|The Confederates are defeated in the Battle of Gettysburg , the bloodiest battle of the Civil War .|
In Poland begins
the January Uprising against
the Russian domination.
founds the company Friedr together with
Johann Friedrich Weskott
. Bayer et comp.
|1863 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1311/12 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1855/56 (September 11-12)|
|Baha'i calendar||19/20 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1268/69 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2406/07 (southern Buddhism); 2405/06 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1225/26 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4196/97 (October 2-3)|
|Iranian calendar||1241/42 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1279/80 (June 17/18)|
|Jewish calendar||5623/24 (September 13-14)|
|Coptic calendar||1579/80 (September 11-12)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1278/79 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2173/74 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2174/75 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1919/20 (April)|
In 1863, the Civil War raged in North America with undiminished severity , even if, despite numerous setbacks, the scales slowly began to lean in favor of the more populous and more economically powerful North , which was gaining control of the Mississippi River and driving the Confederates from Tennessee . The Battle of Gettysburg , won by the Union with heavy losses, also forms the so-called “high water mark” of the Confederation , which is increasingly on the defensive as a result. Several months after the battle, US President Abraham Lincoln gave a brief speech on the battlefield. The Gettysburg Address , critically evaluated by contemporaries, is today one of his most important speeches. Despite the military successes of the north, victory is still a long way off.
Two new trouble spots are opening up in Europe: In Poland , the January uprising against Russian rule breaks out at the beginning of the year , and the powers that be, Russia and Prussia , suppress it with all their might. In Denmark the new King Christian IX, who had come to the throne a few days earlier, signs a common constitution for the Kingdom of Denmark and the Duchy of Schleswig , which is unacceptable to Prussia and Austria as the leading powers of the German Confederation and which leads to war at the beginning of the following year .
Politics and world events
United States / Confederate States of America
Political and strategic development in the Civil War
- January 1 : With the entry into force of the Act of Emancipation signed by Abraham Lincoln , blacks in those southern states of the United States that are at this time at war with the Union are granted legal freedom .
- March 3 : Compulsory military service for white men is introduced in the United States , but can be bought out with a payment of $ 300. The United States Army Criminal Investigation Command is established to enforce the enrollment act and to arrest deserters .
- March / April: The so-called Southern Bread Riots break out in the Confederation , in which women in particular plunder shops for lack of food and money and demonstrate against the exorbitantly high bread prices. The climax is April 2nd, when thousands of women in the capital, Richmond , are dispersed by militias after a speech by President Jefferson Davis was unsuccessful.
- April 22 : The government commission of the Confederation set up last year makes another attempt to change the flag of the Confederate States of America in order to remove excessive similarities with the Stars and Stripes of the Union, which is perceived in the south as a symbol of oppression. After a heated debate, Parliament finally passed the so-called Stainless Banner on May 1st . The first new national flag produced is used on the coffin of General Stonewall Jackson , who died on May 10th .
- June 20 : Despite massive constitutional concerns, the western part of Virginia is accepted into the Union as the 35th state under the name West Virginia , after the Union-friendly counterpart of Virginia in Alexandria gave its approval in 1862.
- 13. bis 16th July : The New York City Draft Riots ( collect riots ) in New York City , the city plunge in its history in the biggest chaos in which at least 120 people are killed. It would take several regiments under John Adams Dix to put down the uprising.
- October 3 : US President Abraham Lincoln sets the national celebration of Thanksgiving on the fourth Thursday in November of each year.
- To break the Union maritime blockade, the Confederate States are building several micro-submarines under the direction of Horace Lawson Hunley . The project has been overshadowed by numerous setbacks and deaths. Among other things, the designer Hunley himself was killed in a failed attempt at diving by CSS Hunley on October 15th .
Eastern theater of war
- 20th bis 24. January : The Army of the Potomac the Union experienced the humiliating Mud March for the lost Battle of Fredericksburg .
- January 26 : Maj. Gen. Joseph "Fighting Joe" Hooker replaces Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside as Commander in Chief of the Army of the Potomac.
- 1. bis 4. May : After the greatest Confederate victory in the Battle of Chancellorsville commander plans Robert Edward Lee the invasion of its troops in the northern states Maryland and Pennsylvania .
- May 10 : "Stonewall" Jackson , the Confederate General of America who had been shot from within his own ranks eight days earlier, dies of pneumonia while convalescing, which means a heavy loss for the Confederate Army.
- June: The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, led by Richard Ewell, threatens the city of Harrisburg after invading Pennsylvania .
- June 9th : The Battle of Brandy Station turns into one of the great equestrian battles of the Civil War . The attacking Northern States cavalry withdraws in the evening, both sides suffer losses.
- June 28 : Major General George Gordon Meade joins the Army of the Potomac following the surprise dismissal of Joseph Hooker.
- 1. bis 3. July : With the defeat of the Confederate Northern Virginia Army under General Robert E. Lee against the Army of the Potomac from George Meade in the Battle of Gettysburg , the bloodiest battle of the Civil War , the penultimate offensive ends Confederation in the territory of the northern states . The initiative then essentially passes to the Union.
- November 19 : A military cemetery is inaugurated on the battlefield of Gettysburg in the middle of the ongoing civil war . The keynote speaker at the ceremony will be diplomat Edward Everett . As a guest of honor, US President Abraham Lincoln is only supposed to speak a greeting. His words, the Gettysburg Address , are later engraved on the south wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC .
Western Theater of War and Trans-Mississippi
- January 1st : In the Battle of Galveston , the Confederates recapture the city which the Union has occupied since October .
- September 8th : The second battle at Sabine Pass ends with a defeat of the Northern Navy besieging Fort Griffin under William Buel Franklin , which has to withdraw from the Sabine River .
- 10 / January 11 : After a mutually costly battle during the Vicksburg campaign, Union troops conquer by Confederacy forces under General Thomas James Churchill Place held Arkansas Post and Fort Hindman and destroy both.
- March 29 : The Union's first Vicksburg campaign, which began on November 2, is called off without result. Major General Ulysses S. Grant begins Louisiana from the second Vicksburg campaign of the Union.
- March 31st : Major General John Alexander McClernand conquers Richmond , Louisiana on behalf of Ulysses Grant .
- 16 / April 22 : Admiral David Dixon Porter succeeds with several gunboats and supply ships unionist Mississippi flotilla from the north to pass through Vicksburg.
- April 17 : Colonel Benjamin Grierson begins Grierson's raid from La Grange , Tennessee, causing unrest behind the Confederate lines. He destroyed railway lines and depots and reached Baton Rouge on May 2nd .
- April 30 / May 1 : After an unsuccessful attempt at Grand Gulf on April 27, General Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River south of Vicksburg near Bruinsburg and entered the Mississippi .
- May 16 : Major General Grant defeats the Confederate Army of Mississippi under John C. Pemberton in the Battle of Champion Hill . After losing nearly 4,000 men and 29 cannons, Pemberton had to move to Vicksburg .
- May 18 : The first units of Grant's Tennessee Army reach Vicksburg. A first attack is repulsed the next day by the Confederate defenders.
- May 22 : Another attack on Vicksburg, in which the Mississippi flotilla is also involved, is repulsed. On May 25th, Grant's army begins the siege of the city.
- July 4th : Ulysses S. Grant's troops win the Battle of Vicksburg . The city of Vicksburg surrenders after about six weeks of siege.
- July 8th : Port Hudson is the last Confederate base on the Mississippi River . Because Union ships now rule the Mississippi, the Confederate states of Texas and Arkansas are cut off from a continental connection to the other southern states .
Campaigns in Tennessee
- January 2 : The Battle of the Stones River , which began December 31, ends with a victory for the Union Army of the Cumberland under William Starke Rosecrans over the Confederate Army of Tennessee under General Braxton Bragg and the Orphan Brigade of John C. Breckinridge .
- Ambrose Burnside invades Tennessee and on September 3, occupies Confederation-held but Union-sympathetic Knoxville . He fends off a counteroffensive under James Longstreet with his units until the arrival of relief troops, with which he can restore his reputation damaged by the Mud March .
- 19 / September 20 : The Battle of Chickamauga ends with a victory for the Confederates. William Starke Rosecrans evades - pursued by Braxton Bragg - to Chattanooga . Since the Confederates made slow progress due to the stubborn resistance of the troops under George Henry Thomas , the Union succeeded in fortifying the city.
- A Union expeditionary force under Joseph Hooker sets out for Chattanooga. Ulysses Grant is named Commander-in-Chief of the Western Theater of War by President Lincoln.
- 23. bis 25. November : The Union forces under General Ulysses Simpson Grant defeat in the Battle of Chattanooga during the American Civil War , the Confederates under Gen. Braxton Bragg . You gain control of Tennessee and can advance further south.
- December 27 : Joseph E. Johnston replaces Braxton Bragg as commander in chief of the demoralized Tennessee Confederate Army.
