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Gettysburg campaign
red: confederate troops
blue: union troops
Battle scene at Gettysburg, contemporary colored steel engraving, Currier and IvesThe Confederates are defeated in the Battle of Gettysburg , the bloodiest battle of the Civil War .
Coat of arms of the January UprisingIn Poland begins
the January Uprising against
the Russian domination.
Friedrich Bayer Friedrich Bayer
founds the company Friedr together with
Johann Friedrich Weskott
in Barmen
. Bayer et comp.
1863 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1311/12 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1855/56 (September 11-12)
Baha'i calendar 19/20 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1268/69 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2406/07 (southern Buddhism); 2405/06 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 75th (76th) cycle

Year of the Water Pig癸亥 ( at the beginning of the year Water Dog 壬戌)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1225/26 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4196/97 (October 2-3)
Iranian calendar 1241/42 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1279/80 (June 17/18)
Jewish calendar 5623/24 (September 13-14)
Coptic calendar 1579/80 (September 11-12)
Malayalam calendar 1038/39
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1278/79 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2173/74 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2174/75 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1919/20 (April)

In 1863, the Civil War raged in North America with undiminished severity , even if, despite numerous setbacks, the scales slowly began to lean in favor of the more populous and more economically powerful North , which was gaining control of the Mississippi River and driving the Confederates from Tennessee . The Battle of Gettysburg , won by the Union with heavy losses, also forms the so-called “high water mark” of the Confederation , which is increasingly on the defensive as a result. Several months after the battle, US President Abraham Lincoln gave a brief speech on the battlefield. The Gettysburg Address , critically evaluated by contemporaries, is today one of his most important speeches. Despite the military successes of the north, victory is still a long way off.

In Mexico , the French army is advancing and in most other Latin American countries, wars or civil wars are waged.

Two new trouble spots are opening up in Europe: In Poland , the January uprising against Russian rule breaks out at the beginning of the year , and the powers that be, Russia and Prussia , suppress it with all their might. In Denmark the new King Christian IX, who had come to the throne a few days earlier, signs a common constitution for the Kingdom of Denmark and the Duchy of Schleswig , which is unacceptable to Prussia and Austria as the leading powers of the German Confederation and which leads to war at the beginning of the following year .


January 1st

Switzerland : Constant Fornerod becomes Federal President .

1. - 6. January

Blockade of Rio de Janeiro

January 2nd

The Battle of the Stones River in the Civil War ends.

20th - 24. January

Mud March in the Civil War

22nd of January

The January uprising begins in Poland .

January 29th

Battle of the Bear River as part of the Indian Wars

February 8

Russia and Prussia sign the Alvensleben Convention against the January Uprising .

February 24th

The Arizona Territory is created.

4th of March

The Idaho Territory is created.

March 30

George I becomes king of Greece .

2nd of April

Confederation : Bread Riots in the capital, Richmond .

April, 30th

French intervention in Mexico : Battle of Camerone

May 1st - 4th

Battle of Chancellorsville in the Civil War

12th of May

Rasoherina becomes Queen of Madagascar .

May 16

Battle of Champion Hill in the Civil War

June 7th

French troops capture Mexico City .

June 9th

Battle of Brandy Station in the Civil War

20th June

West Virginia becomes the 35th state in the United States .

1 - 3 July

Battle of Gettysburg in the Civil War

July 4th

Battle of Vicksburg in the Civil War

13 - July 16

Draft riots in New York.

August 17th to September 1st

Frankfurt Princely Day

August 21

Lawrence Massacre in the Civil War

September 3

Battle of Whitestone Hill as part of the Indian Wars

September 8th

Second battle at the Sabine Pass in the Civil War

19 / September 20

Battle of Chickamauga in the Civil War

October 11th

Romania : Mihail Kogălniceanu becomes Prime Minister .

28th of October

Election to the Prussian House of Representatives

15th of November

Christian IX becomes King of Denmark .

November 18

The Danish November Constitution is enacted.

November 19th

Abraham Lincoln holds the Gettysburg Address .

23. - 25. September

Battle of Chattanooga in the Civil War

25 December

Secularization of the monasteries in Romania .

