisions, except for the front line - under Brigadier General Winders - where Jackson was staying, were confused and delayed. Only the arrival of A. P. Hills "Light Division" in the early evening was able to end the battle in Jackson's favor. During the battle, Jackson showed outstanding personal courage and leadership when he stopped a retreating brigade, of all things, the Stonewall Brigade , with saber drawn and counterattacked, and on the other hand he was obsessed with detail when he and General Winder used cannons himself and at the " finest artillery duel of the war ”as an artilleryman.
On August 25, 1862, Jackson led the left wing of the Northern Virginia Army, undetected by Pope, west over the Blue Ridge Mountains around his own army and after a march of 51 miles two days later destroyed the Virginia Army's supply base at Manassas Junction, Virginia. Then he holed up behind an unfinished railway line near Groveton . By constantly shifting the center of gravity and using the last reserves, Jackson withstood Pope's attacks for two days until Confederate Major General James Longstreet defeated the Union Virginia Army in a devastating attack on August 30th.
In the subsequent Maryland campaign, Jackson received the order with six divisions to eliminate the threat behind the Northern Virginia Army from the Harpers Ferry garrison . From September 12 to 14, he placed his divisions on the three heights surrounding the city, forcing the garrison to surrender almost without a fight on September 15. The next day, leaving the A. P. Hills Division behind, he marched to Sharpsburg, Maryland, and joined the rest of the Northern Virginia Army. During the Battle of Antietam , he fended off attacks from Hookers, Mansfields and Sumner's corps. Jackson's last division, A. P. Hills "Light Division", which reached the battlefield in the late afternoon from Harpers Ferry, succeeded in preventing the Union from winning; the battle ended in a draw.
Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville
After retiring from Maryland, Jackson was promoted to lieutenant general on October 10, 1862 , and at the same time appointed commanding general of II Corps , his previous command. At the Battle of Fredericksburg, which was victorious for the Confederation on December 13, he led his corps carefully, although he made a mistake in assessing the terrain that almost led to the Union's breakthrough. After he was able to recapture his own positions through the use of his reserves, he wanted to attack the Left Grand Division of the Union immediately to take advantage of the small advantage. However, he was forbidden to do so by General Lee.
After the Northern Virginia Army wintered south of the Rappahannock , the new Commander in Chief of the Potomac Army, Major General Joseph Hooker , attacked the Northern Virginia Army again. In the Battle of Chancellorsville , Jackson formed the army's right wing with the II Corps. He proposed a daring plan to Lee, which Lee accepted. On the morning of May 2, 1863, Jackson broke away unnoticed from the attacking Union corps and marched around the entire front of the Potomac Army. In the afternoon he surprisingly grabbed the XI. Corps on the right wing of the Potomac Army in its rear. Those attacked suffered heavy losses and panic spread. This was the turning point of the battle. On May 5, Hooker finally evaded the Rappahannock and the battle was won for the Confederation.
On the night of May 2nd and 3rd, Jackson and his staff explored the area in order to be able to plan the next steps. On his return he was caught by fire from his own troops, who had not been informed of this investigation, and shot him. His left arm had to be amputated. While convalescing , Jackson died on May 10, 1863 of complications from pneumonia. He was buried in Lexington on May 15th.
Jackson's attitude to slavery
As for Jackson's stance on slavery , his wife said in her biography:
“ […] And I have heard him say that he would prefer to see the negroes free, but he believed that the Bible taught that slavery was sanctioned by the Creator Himself, […] ” (German: “[…] and I heard tell him that he would prefer the negroes to be free, but he also believed that the Bible taught that slavery is permitted by the Creator himself [...] ”)
Jackson himself and his wife successfully taught slaves of friends in Sunday school for years alongside his job and at his own expense. As a member of the Virginia upper class, Jackson also had slaves. He ran the household patriarchally and pedantically and treated the slaves like servants. Jackson personally trained the slaves in the virtues he considered essential - courtesy, punctuality and morality.
Jackson is revered as one of the great heroes of the Confederation during the Civil War. Some theorists claim that with Jackson at the head of II Corps, the Pennsylvania campaign of the summer of 1863 and the Battle of Gettysburg took a different turn. He is considered one of the greatest tacticians of the 19th century.