- June 11 to July 26 : John Hunt Morgan penetrates deep into the northern states of Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio with 2,500 mounted men to force the Union to relocate troops from the eastern theater of war, but ultimately has to surrender to Union forces.
Quantrill's raid on Kansas
- August 21 : In the Lawrence massacre , the town of Lawrence , Kansas , an anti-slavery stronghold, is attacked by pro-southern guerrillas under William Clark Quantrill . 183 residents are killed and a quarter of the houses are burned down. Frank James and Cole Younger , among others, are also involved in the massacre .
Other events in the western territories
- January 29 : Indian Wars : A unit of the US Union troops massacred around 400 Shoshone Indians in a battle on the Bear River in Washington Territory in what is now Idaho .
- February 24 : The New Mexico Territory west of 109th longitude is split off as the Arizona Territory . The capital is Prescott .
- March 3 : The Niobrara Reservation in Nebraska is established. Surviving Sioux Indian tribes from Minnesota are settled here after the Sioux uprising .
- March 4 : Idaho Territory is created from portions of Oregon , Washington, and Dakota Territories . It encompasses much of what is now the states of Idaho , Montana, and Wyoming .
- September 3 : US soldiers under General Alfred Sully massacre a Yanktonai camp at the Battle of Whitestone Hill in Dakota Territory .
- October 1st : The "Treaty of Ruby Valley" ( "Treaty of Peace and Friendship" ) is signed between the chiefs of the Western Shoshone Indians and the representatives of the US Army in Fort Roby (in today's US state Nevada ) . The treaty is an internationally binding recognition of the territory of the Western Shoshone, ratified by the US Congress in 1866 and proclaimed by President Ulysses S. Grant in 1869 . At the same time he grants the USA the right to build railroads, to station troops, to build settlements and to mine gold under the jurisdiction of the Indians. A little later, the US interpreted the treaty unilaterally as a license to take land.
- The so-called Bozeman Trail , an overland route that connects the Oregon Trail with Virginia City and the gold fields in the Idaho Territory , and later the Montana Territory , today's Montana , is mapped and made passable for vehicles. The route leads through the middle of the area assured by the Lakota and therefore there will soon be renewed conflicts with the Sioux .
- January: The French general Forey besieges the city of Puebla in the course of the French intervention in Mexico , French warships bombard Acapulco .
- April 30 : In the battle of Camerone near Camarón de Tejeda, a 2,000-strong superiority of Mexican troops under Francisco de Paula Milán almost completely destroyed a 65-man vanguard of the French Foreign Legion under Jean Danjou .
- May 17th : Puebla is captured by French troops.
- June 7th : The French intervention in Mexico leads to the capture of Mexico City by French troops under the command of François-Achille Bazaine .
- June 10 : A conservative junta led by Juan Almonte is installed by Élie-Frédéric Forey as government in Mexico.
- July 2nd : General Forey is appointed Marshal and returns to France. François-Achille Bazaine takes command of the French intervention troops.
Other events in Central America
- February: President José Rafael Carrera Turcios allows Guatemalan troops to march into El Salvador with the aim of overthrowing its liberal president Gerardo Barrios .
- February 24 : Guatemala suffers a severe defeat at Coatepeque and has to withdraw from El Salvador for the time being.
- March 3 : Gerardo Barrios forms a defense alliance with the President of Honduras , José Francisco Montes Fonseca .
- April: Jesús Jiménez Zamora is elected as the successor to José María Montealegre Fernández as the new President of Costa Rica . He will take office on May 8th . Thereupon he unconstitutionally dissolves parliament and calls parliamentary elections.
- June 10 : Guatemalan troops under the command of General Vicente Cerna Sandoval enter Honduras. The conservative Honduran general Florencio Xatruch Villagra initiates an uprising against President Fonseca.
- June 20 : In Los Llanos de Santa Rosa , which the rebels captured five days earlier, José María Medina is proclaimed Honduran President.
- July 19 : Conservative Honduran insurgents capture Comayagua . The withdrawing troops under José Francisco Montes Fonseca set parts of the city on fire.
- September 7 : José Francisco Montes Fonseca offers the unconditional surrender of his units.
- October 26th : Gerardo Barrios, besieged by Guatemalan troops, flees San Salvador and goes into exile in Costa Rica. The conservative Francisco Dueñas Díaz is named as his successor as President of El Salvador. Santiago González Portillo becomes Minister of War and the Navy.
- December 31 : In order to be elected the following year, José María Medina hands over the Honduran presidency to Francisco Inestroza .
- Although the constitution of 1857 expressly forbids this, the Conservative Tomás Martínez Guerrero can be elected for a second term as President of Nicaragua . A subsequent coup attempt by his liberal predecessor Máximo Jerez Tellería was quickly crushed by the military.
- In the Kingdom of the Netherlands , slavery is abolished by law . On July 1st, around 12,000 people were released into freedom in the colonies of the Dutch Caribbean and Suriname .
- In the Dominican Republic , under the leadership of Antonio Pimentel, a war of restoration to restore independence breaks out after Spain annexed the country in 1861 at the request of then President Pedro Santana because of ongoing unrest and attacks from neighboring Haiti .
- 1. bis 6. January : UK leads a blockade of Rio de Janeiro through after the Brazilian government has refused compensation for an alleged case of piracy and beach for a case of deprivation of liberty by members of the Royal Navy to pay. This action is met with protests from the people of Rio de Janeiro and leads to threats against British investors. Emperor Pedro II then breaks off diplomatic relations with Great Britain and asks King Leopold I of Belgium to mediate this conflict. On June 21 , Leopold announced his decision in favor of Brazil.
- Under the leadership of Venancio Flores , the so-called Colorados start an uprising against the ruling Uruguayan President Bernardo Prudencio Berro in April . The insurgents are advancing rapidly on the capital, Montevideo . They are receiving support from Brazil and Argentina , while the troubled Los Blancos government turns to Paraguay for help. In the following years, the Triple Alliance War developed from this .
- May 8th : With a new liberal constitution, the Granada Confederation is renamed United States of Colombia . The nine individual states are Antioquia , Bolívar , Boyacá , Cauca , Cundinamarca , Magdalena , Panama , Santander and the new state Tolima , there are also the territories of Caquetá , San Martín, Nevada and Motilones. The distribution of power between the individual states and the central government is not clearly regulated; the individual states remain largely independent.
- The Federal War , the longest and most destructive war in Venezuela since independence, ends with the victory of the Liberals. On May 22nd , President José Antonio Páez and General Juan Crisóstomo Falcón signed the Coche Peace Agreement on behalf of the federalists. Falcón is elected the country's new president. Venezuela is the first country in South America to abolish the death penalty .
- July 1st : in the Dutch crown colony of Suriname , slavery is abolished and administrative autonomy is granted. The previous slaves have to do another ten years of paid forced labor .
- The Ecuadorian President Gabriel García Moreno explains Colombia, whose president Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera reportedly plans to Gran Colombia to renew them again, the war and leaves his army to cross the border. This is defeated on December 6th in the battle of Cuaspad . In the Peace of Pinsaqui on December 30th, the warring parties returned to the status quo ante .
January Uprising in Poland
- January 22 : In Poland , the January uprising begins a renewed uprising against Russian rule. The National Committee under "Dictator" Ludwik Mierosławski publishes a manifesto for the liberation of Poland.
- February 8 : The Alvensleben Convention , a formal military convention between Russia and Prussia to provide mutual support to suppress the Polish uprising, is signed by the Prussian Adjutant General Gustav von Alvensleben and the Russian Vice Chancellor Alexander Michailowitsch Gorchakov in Saint Petersburg.
- Mid-February: Ludwik Mierosławski's small troop are crushed and he has to flee.
- February 23 : The insurgents under Marian Langiewicz win the Battle of Małogoszcz .
- March 10th : Langiewicz is proclaimed the new dictator and recognized by all rebel factions on March 12th.
- June 14th to September 17th : The secret national government under Karol Majewski meets in Warsaw.
- October: Romuald Traugutt becomes the new dictator of the insurgents. Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert von Berg becomes the new governor of the Grand Duke in Poland.
German Confederation / Denmark
- March 1 : Ferdinand Lassalle writes the open reply to a request from the Central Committee to appoint a general German workers 'congress in Leipzig to several economists to express their opinion on the workers' movement and the political path to be followed in the future.
- May 23 : History of German Social Democracy : The General German Workers' Association ( ADAV ) is founded at a meeting in the Leipzig Pantheon . The main founder is Ferdinand Lassalle . In response to this, the bourgeois democratic movement is holding the first day of German workers' associations on June 7th in Frankfurt am Main with the support of the German National Association . Among the 110 delegates are August Bebel , Hermann Becker , Julius Knorr , Eugen Richter , Leopold Sonnemann and Max Wirth .