Ongoing events
French intervention in Mexico (since 1861)
Civil War in North America (since 1861)
Prussian constitutional conflict (since 1860)
Rotativismo in Portugal (since 1856)
Nian Uprising (since 1853) and Taiping Uprising (since 1850) against the Qing Dynasty in China (since 1644)
Bakumatsu (since 1853) of the Edo period in Japan (since 1603)
Second French Empire in France (since 1852)
Founding period in Germany and Austria (since around 1840)
Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire (since 1839)
Victorian Age in Great Britain (since 1837)

Politics and world events

United States / Confederate States of America

Political and strategic development in the Civil War
The riots in Richmond
  • March / April: The so-called Southern Bread Riots break out in the Confederation , in which women in particular plunder shops for lack of food and money and demonstrate against the exorbitantly high bread prices. The climax is April 2nd, when thousands of women in the capital, Richmond , are dispersed by militias after a speech by President Jefferson Davis was unsuccessful.
The stainless banner
Soldiers shoot looters
Eastern theater of war
Eastern theater of war 1863

Fredericksburg Campaign

Chancellorsville Campaign

Battle of Chancellorsville

Gettysburg campaign

Soldiers killed near Gettysburg
Abraham Lincoln at the inauguration of the Gettysburg military cemetery
Western Theater of War and Trans-Mississippi
western theater of war 1863


Vicksburg campaigns

Attack on Arkansas Post,
Currier & Ives
The march through Louisiana
Breakthrough of the Mississippi Squadron
The siege ring around Vicksburg
  • May 22 : Another attack on Vicksburg, in which the Mississippi flotilla is also involved, is repulsed. On May 25th, Grant's army begins the siege of the city.
Siege of Vicksburg

Campaigns in Tennessee

William S. Rosecrans at the Battle of the Stones River, Kurz & Allison
Battle of Chickamauga,
Kurz & Allison
  • 19 / September 20 : The Battle of Chickamauga ends with a victory for the Confederates. William Starke Rosecrans evades - pursued by Braxton Bragg - to Chattanooga . Since the Confederates made slow progress due to the stubborn resistance of the troops under George Henry Thomas , the Union succeeded in fortifying the city.
  • A Union expeditionary force under Joseph Hooker sets out for Chattanooga. Ulysses Grant is named Commander-in-Chief of the Western Theater of War by President Lincoln.
Battle of Chattanooga,
Kurz & Allison

Morgan's raid

  • June 11 to July 26 : John Hunt Morgan penetrates deep into the northern states of Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio with 2,500 mounted men to force the Union to relocate troops from the eastern theater of war, but ultimately has to surrender to Union forces.

Quantrill's raid on Kansas

Other events in the western territories
United States after the creation of the Arizona and Idaho Territories
Route of the Bozeman Trail (1863–1868)


Other events in Central America

José Rafael Carrera Turcios
Gerardo Barrios
José María Medina


South America

Constitution of Colombia
Juan Crisóstomo Falcón

January Uprising in Poland

Central Committee Manifesto of January 22, 1863
Karol Majewski at the time of the January uprising in Poland

German Confederation / Denmark

  • March 1 : Ferdinand Lassalle writes the open reply to a request from the Central Committee to appoint a general German workers 'congress in Leipzig to several economists to express their opinion on the workers' movement and the political path to be followed in the future.
Photo of the delegates and guests immediately before the ADAV was founded
Frankfurter Fürstentag closing photo
Christian IX
Ditlev Gothard Monrad


Recognition of George I by the provisional Greek government

Other events in Europe


King Radama II and his wife Rasoherina
  • May 12 : Radama II , King of Madagascar since 1861 , is murdered in a conspiracy by nobles who dislike his liberal course and the opening up to the European powers France and Great Britain. His successor is his wife Rasoherina . However, the actual power is initially exercised by Prime Minister Raharo, who has ruled since 1852 .
Jan Jonker Afrikaner

Central Asia


Woodcut for the Sonnō jōi
The Bombing of Kagoshima by the British Fleet, Illustrated London News , 7th November 1863 issue



Portuguese Timor

Australia, New Zealand and Oceania

Frederick Whitaker

Other international events

Contemporary representation of the five founding members of the International Committee



Business start-ups

Trade and services
Agriculture and production
  • The Democratic Press appears for the first time in San Francisco , a newspaper that speaks out in favor of slavery and against the policies of Abraham Lincoln.