Jackson had a lifetime reputation for not indulging in vice and for living strictly morally. In Lexington he was a deacon of the Presbyterian Church . He loathed fighting on Sundays, but didn’t let himself be deterred when it was necessary - though he would make up for the service on another day. His wife reports that not only did he not write letters on Sundays, but where possible he did not read any, and even arranged his mail so that it was not sent on a Sunday. Elsewhere he wrote to her: "If I had fought on a Sunday instead of a Monday, I fear the outcome would have been in danger." In a conversation with one of his staff officers, he even said that military instructions were taken directly from the old man To take over the will - his example quoted here was the fight of Joshua with the Amalekites , whom he defeated and who was then commanded by God according to the Bible to destroy them completely. His deep religiosity and his brittle nature repeatedly led to the fact that he offended others. Despite his quirks, his soldiers trusted him and fought excellently under his leadership.
In combat, Jackson showed no mercy for the enemy and did not accept any wrongdoing by his own soldiers. When a soldier on a march contravened his order not to enter the houses of the civilian population, he had him tried according to one of the court martial typical of the civil war and shot within 20 minutes of the verdict. Jackson consistently upheld court martial death sentences for deserters. He was particularly bitter about the looting of the Union Army near Fredericksburg. “No mercy for the devastators of our homes and flocks,” he wrote to his wife.
After a battle, a colonel pointed out to Jackson the extraordinary bravery of the fallen Union soldiers. The colonel expressed his regret over the deaths of the enemy soldiers, saying that because of their bravery they should have survived. Jackson replied, “ No; shoot them all: I do not wish them to be brave. "(German:" No; shoot them all: I don't want them to be brave. ")
Jackson was less concerned with the fate of the individual soldiers than with the realization that medieval courtesy no longer had any right to exist on the battlefields of 1862.
Jackson was an advocate of agile operations in which he could gain and retain the initiative. Jackson refused to fight in and around field fortifications. In return he was prepared to accept damage caused by mobile warfare, as this was the only way to bring the war to a quick end.
“War means fighting. The business of the soldier is to fight. Armies are not called out to dig trenches, to throw up breastworks, to live in camps, but to find the enemy and strike him; to invade his country, and do him all possible damage in the shortest possible time. This will involve great destruction of life and property while it lasts; but such a war will of necessity be of brief continuance, and so would be an economy of life and property in the end. To move swiftly, strike vigorously, and secure all the fruits of victory, is the secret of successful war. "
“War means struggle. The soldier's job is to fight. Armed forces are not there to dig trenches, to raise parapets and to live in camps, but to find the enemy and defeat him; occupy his land and inflict all possible harm on it in the shortest possible time. As long as this lasts, it means great loss of life and property; but such a war will necessarily be short-lived and thus ultimately save lives and property. Move quickly, strike with all your might and secure all the fruits of your victory - that is the secret of successful campaigns. "
However, he never implemented this idea of a war of "scorched earth" because it was not deployed in enemy territory and the destruction of enemy resources was not the goal of the Northern Virginia Army. Major General Philip Sheridan , on the other hand, carried out this type of warfare in 1864, of all places, in Jackson's native Shenandoah Valley.
Jackson had a feeling for the necessary and feasible decisions in the respective situation. In order to be able to act successfully, he needed to be guided by the long reins. If he had the opportunity to largely determine the steps necessary to achieve the goal himself, he was almost always very successful. General Lee made it possible for him. Shortly before Jackson's death, he said at the same time as the order to recover as quickly as possible: “ He lost his left arm, but I have lost my right arm. "(German:" He lost his left arm, but I lost my right one! ")
Jackson himself acted in the opposite direction: he gave his subordinates detailed instructions on how to proceed because he feared that his thoughts would not be properly implemented otherwise. This led to a complicated and complex command system, which repeatedly led to incorrect execution without verbal explanations, e.g. B. at the battle of Cedar Mountain. Because of this, he had constant friction with A. P. Hill, who, because of his earlier self-made successes, did not want to be tamed to this extent. The other subordinates to him for a long time, on the other hand, were not used to acting independently, which meant that his successor, General Ewell, during the Battle of Gettysburg did not take decisive action.
He was a master of quick movements and surprising tactics, but he sometimes kept his intentions so secret that the officers subordinate to him did not know his plans until shortly before their deployment and therefore could not carry them out optimally.