- July 1 : In the course of the Prussian constitutional conflict, King Wilhelm I, under the influence of Otto von Bismarck, issued the press order , which significantly restricted the freedom of the press in Prussia . The measure is directed primarily against liberal newspapers and leads to the first public protest by Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm against his father's policies. Violent disputes ensued within the royal family. Wilhelm I suspects that behind the statements is Frederick's wife Victoria of Great Britain and Ireland , who, as the daughter of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria , supports a liberal Germany and hopes that Prussia will develop towards a constitutional monarchy with a strong parliament.
- August 17th : The Frankfurt Fürstentag begins. He should advise on reforms in the German Confederation . According to Otto von Bismarck's strategy, Prussia's King Wilhelm I stayed away from the meeting, which around two weeks later led to the conference ending with no results.
- October 28 : In the election for the Prussian House of Representatives, the Liberals under Wilhelm Grabow win a two-thirds majority. You are in a conflict with Prime Minister Bismarck over army reform .
- November 15 : When the Danish King Friedrich VII dies childless, Christian von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg succeeds him according to the London Protocol of 1852 . Christian IX founds the House of Glücksburg, which still rules Denmark today .
- November 18 : The joint November constitution for the Kingdom of Denmark and the Duchy of Schleswig , which was drafted by Interior Minister Orla Lehmann , triggered the German-Danish war in the following year.
- December 7 : About the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg is federal executions imposed.
- December 20 : Prussian troops disregard the neutrality of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg in the conflict with Denmark by billeting in Schwartau in the Principality of Lübeck until the beginning of 1864 and then marching on. On the instructions of the government in Eutin , the Schwartau turnpike was closed for Prussian troops and four (unarmed) Oldenburg soldiers were positioned at it.
- December 21 : The federal execution against the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg in 1863 begins. The Danish troops withdraw from the two duchies without a fight.
- December 24th : After Christian IX. In view of the lack of foreign support, the government asked the day before to convene the Reichstag and withdraw the November constitution, Carl Christian Hall resigns as Prime Minister.
- Christmas: German federal troops march into Holstein and Lauenburg .
- December 28th : King Christian IX. commissions Ditlev Gothard Monrad to form a government. The Monrad government is constituted on December 31st .
- In the Kingdom of Württemberg an amnesty for is democratic revolutionaries of 1848 enacted. Karl Mayer and Ludwig Pfau, among others, returned to Stuttgart .
- from Feb. 21 : In Dimitrios Voulgaris follow in quick succession Aristidis Moraitinis , Zinovios Valvis , Diomidis Kyriakos and Benizelos Roufos as prime minister of Greece , one after the fall of I. Otto protrude provisional government set up on November 6 finally again Dimitrios Voulgaris takes over the office of Prime Minister.
- March 30 : Prince William George of Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg is from the Greek National Assembly in accordance with the European powers as George I. to king of the Greeks elected.
- June 6th : A Greek delegation led by Prime Minister Benizelos Rouphos as well as Konstantin Kanaris and Dimitrios Voulgaris formally offers Georg the crown as King of the Hellenes , which he accepts.
- October 5 : Parliament of standing under British suzerainty United States of the Ionian Islands decided in Corfu the accession of the island nation to the Kingdom of Greece . London and the Greek protective powers agree to the association in November.
- After visits to the courts in Saint Petersburg , London and Paris , which supported his candidacy, Georg travels on October 22nd on board the flagship Hellas from the French Mediterranean port of Toulon to Greece and solemnly moves into Athens on October 30th .
Other events in Europe
- January 1 : The liberal radical Constant Fornerod becomes President of Switzerland for the second time.
- October 11 : Mihail Kogălniceanu succeeds Nicolae Crețulescu as Prime Minister of Romania . On December 25th, a law introduced by him to secularize monastery property in the country is adopted and comes into force.
- October 25th : * October 28th : In the Swiss parliamentary elections in 1863 , 128 seats in the National Council are available for election according to a majority vote. The strongest force will again be the liberals (or radical liberals), who for the first time no longer have an absolute majority of the seats. The Catholic conservatives and the left-wing democratic movement can particularly benefit . In all cantons, elections to the Council of States are indirect and take place through the respective cantonal parliaments . The newly elected parliament meets for the first time in the 6th legislative period on December 7th .
- In Great Britain the valid since the 13th century and probably by Henry III. The Assize of Bread and Ale Act , one of the oldest food control laws , was repealed.
- May 12 : Radama II , King of Madagascar since 1861 , is murdered in a conspiracy by nobles who dislike his liberal course and the opening up to the European powers France and Great Britain. His successor is his wife Rasoherina . However, the actual power is initially exercised by Prime Minister Raharo, who has ruled since 1852 .
- June 15 : In an attack by the Africans supported by the Nama under Oasib on the Herero under Maharero in their retreat near Otjimbingwe , Kaptein Christian Afrikaner is killed. His successor will be his half-brother Jan Jonker Afrikaner . The Herero people, supported by the Swedish adventurer Karl Johan Andersson and his small private army, break away from the Orlam Africans' sphere of influence after this victory .
- June 9th : A few days after he and his army succeeded in taking Herat , Dost Mohammed , the Emir of Afghanistan , dies in the city. His son Shir Ali succeeds him to the throne.
- March: The Japanese Emperor Kōmei issues the imperial order to expel the barbarians .
- May 10 : Bakumatsu : That the Tokugawa - shogunate hostile Daimyat Chōshū , previously shortly after abolition of sankin-kōtai his capital to Yamaguchi has moved, begins with the bombardment of Western ships in the Kanmon Straits .
- July 20 : The first bombardment of Shimonoseki begins.
- 15. bis 17th August : In response to the namamugi incident last year in which a British citizen was killed, British ships bombard the Daimyat Satsuma belonging port city of Kagoshima .
- December 13 : Gojong ascends the throne of the Joseon Dynasty in Korea . His father Heungseon Daewongun acts as regent for the minor ruler.
- April 11th : Cambodia signs a friendship treaty with France because King Norodom I fears an expansion of the neighboring kingdom of Siam .
- August 11th : Cambodia becomes a French protectorate in accordance with a treaty concluded between the two states .
- Afonso de Castro , governor of Portuguese Timor , creates the Oecusse commandant , a Portuguese exclave in the Dutch western part of the island of Timor , on the basis of the Lisbon Treaty .
- April: José Manuel Pereira de Almeida becomes the new governor of Portuguese Timor .
- June: An uprising of Makasae Language in Laga is deposited.
Australia, New Zealand and Oceania
- October 30th : After a successful motion of no confidence in Alfred Domett , Frederick Whitaker becomes the new Prime Minister of New Zealand . Because of his uncompromising attitude towards the Māori , it comes to the Waikato War .
- November: Wellington is declared the capital of New Zealand on a request from Alfred Domett .
- November 30th : After the death of Kamehameha IV , his brother Kamehameha V becomes king of Hawaii . In memory of his brother, he renames his Honolulu residence to 'Iolani Palace .
- Australia starts to recruit workers from Melanesia through blackbirding . Both deception and kidnapping are used as means for this. By 1904 , around 64,000 South Pacific islanders were brought to Queensland on plantations .
Other international events
- February 9 : In his hometown of Geneva, Henry Dunant founds a committee of five with the lawyer Gustave Moynier , the doctors Louis Appia and Théodore Maunoir and the Army General Guillaume-Henri Dufour to prepare an international conference to implement his ideas, which was held eight days later in International Committee of Aid Societies for the Care of the Wound is renamed.
- 26. bis 29. October : In Geneva , an international conference will be held, the resolutions, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement can thrive. On November 12th , the first national medical association, the Württemberg medical association, is founded.
- January 6th : The inventor James L. Plimpton receives a US patent for the roller skate with four wheels that he invented.
- February 10 : Alanson Crane receives a patent in the United States for the fire extinguisher he invented .
- April 14 : The roller rotary printing press of William Bullock is patented in the United States.
- George Mortimer Pullman applies for a patent in the USA for the luxury sleeping car Pioneer he developed .
- April 1 : François Blanc takes over the license of the Monte-Carlo Casino for the next 50 years , the new building of which opened on February 18 . To this end, he founded the Société des Bains de Mer et du Cercle des Étrangers à Monaco (SBM).
- June 6 : The commercial bank Crédit Lyonnais is founded.
- The Toggenburger Bank is founded in Lichtensteig with start-up capital of 1.5 million Swiss francs .
- The Eidgenössische Bank is founded.
Trade and services
- August Herzmansky founds the Herzmansky department store in Vienna .
- Robert Friedrich Metzeler founds the rubber goods store Metzeler in Munich .
- In Liverpool, the National Steam Navigation Company Ltd. founded. This year she is sailing the North Atlantic route with three ships.
- John D. Rockefeller founds a small oil refinery in Cleveland that over the years would become the Standard Oil Company .