The construction of the Suez Canal
Ismail Pasha

With the death of Muhammad Said on January 17th, the friendly relationship between the Ottoman Viceroyalty of Egypt and the Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez of Ferdinand de Lesseps ended . Said's nephew and successor Ismail Pascha is far more skeptical of the Suez Canal construction project under French leadership and has his Minister Nubar-Bey conclude the agreements with Lesseps. An agreement of March 18 stipulates that the first part of the freshwater canal from Cairo to Wadi Tumilat must be larger than originally planned due to the increased water demand. The government took over the construction, the company waived the rights to the corresponding land and was obliged to develop the canal to Suez as a canal suitable for river navigation. The sum of around 35.15 million francs to be paid by Egypt after various offsetting is to be paid in monthly installments of 1.5 million francs from 1864 according to a financing agreement of March 20 , which means that the company has hardly any liquid funds in hand . Nevertheless, the construction work is progressing and on December 29th the commissioning of the freshwater canal between the Nile and Suez will be celebrated.

Rail transport

science and technology

Africa research


Gripswalder Matronenstein (Stone I)
Augustus statue from Prima Porta
Nike of Samothrace
  • The French Vice Consul in the Ottoman Empire, Charles Champoiseau, finds the Nike of Samothrace .


Biology, chemistry and medicine

Research and Teaching

Technical achievements

Construction of the Metropolitan Railway near King's Cross
The Plongeur in tow from La Vigie



The synagogue under construction

Visual arts

Edouard Manet: Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe
The Rocky Mountains, Lander's Peak


Cinq semaines en ballon , illustrated by Riou and de Montaut

Music and theater


Depiction from Die Gartenlaube 1863


The wedding of Charles Sherwood Stratton and Lavinia Warren
Houses of the workers' colony Alt-Westend
  • The Vienna City Council decides to build a central cemetery far outside the city, which is planned to be so large that its capacity will never reach its limits, or at least only in the distant future. At the same time, the previous sole responsibility of the church for burial sites is canceled, paving the way for a cemetery administered and financed by the community .
  • The English Pachisi derivative Patchesi is first marketed by the company John Jaques & Son , founded in 1795 .
Drafts for Württemberg border posts, signposts and place-name signs, 1863


Babism / Bahaitum

The former Ridvan garden near Baghdad
  • April 21st : Bahá'u'lláh , who received an "invitation" from the Ottoman Sultan to Constantinople on March 24th after multiple interventions by Shiite Persia, who perceive his movement as a threat, but received a month's postponement at his request. moves to the Ridvan garden near Baghdad , where he spends twelve days. On the ninth day, Bahá'u'lláh's family enters the garden and he preaches three messages to a small circle of Babi . He forbids holy war , declares that it is the " manifestation of God " for this age and that the greatest " name of God " Allah'u'Abha is proclaimed with his declaration. On May 3rd he leaves the garden with his followers, who will call themselves Bahá'ís in the future, and set off with them on his journey to Constantinople, where they will arrive on August 16th . After three months, the group is exiled to Adrianople , where they leave in December.



The sinking of HMS Orpheus , painting by Richard Brydges Beechey
The ruin of the church after the fire
  • December 8th : The Jesuit church Iglesia de la Compañía in Santiago de Chile is destroyed by fire. Between 2,000 and 3,000 people are killed in the fire disaster.

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .


Historical maps and views

Austrian Empire, Ottoman Empire and Greece 1863
Colton's Persia Arabia etc.
Invitation to the general assembly of the German Railway Association in Salzburg in 1863 with the portrait of Emperor Franz Joseph I and Empress Elisabeth of Austria-Hungary
Back of the invitation with a plan of Salzburg



Pierre de Coubertin
(around 1894)
Wilhelm Marx
David Lloyd George, 1908




Alfredo de Oro (Sr.)
William Randolph Hearst, 1906




Henry Ford, 1919


Adele Sandrock around 1900


A. Yersin, before 1909




Edvard Munch, 1905 or 1906
Franz Ferdinand of Austria

Exact date of birth unknown


January to April

Muhammad Said, illustration 1862
Honorary grave for Ludwig Emil Grimm in the main cemetery in Kassel

May to August

Gruber's grave in Hallein in front of his house
Houston's grave in Huntsville, Texas
Delacroix's grave in the Pere Lachaise cemetery

September to December

Jacob Grimm, ca.1860
Death mask by Friedrich Hebbel

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1863  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files