One of Jackson's maxims was the consideration, regardless of a possible inferiority, always to keep the initiative, to keep options for action open and, above all, to actively create them, never waste time and never allow the opponent to rest. Jackson led the Shenandoah campaign according to these principles, which also earned him the admiration of leading military theorists of the 19th century in Europe, such as the British George Henderson in Sandhurst or the Prussian General Field Marshal von Moltke , whose opinion of the strategic implementation of the American campaigns Civil War was otherwise not very high.
The VMI erected a memorial to Jackson in front of an entrance to the accommodation building named after him, and named a representative building after their former teacher, which houses an auditorium.
Many of his contemporaries saw Jackson's fate closely linked to that of the Confederacy. Already during his lifetime he received a downright religious veneration in the southern states. For example, in June 1862, the Daily Appeal , a Memphis newspaper, wrote that he was "destined to become the savior of his country."
And during the Shenandoah campaign in 1862, Jackson himself said, "If the valley falls, Virginia falls," which actually happened six months after Sheridan conquered the valley.
During the blessing of a cemetery for fallen members of the Louisiana Northern Virginia Army in New Orleans , former military chaplain Father D. Hubert prayed at the unveiling of a monument to Jackson in 1881:
"And You knowest O Lord, that when You didst decide that the Confederacy should not succeed, You hadst first to remove Thy servant, Stonewall Jackson."
"And when it was your decision, oh Lord, that the Confederation should not prevail, you knew that you had to get your servant, Stonewall Jackson, home first."
Jackson's circumstances of death contributed to the fact that he is considered a tragic hero in historiography and in collective consciousness to this day . His death became the subject of numerous poems even in the northern states; so Herman Melville elevated it to almost mythical greatness in his poem Stonewall Jackson (Ascribed to a Virginian) . Shortly after Jackson's death, numerous rather pathetic biographies appeared that shape his image to this day.
Jackson's last words “ Let us cross the river and rest under the shade of the trees. ”(German:“ Let's cross the river and rest in the shade of the trees. ”) Ernest Hemingway chose the title of his book“ Across the River and into the Trees ”(1950), the hero of which was an aging colonel in the US Army from same beat as Jackson is.
Jackson was honored with monuments in numerous cities in the south. The first statue was erected in Richmond in 1875, and in 1881 more than 12,000 people attended the inauguration of the monument in New Orleans. In the 20th century he was immortalized together with Robert E. Lee and Jefferson Davis on the largest bas-relief in the world in Stone Mountain near Atlanta . Jackson's and General Lee's birthdays have been celebrated in Virginia on the Monday after the third weekend in January each year since 1904 with Lee Jackson Day.
With the advancement of the armored weapon after the First World War , it became common in the US Army to name tanks after generals. Although no main battle tank was named after Jackson, he was honored to be the namesake of the M36 Jackson tank destroyer . The tank was used during the Second World War from 1944.
The US Navy named two ships and the Confederate Navy named an ironclad after Jackson. These were the CSS Stonewall , which was sold to Japan after the Civil War, a Liberty freighter named SS TJ Jackson , which was in service from 1942 to 1960 and the nuclear-powered ballistic submarine with the identification SSBN-634 , which was in service from 1964 to 1995.
- Robert Lewis Dabney: Life and Campaigns of Lieutenand-General Thomas J. Jackson . Blelock Press, New York 1867.
- SC Gwynne: Rebel Yell: The Violence, Passion, and Redemption of Stonewall Jackson . Scribner, New York 2014
- Robert N. Scott (arr.): The War of the Rebellion. A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies . National History Society, Harrisburg PA 1985, ISBN 0-918678-07-2 (unaltered reprint of Washington edition 1880/1901).
- Marcus Junkelmann : The American Civil War 1861–1865 . Weltbild Verlag, Augsburg 1992, ISBN 3-89350-355-2 (former title: Morgenröte am Potomac ).
- James I. Robertson: Stonewall Jackson. The man, the soldier, the legend. Macmillan, New York 1997, ISBN 0-02-864685-1 .
Lenoir Chambers : Stonewall Jackson . Broadfoot Publ., Wilmington, NC 1988 (2 volumes, unaltered reprint of the New York 1959 edition)
- The legend and the man .
- Seven days I to the last march .
- George Henderson : Stonewall Jackson and the american civil war . Da Capo Press, New York 1988. ISBN 0-306-80318-6 (2 volumes, unaltered reprint of the New York 1898 edition).
- Jackson, Thomas Jonathan . In: James Grant Wilson, John Fiske (Eds.): Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography . tape 3 : Grinnell - Lockwood . D. Appleton and Company, New York 1887, p. 391 (English, Textarchiv - Internet Archive ).