Agriculture and production
- January 4th : Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Meister , Eugen Lucius and Ludwig August Müller found the tar paint factory Meister, Lucius & Co. The factory is located in the small town of Höchst (now a district of Frankfurt am Main ), which later gave the company its name ( Hoechst AG ).
- August 1st : In Barmen , today a district of Wuppertal , Friedrich Bayer and Johann Friedrich Weskott set up the company “Friedr. Bayer et comp. ”, From which Bayer AG emerged.
- In the vicinity of Turin, three employees of a wine trading company take over the company and rename it to Martini Sola e Cia . In the same year they start producing wormwood .
- The Chinese Oei Tjie-sien founds the agricultural company Kian-gwan Kongsi in Semarang in the Dutch East Indies .
- The Speyer & Grund company , a trading company for natural dyes , is founded in Frankfurt am Main .
- The Democratic Press appears for the first time in San Francisco , a newspaper that speaks out in favor of slavery and against the policies of Abraham Lincoln.
The construction of the Suez Canal
With the death of Muhammad Said on January 17th, the friendly relationship between the Ottoman Viceroyalty of Egypt and the Compagnie universelle du canal maritime de Suez of Ferdinand de Lesseps ended . Said's nephew and successor Ismail Pascha is far more skeptical of the Suez Canal construction project under French leadership and has his Minister Nubar-Bey conclude the agreements with Lesseps. An agreement of March 18 stipulates that the first part of the freshwater canal from Cairo to Wadi Tumilat must be larger than originally planned due to the increased water demand. The government took over the construction, the company waived the rights to the corresponding land and was obliged to develop the canal to Suez as a canal suitable for river navigation. The sum of around 35.15 million francs to be paid by Egypt after various offsetting is to be paid in monthly installments of 1.5 million francs from 1864 according to a financing agreement of March 20 , which means that the company has hardly any liquid funds in hand . Nevertheless, the construction work is progressing and on December 29th the commissioning of the freshwater canal between the Nile and Suez will be celebrated.
- January: Based on the Pacific Railroad Act from the previous year, the Central Pacific Railroad starts from Sacramento , California with the construction of the first transcontinental railroad in North America . Not least because of the Civil War, work is progressing slowly at first. The greatest obstacle is crossing the Sierra Nevada .
- February 8th : The Ludwigshafen – Mannheim route is put into operation, a railway ferry that connects the railway systems of the Palatinate Ludwig Railway on the left bank of the Rhine with those of the Grand Ducal Baden State Railways on the right bank of the Rhine .
- March 26 : The Portland and Forest Avenue Railroad Company , founded in 1860, is granted a concession to build and operate a standard-gauge horse - drawn railway in the cities of Portland , Cape Elizabeth and Westbrook in Maine . The first route of the Portland tram opens on October 12th .
- June 13 : The last section of the Baden main line from Waldshut to Constance via Erzingen and Beringen, built by Robert Gerwig , is opened to traffic.
- November 4 : After the completion of the terminus at Lecco train station , the Lecco – Bergamo railway line built by the Società delle Strade Ferrate della Lombardia e dell'Italia Centrale is opened.
- July 25 : The second section of the Remsbahn from Wasseralfingen to Nördlingen, built by the Royal Württemberg State Railways , is put into operation, where the Remsbahn meets the Bavarian Ludwig-Süd-Nord-Bahn . In addition to the Ulm / Neu-Ulm border crossing, this is the second link between the railways of Württemberg and the Kingdom of Bavaria.
- The Zagreb-Karlovac railway line is completed and the Karlovac railway station, which at the time was still made of wood, opens.
- The Treviglio – Cremona railway line, which was still planned under the Austrian government, and the Cremona railway station are opened.
- July / October: The Scotia of the Cunard Line is the last paddle steamer to win - in both directions - the Blue Ribbon for the fastest Atlantic crossing .
science and technology
- As soon as she returned from her trip to the Congo the previous year, Alexandrine Tinné began planning the exploration of the gazelle river . Accompanied by the German researcher Baron Theodor von Heuglin , the botanist and doctor Hermann Steudner , 65 bodyguards and 40 mules, loaded with gifts for the locals (glass beads, toys and clothing), she set off on February 2nd . Together with her mother and aunt, she observes nature and writes down her observations. Plants are collected, drawn and placed in herbaria . On this trip, too, Tinné buys people free from slavery. Further action to the west over the Djurfluss succumbs Steudner on April 10 in the village of Wau but a malaria disease . When Heuglin falls ill and Tinné's mother dies of a sudden fever, Alexandrine breaks off the research trip and sets off on the return trip to Khartoum .
- February 15 : In Gondokoro , John Hanning Speke and James Augustus Grant meet Samuel White Baker and Barbara Maria Szasz , who want to travel the upper reaches of the Nile, after their return from the expedition to the sources of the Nile . On their later journey along the White Nile, Baker and Szasz were the first Europeans to describe the Murchison Falls on Lake Albert .
- Karl Moritz von Beurmann is murdered while searching for Eduard Vogel in Mao in what is now Chad - probably on the orders of the Sultan von Wadai .
- After doubts about his travel report Explorations and adventures in Equatorial Africa , Paul Belloni Du Chaillu embarks on another expedition to Africa.
- End of February : The Gripswald matron stones are found during clearing work near Haus Gripswald in the area of today's city of Meerbusch in North Rhine-Westphalia . The find contains six votive stones in honor of the Matronae Octocannae and some stones in honor of Mercurius Arvernus . They are dated to the end of the 2nd century or the beginning of the 3rd century.
- Giuseppe Fiorelli succeeds Domenico Spinelli , who died on April 10th, as head of the excavations in Pompeii . Scientific archeology is thus finding its way into the excavation of the ancient ruins.
- April 20 : The larger than life statue of Emperor Augustus is found in the Villa di Livia in the Roman district of Prima Porta . The damaged statue is a marble copy of a bronze original that the Senate or other high-ranking dignitaries received around 20 BC. Have commissioned.
- Coin find from Sandur in the Faroe Islands. Surprisingly, among the 93 silver coins from the 11th century there are 50 from Germany .
- The French Vice Consul in the Ottoman Empire, Charles Champoiseau, finds the Nike of Samothrace .
- March 15 : The German astronomer Robert Luther discovered in the asteroid belt the asteroid Diana .
- June 10 : Albert Marth spots the galaxy NGC 6384 in the constellation of the Serpent Bearer .
- September 13 : Albert Marth observes the galaxy NGC 117 in the constellation Whale .
- September 14 : The American James Craig Watson discovers the asteroid Eurynome in the asteroid belt .
- September 16 : George Phillips Bond discovers an elliptical galaxy in the constellation Whale , later cataloged as NGC 219 .
- October 5 : The astronomer Albert Marth discovers the galaxy later cataloged as NGC 208 in the constellation Pisces .
- November 3 : Albert Marth is the first to see the galaxy NGC 170 in the constellation Whale .
- The English astronomer Richard Christopher Carrington discovered the differential rotation of the sun .
Biology, chemistry and medicine
- Christian Friedrich Schönbein develops the first test to detect blood .
- Alfred Brehm publishes several essays on zoological topics, from which the reference work Brehms Thierleben develops.
Research and Teaching
- January 19 : The Wednesday Society , an exquisite discussion group, meets in the house of Moritz August von Bethmann-Hollweg in Berlin for its first official meeting. The circle, which has been meeting informally since 1859, should remain limited to 16 people according to the rules.
- February 16 : Kansas State University is founded in Manhattan , Kansas as the Kansas State Agricultural College .
- March 3 : With the signature of President Abraham Lincoln , the National Academy of Sciences is established in the United States with 50 founding members. The tasks of the NAS are defined by the Act of Incorporation passed by the US Congress .
- January 10 : The world's first underground railway , the Metropolitan Railway , opens in London between Farringdon and Paddington . The Great Western Railway uses the London Underground route for the first few months.
- June 1 : The Danish Navy puts the Rolf Krake, the first tower ship in history, inspired by the armored ship USS Monitor , into service.
- October 6th : The French submarine Plongeur , the first submarine with mechanical propulsion, has its maiden voyage. The diving attempts planned for November 2nd have to be canceled due to bad weather, the Plongeur is towed to La Rochelle.
- December 29th : During the construction of the Suez Canal , a freshwater canal from the Nile to Suez is completed, providing drinking water for 25,000 workers.
- The first flat knitting machine is used in the United States .
- The Italian Antonio Michela-Zucco constructed a shorthand machine .
- In Turin , on behalf of the Jewish community and under the architect Alessandro Antonelli, the construction of a synagogue begins , which is now known as the Mole Antonelliana .
- May 1st : This year's Salon de Paris opens. Among other things, Alexandre Cabanel is successful there with his birth of Venus . The work is possibly the model for Manet's painting Olympia , which was painted in the same year .
- May 15 : The exhibition of the on the initiative of Emperor Napoleon III. The resulting Salon des Refusés is opened. Images rejected by the jury of the Salon de Paris can be seen there, among them The Breakfast in the Green by the painter Édouard Manet and The Girl in White by James McNeill Whistler , which the public perceived as scandalous.
- The painter Albert Bierstadt takes a trip through the Rocky Mountains , where the painting Lander's Peak is created.
- January 31 : The novel Cinq semaines en ballon ( Five weeks in a balloon ) by Jules Verne is published in France.
- May 17th : The Spanish poet Rosalía de Castro publishes Cantares gallegos ( Galician Chants ), her first work in Galician . The day is still a public holiday in the autonomous region of Galicia .
- June 10 : The last part of Théophile Gautier's novel Le Capitaine Fracasse appears in Revue nationale .
- July 27 : The Toledian legend El beso ( The Kiss ) by the romantic Spanish author Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer is published in La América magazine in Madrid.
Music and theater
- April 18 : At the Quai Theater in Vienna, the operetta in one act fleet fellow of St. Francis of Suppè premiered. The libretto is by Josef Braun.
- July 12 : The operetta Lieschen and Fritzchen by Jacques Offenbach is premiered in the Kursaal of Bad Ems.
- September 30 : The world premiere of the opera Les pêcheurs de perles ( Die Perlenfischer ) by Georges Bizet based on the libretto by Michel Carré and Eugène Cormon takes place at the Théâtre-Lyrique in Paris with little success . The work is soon forgotten.
- November 1st : The re-established Cologne Cathedral Choir has its first public appearance.
- March 7 : After many years of effort Rudolf Eitelberger the Austrian emperor founded Franz Joseph I. on the initiative of his cousin Archduke Rainer , the kk Austrian Museum of Art and Industry . The museum essentially follows the model of the South Kensington Museum in London, which was founded in 1852 , and is intended to serve as a model collection for artists, industrialists and the public and as a training and further education facility for designers and craftsmen. From 1867 , among other things, the University of Applied Arts Vienna developed .
- May 17th : The Hamburg Zoological Garden , founded on the initiative of some Hamburg citizens, including Ernst Merck , Karl August Möbius , Heinrich Föhring and Heinrich Adolph Meyer , is opened as the fifth zoo in Germany. The first director of the zoo is Alfred Brehm .
- The first dog show in Austria will be held on September 8th and 9th in Hietzing near Vienna .
- The "Highest Peak", the highest mountain in Switzerland , is in honor of the Swiss general and cartographer Guillaume-Henri Dufour in Dufourspitze renamed.
- The Café Knösel in Heidelberg produces the Heidelberg Student Kiss for the first time in the year it was founded.
- January 3 : For the January issue of Harper's Weekly magazine , cartoonist Thomas Nast draws the modern figure of Santa Claus for the first time .
- February 10 : Charles Sherwood Stratton , known as the dwarf General Tom Thumb from PT Barnum's traveling circus, marries Lavinia Warren, who is also short in New York's Grace Church .
- May 1st : The magazine for stamp collectors , published by the coin and antiques shop Zschiesche & Köder in Leipzig, is Germany's first stamp magazine .
- Summer: Alfred Krupp erects the first section of the Westend workers' colony in Essen within three months as part of the Krupp housing development .
- October 23 : In Turin is at the initiative of Quintino Sella the Italian Alpine Club was founded. The first president of the alpine association is Ferdinando Perrone di San Martino, and vice-president Bartolomeo Gastaldi.
- The Vienna City Council decides to build a central cemetery far outside the city, which is planned to be so large that its capacity will never reach its limits, or at least only in the distant future. At the same time, the previous sole responsibility of the church for burial sites is canceled, paving the way for a cemetery administered and financed by the community .
- The English Pachisi derivative Patchesi is first marketed by the company John Jaques & Son , founded in 1795 .
- The wooden place-name signs in Württemberg are gradually being replaced by variants made of cast iron.
Babism / Bahaitum
- April 21st : Bahá'u'lláh , who received an "invitation" from the Ottoman Sultan to Constantinople on March 24th after multiple interventions by Shiite Persia, who perceive his movement as a threat, but received a month's postponement at his request. moves to the Ridvan garden near Baghdad , where he spends twelve days. On the ninth day, Bahá'u'lláh's family enters the garden and he preaches three messages to a small circle of Babi . He forbids holy war , declares that it is the " manifestation of God " for this age and that the greatest " name of God " Allah'u'Abha is proclaimed with his declaration. On May 3rd he leaves the garden with his followers, who will call themselves Bahá'ís in the future, and set off with them on his journey to Constantinople, where they will arrive on August 16th . After three months, the group is exiled to Adrianople , where they leave in December.
- May 21 : Groups of former followers of Preacher William Miller form the Seventh-day Adventist Fellowship in Battle Creek , Michigan . One of the founding members is Joseph Bates . The members of the Free Church , referring to the Bible, assume that Jesus Christ will soon return to earth. According to Miller, it was expected in 1844 , but it did not materialize from their point of view , which sparked intense group Bible study.
- June 3rd : The Eucharist, which has existed since 1856 , is established as a congregation by Pope Pius IX. accepted.
- August 10 : Quanto conficiamur encyclical on indifference and the publication of false doctrines is published.
- September 17th : Pope Pius IX. calls in the encyclical Incredibili the Catholics in New Granada, today's Colombia , to resist in the name of God against the government, which restricts the work of the clergy on site.
- September 24th : The St. Nikolai Church in Hamburg is inaugurated.
- In Frankfurt am Main, a Cartel meeting takes place for the first time under the presidency of Georg von Hertling .
- February 7 : The Australian flagship HMS Orpheus sinks off New Zealand. 189 of the 259 crew members are killed in the accident. To date, it is the worst ship accident in New Zealand waters.
- April 27 : The passenger steamer Anglo Saxon of the Allan Line collided off Cape Race on the coast of Newfoundland in thick fog with a rock and sinks, 238 people die. The sinking of the Anglo Saxon is the worst shipping accident in the North Atlantic to date .
- December 8th : The Jesuit church Iglesia de la Compañía in Santiago de Chile is destroyed by fire. Between 2,000 and 3,000 people are killed in the fire disaster.
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .
- October 26 : The Football Association is founded and creates the first official football rules . This means the separation of football and rugby .