- Robert Lewis Dabney: Life and Commands of Lieutenand-General Thomas J. Jackson
- Short Jackson Biography (English)
- Biography (English)
- Biography (English)
- Henderson's biography as htm or txt
- Thomas Jonathan Jackson in the database of Find a Grave (English)
- the most able general thelatinlibrary.com
- Robert K. Krick: Nickname Jackson in West Point
- Confederate Military History , Volume 1: Praise of the Battery Chief
- Karen Lynn Jones Hall: Images of America - Whythe county . Arcadia Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-7385-1662-7 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
- Jack D. Welsh: Medical Histories of Confederate Generals . 1999, p. 111 f.
- Bevin Alexander: Some Aspects of Stonewall Jackson's Character , also published in Bevin Alexander: Lost Victories: The Military Genius of Stonewall Jackson . P. 10 f.
- War of the Rebellion Official Records Series I, Vol. XXV, Part II p. 840: Special Order No. 129: Bestowing of the Honorary Name
- General PGT Beauregard: Stonewall
- War of the Rebellion Official Records Series I, Vol. V, pp. 1071f: Critique
- GFR Henderson: Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War . Volume 1, chap. XII, p. 426. Organization of the marches
- GFR Henderson: Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War . Volume 1, chap. XI, p. 403. March performance
- Confederate Military History , Volume 1: Brilliant Achievements
- Buel, Johnson (ed.): Battles and Leaders of the Civil War . 1884–1888, Volume 2, p. 297. Jackson in Conversations with General Imboden Successful Tactics
- GFR Henderson: Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War . Volume 1, chap. XI, p. 392. Jackson to Colonel Munford June 13, 1862
- z. B. McPherson: Battle Cry of Freedom p. 466. Henderson denies in his biography such an exhaustion reaction and quotes a letter from Jackson's personal physician McGuire.
- War of the Rebellion Official Records Series I, Vol. XI, Part II, pp. 489ff: Lee's report
- For a critical comment on this see Edward Porter Alexander: Fighting For the Confederacy , p. 110
- GFR Henderson: Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War , Volume 1, Chap. IV, p. 89. Attitude towards slavery
- GFR Henderson: Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War . Volume 1, chap. III, p. 61. Sunday School
- GFR Henderson: Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War . Volume 1, chap. III, p. 67. Jackson's relationship with his slaves
- James McPherson: Battle Cry of Freedom, p. 654 Jackson undoubtedly would have found it practicable
- Mary Anna Jackson: Memoirs of Stonewall Jackson , p. 75
- Mary Anna Jackson: Memoirs of Stonewall Jackson , p. 249
- Jackson to his staff officer Lt. Smith. Henderson: Stonewall Jackson , Volume 2, Chapter 22, pp. 380/1.
- GFR Henderson: Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War . Volume 2, chap. XXI, p. 364 Death sentence for disobedience
- Mary Anna Jackson: Memoirs of Stonewall Jackson , p. 310
- Robert Lewis Dabney: Life and Campaigns of Lieutenand-General Thomas J. Jackson . Chapter 20, p. 397: You must not become heroes
- GFR Henderson: Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War . Volume 2, chap. XXV, p. 481 War means struggle
- Robert Lewis Dabney: Life and Campaigns of Lieutenand-General Thomas J. Jackson . Chapter 20, p. 716: Lee on Jackson's wound
- Confederate Military History, Volume 1, Thomas Jonathan Jackson: v. Moltke on Jackson
- Thomas L. Connelly: The Marble Man. Robert E. Lee and His Image in American Society . Alfred A. Knopf, New York 1977. p. 18
- Southern Historical Society Papers . Volume 9, Jan-Dec 1881, pp. 212-218; Quote in Jeff Shaara: Gods and Generals . P. 483
- The Death of Stonewall Jackson . In: The Cambridge History of English and American Literature
- Herman Melville: Stonewall Jackson (Ascribed to a Virginian)
- Robert Lewis Dabney, Life and Campaigns of Lieutenand-General Thomas J. Jackson, Chapter 20, 723: Jackson's Last Words
|SURNAME||Jackson, Thomas Jonathan|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Jackson, Stonewall|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||General of the Confederate Army|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 21, 1824|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Clarksburg , West Virginia|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 10, 1863|
|Place of death||Guinea Station , Virginia|