Historical maps and views
- January 1 : Heinrich Clam-Martinic , Austro-Hungarian politician and Imperial and Royal Prime Minister († 1932 )
- January 1 : Pierre de Coubertin , French educator, historian and sports official († 1937 )
- January 1 : Ljubomir Miletitsch , Bulgarian linguist, ethnographer, dialectologist, historian and publicist († 1937 )
- January 8 : Paul Scheerbart , German writer of fantastic literature and draftsman († 1915 )
- January 9 : Ernst Moser , German writer and bookseller († 1927 )
- January 10 : Else Wildhagen , German writer († 1944 )
- January 11 : Ernst Amme , German engineer and industrialist († 1930 )
- January 12 : Jean-Baptiste Eugène Abel , French politician († 1921 )
- January 12 : Vivekananda , Indian Hindu monk and scholar († 1902 )
- January 13 : Joseph R. Grundy , American politician († 1961 )
- January 14 : Richard Felton Outcault , American comic book artist, author and painter († 1928 )
- January 15 : Wilhelm Marx , German lawyer and politician († 1946 )
- January 17 : Konstantin Stanislawski , Russian actor, director († 1938 )
- January 17 : David Lloyd George , British politician and Prime Minister († 1945 )
- January 17 : Emanuel La Roche , Swiss architect († 1922 )
- January 18 : Oscar Troplowitz , German pharmacist and entrepreneur († 1918 )
- January 19 : Tommaso Pio Boggiani , Italian clergyman, Archbishop of Genoa and Cardinal († 1942 )
- January 19 : Werner Sombart , German sociologist and economist († 1941 )
- January 24th : Fritz Jahn , German pastor, head of the Züllchower Anstalten († 1931 )
- January 25 : Rufus Jones , American author, college professor, mystic, philosopher and Quaker († 1948 )
- January 25 : Johanna Luise Groppe , German painter († after 1921 )
- January 26 : Hans Fraungruber , Austrian writer († 1933 )
- January 29 : Fryco Rocha , Lower Sorbian poet and writer († 1942 )
- February 6 : Carl Bössenroth , German painter († 1935 )
- February 6 : Ernst Klett , German entrepreneur († 1947 )
- February 7 : Mieczysław Sołtys , Polish composer († 1929 )
- February 9 : Leopoldine Augustin , Austrian theater actress and singer († 1951 )
- February 9 : Anthony Hope , English lawyer and author († 1933 )
- February 9 : Ernst Kreidolf , Swiss graphic artist and picture book illustrator († 1956 )
- February 11 : John F. Fitzgerald , American politician († 1950 )
- February 11 : Hermann Kersting , German doctor and colonial official († 1937 )
- February 11 : Cornelius Osten , German businessman and botanist († 1936 )
- February 13 : Hugo Becker , German cellist, cello teacher and composer († 1941 )
- February 14 : Otto Kern , German classical philologist and archaeologist († 1942 )
- February 16 : Ralph Allan Aitken , Scottish football player († 1928 )
- February 19 : Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo , Peruvian President († 1932 )
- February 19 : Axel Thue , Norwegian mathematician († 1922 )
- February 19 : Emánuel Moór , Hungarian composer, pianist and inventor († 1931 )
- February 19 : Georg Moog , Bishop of the Old Catholic Church in Germany († 1934 )
- February 20 : Lucien Pissarro , French painter, graphic artist and wood cutter († 1944 )
- February 21 : Otto Jaekel , German geologist and paleontologist († 1929 )
- February 22 : Charles McLean Andrews , American historian and university professor († 1943 )
- February 22nd : Wilhelm Blumenberg , German Protestant theologian and pastor († 1949 )
- February 22nd : Rudolf Dietz , German homeland poet († 1942 )
- February 23 : Franz von Stuck , German painter and sculptor († 1928 )
- February 23 : Luigi Capotosti , Italian clergyman, Bishop of Modigliana and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1938 )
- February 25 : Hans Bielenstein , German-Baltic clergyman and writer, Protestant martyr († 1919 )
- February 27 : George Herbert Mead , American Professor of Philosophy and Social Psychology († 1931 )
- February 27 : Otto Reiniger , Swabian Impressionist landscape painter, († 1909 )
- February 27 : Joaquín Sorolla , Spanish painter († 1923 )
- March 3 : Arthur Make , Welsh fantasy writer († 1947 )
- March 4 : Reginald Innes Pocock , British zoologist († 1947 )
- March 6 : Wilhelm Dieckmann , German farmer and politician of the NSDAP († 1933 )
- March 10 : Sigismund Rahmer , German writer, editor and Kleist researcher († 1912 )
- March 11 : Vladimir Ippolitowitsch Lipski , Soviet botanist († 1937 )
- March 11 : Ernst Theodor Haux , German entrepreneur († 1938 )
- March 12 : Gabriele D'Annunzio , Italian writer († 1938 )
- March 12 : Georg Anthes , German violinist, opera singer and theater director († 1922 )
- March 12 : Gheorghe Marinescu , Romanian neurologist and neuropathologist († 1938 )
- March 12 : Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadski , Russian geologist, geochemist and mineralogist († 1945 )
- March 13 : Richard Zoozmann , German poet and writer († 1934 )
- March 14 : Casey Jones , American train driver († 1900 )
- March 16 : John M. Parker , American politician († 1939 )
- March 20 : Ernesto Nazareth , Brazilian composer and pianist († 1934 )
- March 21 : Hugo Kaun , German composer, conductor and music teacher († 1932 )
- March 22 : Albertine Assor , German Baptist deaconess, co-founder of the Evangelical Free Church Diakonie († 1953 )
- March 22 : Christian von Krogh , German colonial officer († 1924 )
- March 25 : Marie Soldat-Röger , Austrian violin virtuoso († 1955 )
- March 26 : Alexander Schlicke , German politician († 1940 )
- March 27 : Henry Royce , English car pioneer, founder of the Rolls-Royce company († 1933 )
- March 29 : Georg von Ompteda , German writer and translator († 1931 )
- March 30 : Joseph Caillaux , French statesman of the Third Republic, Prime Minister († 1944 )
- April 1 : Wilhelm Autenrieth , German pharmacist († 1926 )
- April 3 : Henry van de Velde , Belgian architect and designer († 1957 )
- April 3 : Wilhelm Middelschulte , German organist and composer († 1943 )
- April 4 : Blanche Marchesi , French opera singer and vocal teacher († 1940 )
- April 5 : Viktoria von Hessen-Darmstadt , Princess of Hessen-Darmstadt († 1950 )
- April 12 : Elias Erkko , Finnish writer († 1888 )
- April 12 : Eberhard Savary , German-Baltic pastor and Protestant martyr († 1919 )
- April 15 : Elisabeth Vilma Lwoff-Parlaghy , Hungarian-American portrait painter († 1923 )
- April 17 : Augustus Edward Hough Love , English mathematician († 1940 )
- April 17 : Ernst Kapff , German writer, reform pedagogue and archaeologist († 1944 )
- April 18 : Leopold Berchtold , Austro-Hungarian politician († 1942 )
- April 18 : Siegfried Bettmann , British bicycle, motorcycle and car manufacturer († 1951 )
- April 18 : Irene von Chavanne , Austrian alto singer († 1938 )
- April 19 : Felix Michailowitsch Blumenfeld , Russian composer († 1931 )
- April 26 : George Auriol , French poet, songwriter, graphic artist and artist († 1938 )
- April 26 : Arno Holz , German poet and playwright of naturalism († 1929 )
- April 26 : Hermann Beims , Mayor of Magdeburg († 1931 )
- April 28 : Alfredo de Oro , Cuban billiards player and world champion († 1948 )
- April 29 : Konstantinos Kavafis , Greek writer († 1933 )
- April 29 : William Randolph Hearst , American publisher and media tsar († 1951 )
- April 30 : Max Skladanowsky , German film technology pioneer († 1939 )
- May 1 : Stephan Kekule , German lawyer and private scholar († 1933 )
- May 2 : Erich Bethe , German classical philologist († 1940 )
- May 4 : Charles S. Deneen , American politician († 1940 )
- May 10 : Charles-René , French composer and music teacher († around 1940)
- May 10 : Kaarle Krohn , Finnish folklorist († 1933 )
- May 12 : Charles Bordes , French composer and music teacher († 1909 )
- May 14 : Vilém Mrštík , Czech writer, dramaturge, translator and literary critic († 1912 )
- May 17 : Charles Robert Ashbee , English architect († 1942 )
- May 18 : Ludwig Abel , German Semitist († 1900 )
- May 18 : Max Linienbach , German painter († 1936 )
- May 20 : Marion Butler , American politician († 1938 )
- May 21 : Archduke Eugene of Austria , Grand Master of the Teutonic Order († 1954 )
- May 23 : Henry W. Keyes , American politician († 1938 )
- May 25 : Kunigunde Ansion , Austrian writer († 1922 )
- May 25 : Conrad Cichorius , German classical philologist and ancient historian († 1932 )
- May 25 : Camille Erlanger , French composer († 1919 )
- May 25 : Wolfgang Golther , German Germanist and literary historian († 1945 )
- May 25 : Heinrich Rickert , German philosopher and university professor († 1936 )
- May 26 : Bob Fitzsimmons , British boxer and world heavyweight champion († 1917 )
- May 28 : Georg Adler , German economist († 1908 )
- June 1 : Hugo Münsterberg , German-American psychologist († 1916 )
- June 2 : Tom C. Rye , American politician († 1953 )
- June 2 : Felix Weingartner , Austrian conductor, composer and pianist († 1942 )
- June 3 : William H. King , American politician († 1949 )
- June 6 : Wincenty Lutosławski , Polish philosopher († 1954 )
- June 7 : Albert S. Burleson , American politician († 1937 )
- June 8 : Fritz Raschig , German industrialist, chemist and politician († 1928 )
- June 10 : Louis Couperus , Dutch author († 1923 )
- June 13 : Friedrich Heine , German entrepreneur († 1929 )
- June 13 : Josef Venantius von Wöss , Austrian church musician and publisher († 1943 )
- June 15 : Elise Rosalie Aun , Estonian writer († 1932 )
- June 16 : Emil Göttisheim , Swiss lawyer and politician († 1938 )
- June 16 : Paul Vidal , French composer († 1931 )
- June 17 : Ernest R. Ackerman , American politician († 1931 )
- June 17 : Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown , Swiss machine designer († 1924 )
- June 18 : Frits Went , Dutch botanist († 1935 )
- June 21 : Anne Marie Carl-Nielsen , Danish sculptor († 1945 )
- June 21 : Georges Docquois , French writer († 1927 )
- June 21 : Hermann Krukenberg , German doctor († 1935 )
- June 21 : Max Wolf , German astronomer († 1932 )
- June 22nd : Gottlieb von Jagow , German diplomat and politician († 1935 )
- June 24 : Karel Baxa , Czech lawyer, politician and first mayor of Prague († 1938 )
- June 24 : George M. Bourquin , American lawyer († 1958 )
- June 25 : Lucien Emile Francqui , Belgian African explorer and statesman († 1935 )
- June 26 : Alfred Grenander , Swedish architect († 1931 )
- June 26 : Eugen Robert Weiss , German chamber singer & academy professor († 1933 )
- July 3 : Ciro Luis Urriola , Panamanian President († 1922 )
- July 4th : Adolf Spilker , German chemist and technician († 1954 )
- July 4th : Hugo Winckler , German archaeologist and linguist († 1913 )
- July 6 : Reginald McKenna , British statesman († 1943 )
- July 7 : Marguerite Audoux , French novelist († 1937 )
- July 8 : Lee Cruce , American politician († 1933 )
- July 9 : Siegfried Sudhaus , German classical philologist and papyrologist († 1914 )
- July 12 : Paul Drude , German physicist († 1906 )
- July 14 : Nelson Kinsley , American landscape painter († 1945 )
- July 19 : Johann Georg Arndt , German theologian († 1939 )
- July 19 : Hermann Bahr , Austrian writer, playwright and literary critic († 1934 )
- July 21 : Agnes Günther , German writer († 1911 )
- July 21 : C. Aubrey Smith , British actor († 1948 )
- July 25 : John Tener , American politician and baseball player († 1946 )
- July 26 : Jāzeps Vītols , Latvian composer († 1948 )
- July 27th : Ignacy Popiel , Polish chess player († 1941 )
- July 29 : Emil Aust , German classical philologist
- July 30th : Henry Ford , American automobile pioneer, founder of the automobile manufacturer Ford Motor Company († 1947 )
- July 31 : Sidney Johnston Catts , American politician († 1936 )
- August 1 : Gaston Doumergue , French politician and president during the Third Republic († 1937 )
- August 2nd : Gottfried Krüger , German physician and local researcher, honorary citizen of Wittenberg († 1941 )
- August 2 : Anton Peter Arida , Lebanese Archbishop and Patriarch († 1955 )
- August 3 : Géza Gárdonyi , Hungarian writer († 1922 )
- August 8 : Hulda von Levetzow , German author († 1947 )
- August 11 : Árpád Szendy , Hungarian composer († 1922 )
- August 13 : William Isaac Thomas , American philologist († 1947 )
- August 14 : Heino Adolf Achenbach , Prussian civil servant and district administrator († 1933 )
- August 14 : Gebhard Fugel , German painter of Christian art († 1939 )
- August 16 : Gabriel Pierné , French composer († 1937 )
- August 17 : Fritz Greve , German painter and art professor († 1931 )
- August 17 : Johannes Methöfer , Dutch author and anarchist († 1933 )
- August 18 : Ludvík Aust , Austrian politician († 1924 )
- August 19 : Adele Sandrock , German-Dutch actress († 1937 )
- August 24 : Elemér Lónyay , Hungarian nobleman († 1946 )
- August 26 : Harrison Henry Atwood , American politician († 1954 )
- August 28 : Karl Brunner , German ethnologist († 1938 )
- August 29 : August Brinkmann , German classical philologist († 1923 )
- August 30 : Sergei Michailowitsch Prokudin-Gorski , Russian pioneer of color photography († 1944 )
- September 1 : Herman Baltia , Belgian lieutenant general and politician († 1938 )
- September 1 : João Pinheiro Chagas , Portuguese journalist, diplomat and politician, Prime Minister († 1925 )
- September 1 : Violet Jacob , Scottish writer († 1946 )
- September 2 : Isidore Philipp , Hungarian-French pianist and music teacher († 1958 )
- September 2 : Willy Rehberg , Swiss pianist, composer and music teacher († 1937 )
- September 3 : Hans Aanrud , Norwegian writer († 1953 )
- September 4 : Alfred Rehder , German-North American botanist († 1949 )
- September 6 : Otto von Greyerz , Swiss dialect writer and professor († 1940 )
- September 8 : Gustavo E. Campa , Mexican composer († 1934 )
- September 8 : Maria Droste zu Vischering , German nun and blessed († 1899 )
- September 9 : Luis Weiler , German railway civil engineer († 1918 )
- September 10 : Charles Spearman , British psychologist († 1945 )
- September 10 : Edmund Edel , German graphic artist, caricaturist, writer and film director († 1934 )
- September 10 : Ernst von Carnap-Quernheimb , German African explorer († 1945 )
- September 11th : Georg Witkowski , German literary historian († 1939 )
- September 11 : Heinrich Schneegans , German Romanist († 1914 )
- September 12 : Hermann Kutter , Swiss Protestant theologian († 1931 )
- September 12 : Theodor Seitz , German colonial politician († 1949 )
- September 13 : Arthur Henderson , British politician († 1935 )
- September 13 : Franz von Hipper , German admiral († 1932 )
- September 15 : Horatio Parker , American composer († 1919 )
- September 16 : Karl Friedrich von Auwers , German chemist († 1939 )
- September 17 : Eva Adelheid von Arnim-Fredenwalde , German writer († 1938 )
- September 17 : Wilhelm Trabert , German professor († 1921 )
- September 21 : Georg Arends , German botanist († 1952 )
- September 22nd : Alexandre Émile Jean Yersin , Swiss-French doctor and bacteriologist († 1943 )
- September 27 : Hans Cornelius , German philosopher, psychologist and educator († 1947 )
- September 28 : Charles I , King of Portugal († 1908 )
- September 29 : Alfred Meebold , German botanist, writer and anthroposophist († 1952 )
- September 29 : Hugo Haase , German lawyer, politician and pacifist († 1919 )
- September 29 : Lennart Arvid Lundberg , Swedish pianist, composer and music teacher († 1931 )
- September 30th : Reinhard Scheer , German Vice Admiral († 1928 )
- September 30 : Theodor Reismann-Grone , German publisher and politician († 1949 )
- October 3 : Alfred Wohl , German chemist († 1939 )
- October 4 : Samuel Prescott Bush , American industrialist († 1948 )
- October 5 : Ludwig Borchardt , German Egyptologist († 1938 )
- October 9 : Alexander Siloti , Russian pianist, composer and conductor († 1945 )
- October 9 : Emil Eichhorn , German electrician and politician († 1925 )
- October 10 : Vladimir Afanassjewitsch Obruchev , Soviet geologist, geographer and writer († 1956 )
- October 11 : Xavier Leroux , French composer († 1919 )
- October 11 : Georges Gardet , French sculptor († 1939 )
- October 15 : John Gary Evans , American politician († 1942 )
- October 16 : Austen Chamberlain , British politician and foreign minister († 1937 )
- October 19 : Gustav Frenssen , German writer († 1945 )
- October 19 : Milka Trnina , Croatian opera singer (soprano) († 1941 )
- October 20 : William Henry Young , English mathematician († 1942 )
- October 21 : Ralph H. Cameron , American politician († 1953 )
- October 27 : Salomon An-ski , Russian writer, journalist and ethnographer († 1920 )
- October 28 : Ethel Sargant , British botanist († 1918 )
- October 29 : Franz Stuhlmann , German zoologist and Africa explorer († 1928 )
- November 1 : Alexander Lambert , Polish-American composer, pianist and music teacher († 1929 )
- November 3 : Blanche Bingley , British tennis player († 1946 )
- November 3 : Alfred Pérot , French physicist († 1925 )
- November 5 : Ernst Markees , French physicist († 1939 )
- November 5 : Fridolin Suter , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman, honorary canon and honorary citizen of Bischofszell († 1937 )
- November 6 : Louis Waizman , Canadian composer, violist, trombonist, pianist and music teacher († 1951 )
- November 9 : Paul Sprigade , German cartographer († 1928 )
- November 10 : Louis Oscar Amoëdo y Valdes , Cuban doctor and dentist, founder of modern forensic dentistry († 1945 )
- November 11 : Paul Signac , French painter and graphic artist († 1935 )
- November 12 : Albert Bachmann , Swiss linguist († 1934 )
- November 12 : Franz Boluminski , German colonial official († 1913 )
- November 12 : Karl Dove , German geographer, meteorologist and Africa researcher († 1922 )
- November 12 : Giovanni Tacci Porcelli , Italian clergyman, Bishop of Città della Pieve and Cardinal († 1928 )
- November 12 : Johannes Thienemann , German ornithologist († 1938 )
- November 14 : Leo Hendrik Baekeland , Belgian-American chemist († 1944 )
- November 16 : Ludwig Sütterlin , German linguist and Germanist († 1934 )
- November 18 : Richard Dehmel , German poet and writer († 1920 )
- November 21 : Arthur Quiller-Couch , English writer and critic († 1944 )
- November 22 : Georges Goursat , French caricaturist († 1934 )
- November 22 : Jean-Baptiste Marchand , French officer and Africa explorer († 1934 )
- November 26 : Emil von Rappard , German officer († 1914 )
- November 27th : Olivier Collarini , Italian fencer
- November 29th : Georg Marco , Austrian chess master and journalist († 1923 )
- November 30th : Andrés Bonifacio , Filipino revolutionary († 1897 )
- November 30th : Hans von Felgenhauer , Prussian officer, military writer and poet († 1946 )
- November 30 : Richard Mollier , German physicist († 1935 )
- December 1 : Edward I. Edwards , American politician († 1931 )
- December 2 : Franz Hillebrand , Austrian philosopher († 1926 )
- December 7th : Felix Calonder , Swiss politician († 1952 )
- December 7th : Pietro Mascagni , Italian composer († 1945 )
- December 10th : Alfred Geist , German-Baltic pastor and Protestant confessor († 1919 )
- December 10 : Maurice Hennequin , French writer and librettist († 1926 )
- December 11th : Annie Jump Cannon , American astronomer († 1941 )
- December 11 : T. Coleman du Pont , American businessman and politician († 1930 )
- December 11 : Bruno Möhring , German architect († 1929 )
- December 12 : Barbara Renz , German ethnologist, religious scholar and women's rights activist († 1955 )
- December 12 : Edvard Munch , Norwegian painter and graphic artist († 1944 )
- December 13 : Eugen Gradmann , German pastor and regional historian († 1927 )
- December 13 : Carl Großmann , German serial killer († 1922 )
- December 13 : Johannes Weiß , Protestant theologian († 1914 )
- December 14 : Wyatt Aiken , American politician († 1923 )
- December 15 : Wilhelm Schulze , German classical philologist and Indo-Europeanist († 1935 )
- December 16 : Clelia Duel Mosher , American doctor and sex researcher († 1940 )
- December 16 : George Santayana , American philosopher († 1952 )
- December 18 : Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Este , Austro-Hungarian Archduke and heir to the throne († 1914 )
- December 23 : Ferenc Szárnovszky , Hungarian sculptor and medalist († 1903 )
- December 25th : Max Ihm , German classical philologist († 1909 )
- December 26 : Charles Pathé , French entrepreneur and pioneer of the film industry († 1957 )
- December 27 : Louis Lincoln Emmerson , American politician († 1941 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Remigio Acevedo , Chilean organist and composer († 1911 )
- Qāsim Amīn , Egyptian lawyer and women's rights activist († 1908 )
- Ernest Archdeacon , French lawyer and automobile and aviation pioneer († 1950 )
- Louis Cyr , French-Canadian strongman († 1912 )
- Josef Weber , Austrian chemist († 1944 )
January to April
- January 1 : Ernst August Pech , German physician and university professor (* 1788 )
- January 6th : William Carr Lane , American politician (* 1789 )
- January 8 : Albert C. Greene , American politician (* 1792 )
- January 11th : Hagiwara Hiromichi , Japanese poet, writer, translator and representative of the Kokugaku (* 1815 )
- January 17th : Horace Vernet , French military painter and lithographer (* 1789 )
- January 18 : Mangas Coloradas , chief of the Mimbreno Apaches (* 1797 )
- January 18 : Muhammad Said , Khedive of Egypt (* 1822 )
- January 31 : Friedrich Matthias Theodor Friese , German organist and organ builder (* 1792 )
- February 13 : Presley Spruance , American politician (* 1785 )
- February 24 : August Ferdinand von Arnauld de la Perière , Prussian lieutenant general (* 1786 )
- February 24th : Anton Günther , Austrian philosopher and theologian (* 1783 )
- February 24 : Karl Franzewitsch Albrecht , Russian composer (* 1807 )
- February 25 : Laure Cinti-Damoreau , French coloratura soprano (* 1801 )
- March 4 : August Ludwig von Asbrand-Porbeck , German administrative officer (* 1811 )
- March 15 : Adolph von Wrede , German researcher on Arabia (* 1807 )
- March 21 : Edwin Vose Sumner , American officer (* 1797 )
- March 28 : James Cooper , American politician (* 1810 )
- March 30th : Auguste Bravais , French physicist and co-founder of crystallography (* 1811 )
- April 4 : Ludwig Emil Grimm , German painter, etcher and engraver, youngest brother of the Brothers Grimm (* 1790 )
- April 8 : Joseph Netherclift , English composer and lithographer (* 1792 )
- April 10 : Giovanni Battista Amici , Italian astronomer and optician (* 1786 )
- April 10 : Hermann Steudner , German naturalist and Africa explorer (* 1832 )
- April 16 : Cornelius de Greiff , German silk manufacturer (* 1781 )
- April 17th : John Colborne , British field marshal and colonial administrator (* 1778 )
- April 26 : Auguste Charlotte von Kielmannsegge , German agent of Napoleon (* 1777 )
May to August
- May 6 : James Tannock , Scottish portrait painter (* 1783 )
- May 10 : Thomas Jonathan Jackson , American Confederate General (* 1824 )
- May 10 : Jean-Bernard Kaupert , Swiss music teacher and composer (* 1786 )
- May 13 : August Hahn , German Protestant theologian and writer (* 1792 )
- May 14 : Virgil Fleischmann , Austrian Catholic clergyman, church musician and composer (* 1783 )
- May 25 : Peter Andreas Munch , Norwegian historian (* 1810 )
- May 28 : Noah Martin , American politician (* 1801 )
- June 7th : Franz Xaver Gruber , Austrian teacher and composer (* 1787 )
- June 9 : Dost Mohammed , ruler of Afghanistan (* 1793 )
- June 11 : Samuel George Andrews , American politician (* 1796 )
- July 3 : William Barksdale , Brigadier General of the Confederate States of America in the Civil War (* 1821 )
- July 5 : Lewis Addison Armistead , American Brigadier General (* 1817 )
- July 6 : Ernst Merck , German entrepreneur and politician (* 1811 )
- July 9 : Christian Friedrich Freiherr von Stockmar , German doctor and statesman (* 1787 )
- July 13 : Heinrich Schacht , German writer and worker poet (* 1817 )
- July 25 : Juan José de los Reyes Martínez Amaro ( El Pípila ) , Mexican miner and national hero (* 1782 )
- August 13 : Eugène Delacroix , French painter (* 1798 )
- August 14th : Colin Campbell , British Field Marshal (* 1792 )
- August 14 : Karl von Gerlach , honorary citizen of Berlin (* 1792 )
- August 28 : Eilhard Mitscherlich , German chemist and mineralogist (* 1794 )
September to December
- September 3 : Robert Ludwell Yates Peyton , American politician (* 1822 )
- September 10 : Franz Abart , South Tyrolean sculptor (* 1769 )
- September 11th : Johann Wilhelm Schirmer , German painter and graphic artist (* 1807 )
- September 16 : Richard Brodhead , American politician (* 1811 )
- September 16 : Karl Wilhelm von Wnuck , Prussian major general (* 1788 )
- September 17th : Blasius Höfel , Austrian engraver (* 1792 )
- September 17th : Alfred de Vigny , French writer (* 1797 )
- September 20 : Jacob Grimm , German linguist and literary scholar, lawyer (* 1785 )
- September 23 : Johannes Voigt , German historian and father of the humanism researcher Georg Voigt (* 1786 )
- September 24th : Ida Arenhold , co-founder and first director  of the Friederikenstift hospital in Hanover (* 1798 )
- September 24th : Gregor Rihar , Slovenian composer (* 1796 )
- October 6 : Frances Trollope , British writer (* 1779 )
- October 9 : Ferdinand Johannes Wit von Dörring , German-Danish writer, journalist and politician (* 1799 )
- October 31 : Joseph Calasanz von Arneth , Austrian archaeologist and numismatist (* 1791 )
- October 31 : Ludwig Blenker , American general (* 1812 )
- November 3 : Carl Robert Croll , German painter (* 1800 )
- November 4th : Robert Hay , Scottish traveler, antique dealer and Egyptologist (* 1799 )
- November 12 : Per Krafft the Younger , Swedish painter (* 1777 )
- November 15 : Frederick VII , King of Denmark (* 1808 )
- November 16 : Franz Wilhelm von Barfus-Falkenburg , Prussian major general (* 1788 )
- November 18 : August Beer , German chemist, mathematician and physicist (* 1825 )
- November 20 : James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin , English colonial administrator and diplomat (* 1811 )
- November 30 : Kamehameha IV. , King of Hawaii (from 1855 to 1863) (* 1834 )
- December 3 : John Wales , American politician (* 1783 )
- December 8 : Natalja Puschkina-Lanskaja , wife of Alexander Puschkin (* 1812 )
- December 13 : Friedrich Hebbel , German playwright (* 1813 )
- December 21 : Désiré Beaulieu , French composer (* 1791 )
- December 23 : Theodoor Gerard van Lidth de Jeude , Dutch zoologist (* 1788 )
- December 24th : William Makepeace Thackeray , English writer (* 1811 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Christian Afrikaner , captain of Orlam
- Carlo Armellini , Italian politician and lawyer (* 1777 )
- Carlo Gianella , Italian engineer (* 1778 )
- Georg Müller , Austrian composer and church musician (* 1803 )
- Émile Prudent , French pianist, composer and music teacher (* 1817 )